On March 21, 1890, at a conference dedicated to the siege of Bilbao during the last civil war, Miguel de Unamuno delivered a lecture titled La última guerra carlista como materia poética. It was probably the first ever attempt to examine the Carlist motive in literature, as for the previous 57 years the subject had been increasingly present in poetry, drama and novel. However, it remains paradoxical that when Unamuno was offering his analysis, the period of great Carlist role in letters was just about to begin. It lasted for some quarter of a century, as until the late 1910s Carlism remained a key theme of numerous monumental works of Spanish literature. Afterwards it lost its appeal as a literary motive, still later reduced to instrumental role during Francoism. Today it enjoys some popularity, though no longer as catalyst of paramount cultural or political discourse; its role is mostly to provide exotic, historical, romantic and sometimes mysterious setting.
|some Carlism-related books|
- 1 Romanticism
- 2 Realism
- 3 Modernism
- 4 Catastrophism
- 5 Francoism
- 6 Contemporary literature
- 7 See also
- 8 Footnotes
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
The First Carlist War broke out when Spanish Romanticism was in its heyday. The literary response to the conflict was immediate and massive; its key feature were propagandistic objectives of both sides and often close follow-up to the events as they were unfolding. Two genres serving as key literary battlefields were poetry and drama, the most adapt ones in terms of responsiveness. On both the Cristinos gained immediate advantage, which in the aftermath of the war became visible also in prose, especially in the nascent novel. On the other hand, the popular oral rural response, which made it to literature once written down in the future, was predominantly pro-Carlist. No Romantic work touching upon the Carlist subject is considered part of the great Spanish literature.
The 1833 outbreak of the First Carlist War, usually considered the birth moment of Carlism, has almost immediately triggered a literary response. The literary genre which responded first was drama. There were a number of theatrical pieces written as the war was unfolding and it seems that most of them were actually staged, as they served mostly propagandistic purpose of mobilizing support; only few were rather comments to recent or even ongoing events. Anti-Carlism clearly prevailed, a phenomenon obviously linked to Cristinos controlling almost all the urban zones, centers of cultural and theatrical life. Most of the dramas seem to be short, one-act pieces, characterized by strong message and boldly sketched protagonists. Unlike in case of poetry, there is no anthology available. It seems that the anti-Carlist dramas fall into two categories: satiric pieces closely related to recent or ongoing events and dramas in historical setting, advancing a general Liberal outlook and in particular aimed against Inquisition and the Absolutist formula.
Among the writers excelling as authors of satires the one re-appearing in numerous works as the most prominent one is Jose Robreño y Tort. He made his name as author of theatrical pieces already in the mid-1820s; venomous caricatures of "los serviles", e.g. La Regencia de la Seo de Urgell o las desgracias del padre Liborio (1822) might be considered pre-configuration of his later anti-Carlist dramas and perhaps the first pieces of anti-Carlist literature. Robreño's brief works written during the conflict were again intended for popular audience and are known to have been played in Barcelona in the 1830s. Another Liberal author of the same genre is Manuel Bretón de los Herreros, recognized for the anti-Carlist comedy El plan de un drama (1835). Among the dramas set in history there is El trovador by Antonio García Gutiérrez (1836), Antonio Pérez y Felipe II by José Muñoz Maldonado (1837), Doña Mencia by Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch (1838) and Carlos II el Hechizado by Antonio Gil y Zárate (1837); especially the last one was a success among the public. The Carlist response is little known; it seems that Carlist values were defended generally "por el teatro conservador católico". The best known author of this breed is José Vicente Alvarez Perera, high Carlist official during the war and also a poet, author of Calendario del año de 1823 and Palabras de un cristiano. José Zorilla was sympathetic to Carlism and even briefly stayed at the Carlist court, yet in his theatrical pieces he did not touch upon the issue.
The poets responded to the conflict almost as fast as authors of theatrical pieces did. The conflict and its immediate aftermath produced a spate of rhymed pieces, usually first published in press titles of the era. Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, who attempted to gather them together but limited his work to authors contemporary to the warfare, arrived at a total of 110 works. Being a historian but not a historian of literature, he refrains from offering philological comment, be it in terms of evaluating quality or discussing style; however, it seems that most items were written with clear propagandistic intentions in mind and that none of them made it to the annals of Spanish poetry. This vast assortment so far can be analyzed mostly in statistical terms; in terms of genre the poetry remains pretty differentiated, with odes, sonnets, eposes, lyrics, cantos, canciones, anthems, marches, satire and other. In terms of key themes the ones listed are: military buildup, wartime actions, peace accord, foreign intervention, ideology, personalities, enemy and wartime love. Some of the items were re-printed in anthologies or personal poetic volumes in the 1840s and 1850s.
