Carlos P. Garcia
|8th President of the Philippines|
March 18, 1957 – December 30, 1961
|Vice President|| None (March 18 – December 30, 1957)|
Diosdado Macapagal (1957–1961)
|Preceded by||Ramon Magsaysay|
|Succeeded by||Diosdado Macapagal|
|1st President of the 1971 Philippine Constitutional Convention|
June 1, 1971 – June 14, 1971
|Succeeded by||Diosdado Macapagal|
|4th Vice President of the Philippines|
December 30, 1953 – March 18, 1957
|Preceded by||Fernando Lopez|
|Succeeded by||Diosdado Macapagal|
|Secretary of Foreign Affairs|
December 30, 1953 – March 18, 1957
|Preceded by||Joaquin Miguel Elizalde|
Post later held by Felixberto Serrano
|Senator of the Philippines|
May 25, 1946 – December 30, 1953
|Governor of Bohol|
December 30, 1933 – December 30, 1941
|Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Bohol's 3rd District|
|Preceded by||Teodoro Abueva|
|Succeeded by||Filomeno Caseñas Orbeta|
Carlos García y Polístico
November 4, 1896
Captaincy General of the Philippines
|Died||June 14, 1971 (aged 74)|
Quezon City, Metro Manila
|Resting place||Libingan ng mga Bayani, Metro Manila, Philippines|
|Political party||Nacionalista Party|
|Alma mater||Silliman University|
Philippine Law School (National University)
Carlos Polistico Garcia (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist, organized guerrilla and Commonwealth military leader, who was the eighth President of the Philippines.
Garcia grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native town Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School, now Abellana National School, both at the top of his class. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School, then the College of Law of National University, where he earned his law degree in 1923 and later, where he was awarded the honorary degree Doctor of Humanities, Honoris Causa from the National University in 1961. He was among the top ten law students in the bar examination.
Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".
On May 24, 1933, he married Leonila Dimataga. The couple had a daughter, Linda Garcia-Campos.
Garcia entered politics in 1925, scoring an impressive victory to become Representative of the Third District of Bohol. He was elected for another term in 1928 and served until 1931. He was elected Governor of Bohol in 1933, but served only until 1941 when he successfully ran for Senate, but he was unable to serve due to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during the World War II. He assumed the office when Congress re-convened in 1945 after Allied liberation and the end of the war. When he resumed duties as senator after the war, he was chosen Senate majority floor leader. The press consistently voted him as one of the most outstanding senators. Simultaneously, he occupied a position in the Nacionalista Party.
World War II
García refused to cooperate with the Japanese during the war. He did not surrender when he was placed on the wanted list with a price on his head. He instead and took part in the guerilla activities and served as adviser in the free government organized in Bohol.
Garcia was the running mate of Ramón Magsaysay in the 1953 presidential election in which both men won. He was appointed Secretary of Foreign Affairs by President Magsaysay, and for four years served concurrently as Vice-President.
As Secretary of Foreign Affairs, he opened formal reparation negotiations in an effort to end the nine-year technical state of war between Japan and the Philippines, leading to an agreement on April 1954. During the Geneva Conference of 1954 on Korean unification and other Asian problems, Garcia, as chairman of the Philippine delegation, attacked communist promises in Asia and defended the U.S. policy in the Far East. In a speech on May 7, 1954–the day that the Viet Minh defeated French forces at the Battle of Diên Biên Phu in Vietnam– Garcia repeated the Philippine stand for nationalism and opposition to Communism.
|Presidential styles of|
Carlos P. Garcia
|Reference style||His Excellency|
|Spoken style||Your Excellency|
|Alternative style||Mr. President|
|Gross Domestic Product (1985 constant prices)|
|1957||Php 189,457 million ($ 94.7 billion)|
|1961||Php 224,430 million ($85.0 billion)|
|Growth rate, 1957-61||4.6%|
|Per capita income (1985 constant prices)|
|1957||Php 35,980 million|
|1961||Php 39,845 million|
|1 US US$ = Php 2.64|
1 Php = US US$ 0.38
|Sources: Philippine Presidency Project|
Malaya, Jonathan; Eduardo Malaya. So Help Us God... The Inaugurals of the Presidents of the Philippines. Anvil Publishing, Inc.
At the time of President Magsaysay's sudden death on March 17, 1957, Garcia was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia. Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President Garcia enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañang Palace to assume the duties of President. Chief Justice Ricardo Parás, of the Supreme Court, was at hand to administer the oath of office. President Garcia's first actions dealt with the declaration of a period of mourning for the whole nation and the burial ceremonies for the late Chief-Executive Magsaysay.
After much discussion, both official and public, the Congress of the Philippines, finally, approved a bill outlawing the Communist Party of the Philippines. Despite the pressure exerted against the congressional measure, Garcia signed the said bill into law as Republic Act No. 1700 on June 19, 1957.