Some of the works identified remain anonymous, yet most are attributable; their authors include José de Espronceda, Juan Arolas, Marcial Busquets, Ramón de Campoamor, Lorenzo de Hernandorena, José Marti Folguera, Alberto Lista, Antonio Martínez, Juan Martínez Villergas, Valentin Mazo Correa, Francisco Navarro Villoslada, Emilio Olloqui, Antonio Ribot y Fontsere, Josep Robreno, Manuel de Toro, Niceto de Zamacois and Francisco Zea. Statistically pro-Cristinos seem to prevail, and their poetic zeal reached as far as to Andalusia, a region less affected by the First Carlist War. During the war, the famous Romantic Spanish poet Espronceda wrote the very anti-Carlist poem Guerra. Some episodes drew particular attention: the so-called Abrazo de Vergara attracted at least 3 works, by Marcial Busquets (1858) Martí Folguera (1869) and Emilio Olloqui (1869), while battle of Luchana was acknowledged by Antonio Martínez (1855) and Francisco Navarro Villoslada (1840). The latter stands out for his personal U-turn; while Luchana presented the Carlists as fanatic reactionaries, Navarro later embraced the Traditionalist perspective. Despite their mostly propagandistic purpose some works contain interesting historical detail, e.g. shedding new light on origins of the word "guiri", a popular abuse used by the Carlists.
Prose was the last one to acknowledge the Carlist theme. Though Mariano José de Larra launched his first anti-Carlist works in 1833, they fall in an area in-between belles-lettres and journalism, at times looking like short stories and at times like satirical pamphlets. There were other works sharing the hybrid characteristics, e.g. the large Panorama de la Corte y Gobierno de D. Carlos by Manuel Lázaro (1839), also a satire on the Carlist claimant and his entourage. The first work which might clearly be considered a novel was Eduardo o la guerra civil en las provincias de Aragón y Valencia by Francisco Brotons (1840); set in the last war, it offered the Cristino perspective. Other novels soon followed; Los solitarios (1843) by unidentified author presented the court of Carlos V from a highly sympathetic perspective, Espartero by Ildefonso Bermejo (1845-1846) advanced vehemently anti-Carlist vision, while Diario de un médico by Máximo López Garc��a (1847) was an adventure story written in a truly Romantic fashion. The Romantic historical novel reached its ultimate embodiment in works of Wenceslao Ayguals de Izco, especially in his Cabrera, El Tigre del Maestrazgo ó sea De grumete a general: historia-novela (1846-1848), sort of personal revenge on part of the author. Anti-Carlist threads feature prominently also in other of his novels, though these works do not fall into the historical novel rubric: María la hija de un jornalero (1845-1846), El palacio de los crímenesores (1855) or La marquesa de Bellaflor (1869). Ayguals de Izco, hugely successful as a novelist, initiated the tone which would later turn dominant in terms of treatment of Carlists in the Spanish novel: they are presented as power-hungry hypocrites, ran by treacherous clergy and their ranks populated by criminals, prostitutes, assassins, thieves or simply mad cruel brutes. Fray Patricio from María, who runs the Angel Exterminador organization, was perhaps first in the gallery of Carlist literary monsters.
When Spanish novel of the mid-19th century gradually emerged as important cultural weapon against the Carlists, their own response on the field was meager. Navarro Villoslada, now converted into legitimism, fathered a number of acclaimed and popular historical romantic novels, yet they are set in earlier times and at best might be viewed as offering a general Traditionalist perspective. Similarly Gabino Tejado Rodriguez, an active Carlist politician and editor, in his historical novels steered clear of Carlist themes, again saturating them with vague Traditionalism. Some sympathy for the Carlist cause might be traced in La Gaviota by Fernán Caballero (1849), a novel about the old and the new confronting each other in an Andalusian town. The only novel which might be considered obvious exaltation of Carlism is El orgullo y el amor by Manuel Ibo Alfaro (1855). Antonio Aparisi y Guijarro did not write belles-lettres and would not merit attention here if it had not been for his later peculiar role; in literature written two generations afterwards his writings would be presented as responsible for Carlist deviation of other literary protagonists.
Rural and international response
A separate genre which might not fully fit into the literature rubric is a flood of rhymes of mostly popular and rural origin, which remained alive at times for generations when passed on in oral tradition; they entered literature only when put into writing by later scholars, be it ethnographers or historians. Two such Carlist-related anthologies are available for rhymes in Castellano and in Euskara; both demonstrate overwhelming support for the Carlist cause among the rural folk, though principally among the Basques. Among mostly anonymous though at times identified authors (or co-authors), the one which definitely stands out is José María Iparraguirre, the best known Carlist bertsolari, author (or co-author) of perhaps the most famous Basque verses, Gernikako arbola, by some considered the iconic genuine poetic embodiment of Carlism. On the Catalan side, one has to note Lo cant de las veritats (1857) by an anonymous and so far unidentified author; it represents probably the first case of Carlist theme acknowledged in popular Catalan literature and is a blend of romantic sentimentalism, philosophical didactics and adventure story, half prosaic and half in rhymes.
It remains striking that in the European Romantic literature, always in pursuit of a myth, Carlism has been largely ignored, save for the French legitimist poets like Edouard Turquety or Juliette Lormeau. Claims that Honoré de Balzac, allegedly sympathetic to the Carlist cause, wrote a novel Les Echos de Castille are not confirmed and almost no non-Spanish novels set in the war are identified. The Carlists met many criteria of Romanticism to qualify for heroes – like being rural, being idealistic, being uncompromising, being exotic and last but not least being rebels – yet they failed to make it to the standard Romantic imagery of the era, at least beyond Spain. The 19th-century German culture remained in constant hunt for a cultural role model, with many and rather unintuitive candidates advanced: Greeks fighting the Turks, Poles fighting the Russians, later North American Indians fighting the Whites – yet the Carlists have never been even considered. The phenomena remains to be examined and clarified; some evidence suggests that they were generally associated with late Romantic icons of monstrosity, the reaction and the politics of Holy Alliance, the oppressive forces pitted against revolutionary and freedom-seeking national movements.
Realism shifted the attention of writers tackling the Carlist theme from poetry and drama to prose; it was the novel which emerged as the key genre where the question was discussed and it stays so until today. Very much like during the Romantic period, literature remained a battleground between the Carlists and the Liberals, the latter clearly gaining advantage. The single personality which was enough to shift the balance was Galdós, the first of Spanish literary giants who placed Carlism in centre of their attention; it was his writings which set the tone for decades and it was his hideous Carlist protagonists who populated imagination of the Spaniards for generations to come.
Like everywhere in Europe, periodization remains a problem in history of Spanish literature. Among many in-between figures of Spanish literature, Fernan Caballero with her Carlism-related works is often counted among the post-Romantic writers. The same is the case of Manuel Tamayo Baus, whose early works are counted into Romanticism and the later ones into Realism. Himself a Neocatólico who in the early 1870s joined the Carlists Tamayo was immensely popular as a playwright in the 1850s and 1860s, yet his plays confront Liberalism from general Catholic Conservative positions. Though Carlism was a heated topic in the 1860s and early 1870s, especially in terms of legal/political debate and mostly thanks to works of the neocatólicos, it still failed to make it as a literary offer. The first novel clearly tackling the Carlist theme and classified as falling into the Realism rubric is El patriarca del valle (1862) by Patricio de la Escosura, the Isabelline officer during the First Carlist War and a friend of O’Donnell later on. El Patriarca is a key work of early realist period; in terms of literary style it advances techniques typical for a new era, yet in terms of key message it conveys the same anti-Carlist narrative, presenting the opponents as hypocrites ran by the Jesuits and as murderers of bestial cruelty. The novel, fairly popular in the 1860s, features an extremely complex plot, covering also events of 1830 in France. It is valued by historians, as sections referring to the Madrid setting during the early phases of the war are possibly based on the author's first hand experience. Matilde o el Angel de Valde Real by Faustina Sáez de Melgar (1863), a historical novel partially set during the war and issued almost simultaneously as Escosura's work was far less popular amongst the public because of the sex of its author rather than because of its literary quality. Ellos y nosotros by Sabino de Goicoechea (1867) is the work based on extensive factual research and appearing to be of historiographic value; e.g. the discourse to what extent "fueros" formed part of the Carlist ideario of the 1830s is partially based on this very work, considered veristic in its literary style. Among the authors in transition between Romanticism and Realism Antonio Trueba was the one who made Carlism very much present in his novels and short stories, published mostly in the 1860s and 1870s. He might have appeared equidistant towards the Liberals and the Carlists; due to his Basque fuerismo some suspected him even of Carlist sympathies. However, though missing the anti-Carlist venom and liberal militancy, Trueba's works like Cuentos del hogar (1875) presented the fuerista and the Carlist causes as entirely incompatible.