Republic Act № 1700 was superseded by Presidential Decree № 885, entitled "Outlawing Subversive Organization, Penalizing Membership Therein and For Other Purposes." This was amended by Presidential Decree № 1736, and later superseded by Presidential Decree № 1835, entitled, "Codifying The Various Laws on Anti-Subversion and Increasing the Penalties for Membership in Subversive Organization." This, in turn, was amended by Presidential Decree № 1975. On May 5, 1987, Executive Order № 167 repealed Presidential Decrees № 1835 and № 1975 as being unduly restrictive of the constitutional right to form associations.
On September 22, 1992, Republic Act № 1700, as amended, was repealed by Republic Act № 7636.
Filipino First Policy
Garcia exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. In a speech during a joint session of Congress on September 18, 1946, Garcia said the following:
We are called upon to decide on this momentous debate whether or not this land of ours will remain the cradle and grave, the womb and tomb of our race – the only place where we can build our homes, our temples, and our altars and where we erect the castles of our racial hopes, dreams and traditions and where we establish the warehouse of our happiness and prosperity, of our joys and sorrows.
In the face of the trying conditions in the country, Garcia initiated what has been called "The Austerity Program". His administration was characterized by its austerity program and its insistence on a comprehensive nationalist policy. On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." Garcia was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts. The main points of the Austerity Program were:
- The government would tighten up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well.
- There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments.
- Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items.
- The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum.
- An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts.
- The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay.
- There would be an intensification of food production.
During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement, which shortened the lease of the American military bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years.
Republic Cultural Award
In addition to his laws and programs, the Garcia administration also put emphasis on reviving the Filipino culture. In doing so, the Republic Cultural Award was created. To this day, the award is being given to Filipino artists, scientists, historians, and writers.
1961 Presidential Election
At the end of his second term, he ran for re–election in the Presidential elections in November 1961, but was defeated by his Vice-President Diosdado Macapagal, who belonged to the opposing Liberal Party (the President and the Vice-President are elected separately in the Philippines).
Post-Presidency and Death
After his failed re-election bid, Garcia retired to Tagbilaran to resume as a private citizen.
On June 1, 1971, Garcia was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. However, just days after his election, on June 14, 1971, Garcia died from a fatal heart attack on 5:57 p.m. at his residence in Bohol Avenue (now Sgt. Esguerra Avenue), Quezon City. He was succeeded as president of the Convention by his former Vice-President, Diosdado Macapagal.
Garcia became the first layman to lie in state in Manila Cathedral—a privilege until then limited to a deceased Archbishop of Manila—and the first President to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.
- Malaya: : Order of the Crown of the Realm, Honorary Recipient (D.M.N.(K)) - (1959)
- Spain: : Order of Civil Merit, Collar - (October 1, 1957)
- South Vietnam: : Order of Kim Khanh - (March 19, 1956)
- "Remembering Carlos P. García on his 115th Birth Anniversary" Archived January 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 2012-10-05.
- Cite error: The named reference
CarlosGarcíawas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "List of Previous Senators". Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved November 22, 2014.
- Eufronio Alip, ed., The Philippine Presidents from Aguinaldo to Garcia (1958); Jesús V. Merritt, Our Presidents: Profiles in History (1962); and Pedro A. Gagelonia, Presidents All (1967). See also Hernando J. Abaya, The Untold Philippine Story (1967). Further information can be found in Ester G. Maring and Joel M. Maring, eds., Historical and Cultural Dictionary of the Philippines (1973).
- Molina, Antonio. The Philippines: Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative, 1961. Print.
- "Republic Act No. 1700". Chan Robles Law Library. June 19, 1957.
- "Executive Order No. 167, Series of 1987". Chan Robles Law Library. May 5, 1987.
- "Republic Act No. 7636". Chan Robles Law Library. September 22, 1992.
- "Our Vision and Mission". prescarlosgarcia.org. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Gregor, A. James (1989). In the Shadow of Giants: The Major Powers and the Security of Southeast Asia. Hoover Institution Press. pp. 119. ISBN 9780817988210.
- "Carlos P. Garcia (1957-1961) | Philippine Presidents". Philippine Presidents. 2010.
- "CPG IS DEAD!". The Bohol Chronicle. June 15, 1971. Retrieved September 13, 2016.
- "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1959" (PDF).
- "Filipino recipients of Spanish Decorations". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- "President's Month in Review: March 16 – March 31, 1958". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.
- Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government. National Bookstore Printing Press.
- Media related to Carlos P. Garcia at Wikimedia Commons
- Carlos P. Garcia on the Presidential Museum and Library
| Vice President of the Philippines
Title next held byDiosdado Macapagal
| President of the Philippines