Novel: realismo, naturalismo, costumbrismo
Outbreak of the Third Carlist War has generally reinforced the tone set by Ayguals de Izco and the literary Carlists petrified in their role of fanatic cruel rednecks ran by the treacherous clergy. This time it was clearly the novel which became the key literary weapon, though it fell into two general genres: the historical one and the so-called novel of manners. Out of the former, Rosa Samaniego o la sima de Igúzquiza by Pedro Escamilla (1877) represents a new tone, unheard of in Romanticism. Focused on atrocities of the Carlist commander Samaniego, active during the last war – at that time the last was the Third Carlist War – it tended to brutal veracity. The same feature marks another novel dedicated to the same protagonist, Vida, hechos y hazañas del famoso bandido y cabecilla Rosa Samaniego (1880); its author remains yet to be identified. Brutality was brought to even higher, naturalistic levels in La sima de Igúzquiza by Alejandro Sawa (1888); at times it might seem that the author was more concerned about dazzling the reader with horrors and atrocities rather than with denouncing the Carlists or telling the right from the wrong.
A novel of manners which made great impact was Marta y María by Armando Palacio Valdés (1883). It is centred around the question of faith, yet it treats Carlism in a collateral way; one of the protagonists, María, represents religious fanaticism disguised as romantic contemplative vocation; the Carlist sympathies help to complete her portrait. Hugely popular La Regenta by Clarín (1884-1885) discussed threads of daily life, portraying Carlist supporters as fanatics basking in money and influence. Even minor authors of the genre denigrate Carlism; this is i.e. the case of Jacinto Octavio Picón or Manuel Curros Enríquez. Few novelists demonstrate an opposite stand, though; these to be named first are José María de Pereda and Emilia Pardo Bazán. Their novels, usually classified as costumbrismo or novela de tésis, steer clear of political themes, though in terms of the outlook advanced Pereda is by some considered one of few authors who pursue "Carlist thesis". Both demonstrate understanding for their Carlism-related protagonists, usually marginal ones, even though some of them are ambiguous. A second-rate novelist who nurtured the very same longing for traditional values was Eva Canel; it was best expressed in Manolín (1891) and Oremus (1893); the same can be said about Modesto H. Villaescusa, who in novels like La tórtola herida (1892) explored late Carlism-flavored costumbrista threads in the Murcian cultural ambience. In case of the others, Carlism serves the purpose of building the atmosphere of tension. Cuadros de la guerra by Concepción Arenal (1880) is flavored with sentiment for author's record in the Carlist Hospital de Sangre in Miranda de Ebro yet in general it is considered an anti-war manifiesto. Julio Nombela contributed heavily to the Carlist cause as publisher and editor, yet his massive literary production was politically muted. Valentín Gómez Gómez had abandoned Carlism for Conservatism before he commenced the literary career. International response in terms of literature remained negligible; the most notable work was Ernesto il disingannato, a novel written by a so far unidentified Italian author; formatted as “political romance” it advanced the Traditionalist and Carlist cause.
Chronologically the first among giants of the Spanish literature who made Carlism a recurring and key motive of their works is Benito Pérez Galdós. The first two series of his monumental string of historical novels named Episodios nacionales are set before 1833 and it is the following ones, technically written already during the modernist period, which tackle the issue head on. However, they still represent typical Realism of their author and differ significantly – be it in terms of style or the role of Carlism – from the later modernist works. Also, besides Episodios Galdós fathered other numerous works featuring Carlism as a theme, written already since the 1870s. His objectives were clearly educative; his declared intention was to teach his compatriots their past. His political militancy made him par excellence the Spanish Liberal Crusader; as such, he intended to demonstrate what damage Carlism had inflicted upon the nation. Though Carlism enjoyed visible role in earlier historical novel, all the above rendered Galdós a figure who shaped the literary portrait of Carlism for generations to come.
In history of literature the prevailing view is that galdosian position on Carlism remains fairly stable and can be viewed as homogeneous. According to this theory, Galdós' Carlism was a monstrous beast which thanks to enormous sacrifice of blood has been driven away to the woods. People can roam the streets freely, but howling and groaning of the monster can be still heard; since the brute might re-appear in town any minute, vigilance is the order of the day. Such perspective offered no room for subtleties or impartial study and in these terms the work of Galdós does not differ from earlier partisan literature; perhaps the best example of such uncompromising educative hostility is Doña Perfecta (1876). A somewhat competitive view is that the author's perspective changed over time, especially after the American War disaster; the Liberal-Carlist confrontation became somewhat re-defined by a new perspective, and Galdós became less of a militant and more or of a historian. Though clearly he demonstrated no sympathy for Carlism in volumes from the third and fourth Episodios Nacionales series, the movement is reportedly less and less pictured in Manichean and infernal terms; at times it might even appear that some personalities, e.g. the title protagonist of Zumalacárregui (1898), are presented as role models.
Also the Third Carlist War triggered popular cultural response, this time reduced almost entirely to the Basque linguistic realm and evading typical historical categories; this production is acknowledged in Karlisten Bigarren Gerrateko bertsoak, anthology edited by Antonio Zavala (1997). The Catalan response is usually associated with Jacinto Verdaguer Santaló, by some of his contemporaries considered "prince of the Catalan poets". A Traditionalist through all his life and a militant Carlist in his youth, he fathered a number of poems intended as a praise of Carlism. They are written in Catalan, exalted in style and very explicit politically. One of them is dubbed "the Carlist anthem" by later scholars, yet it seems it has never been printed and was re-constructed on basis of Verdaguer's manuscripts. Among authors writing in languages other than castellano one has to note Evaristo Martelo Paumán, who in the 1880s fathered few explicitly Carlist poetic pieces in Gallego; his prosaic works are generally flavored with more vague Traditionalism. Another Carlist militant Juan María Acebal wrote in Asturian dialect and was dubbed "el príncipe de los poetas bables"; his only volume Cantar y más cantar: impresiones de Asturias was published posthumously in 1911. There is no notable Carlist poetry in castellano; attempts by top party politicians, like Cerralbo or Francisco Martín Melgar are rather literary curiosities, though the latter was awarded a literary prize.
In prose the Carlist voice is down to two authors. Guerra sin cuartel by Ceferino Suárez Bravo (1885) is the exaltation of Carlism which has made most impact among its contemporaries until today; it got awarded the Academia prize. Manuel Polo Peyrolón fathered a number of novels, some vaguely and some explicitly promoting Carlism. The former group consists of Los Mayos (1878), a rural love story intended as a praise of loyalty and fidelity and considered his best work, Sacramento y concubinato (1884) and Quién mal anda, ¿cómo acaba? (1890), all aimed against liberal and secular lifestyles. The latter group consists of Pacorro (1905), which confronted deeds of a young liberal with virtues of a young Carlist, the story cast against the background of a small town undergoing the turbulent period of 1868-1876, and El guerrillero (1906), more of an adventure story; set during Third Carlist War, it was heavily based on wartime recollections of Polo's brother Florentino. Appreciated in the conservative realm as antidote to "the venom of Zola" today he is considered a second-rate representative of "novelas de tesis", In drama the only Carlist voice heard was this of Leandro Ángel Herrero, a historian and editor rather than a playwright.
In terms of Carlist motives the key difference between Modernism and earlier literary eras was that the movement ceased to be perceived as a direct threat. The Romantic and Realist literature was defined by political militancy; the Modernist writers can already afford another position. For them Carlism is rather a vague phenomenon from the past, fading away yet still casting its dark shadow. Hence, in Modernist literature its role is rather to catalyze the discourse on national self and human condition. Modernism was also the period when Carlism as a motive enjoyed top popularity among the Spanish literary greats.
Among the giants of Generación de 1898 Miguel de Unamuno was chronologically the first one to address the Carlist question in a literary work; Paz en la guerra (1897) remained also his only novel featuring Carlism, though the phenomenon was discussed also in his numerous essays, treaties, studies and all genres which do not fall into belles-lettres. Nevertheless, Paz en la guerra is - perhaps along Baroja's Zalacaín el aventurero and Valle-Inclán's Sonata de invierno - the best known literary work related to Carlism. It is also one of the most ambiguous ones; analysis of its message and the role of Carlism is often heavily aided by quotations from Unamuno's non-literary works or private papers. One scholarly opinion is that Unamuno nurtured some sympathy for Carlism since he viewed it plainly as a form of regionalism. The opinion which prevails is that for Unamuno there were two Carlisms. One was genuine, rooted in the rural population but largely unconscious, communitarian if not socialist, federative and anarchist in spirit. This Carlism formed the most intimate layers of Spanish self and was present in "intrahistoria", a term coined by Unamuno and compared to massive, silent and invisible moves of waters in the depths of the ocean. Another Carlism was an ideological superstructure, built by "bachilleres, canónigos, curas y barberos ergotistas y raciocinadores", infected with Integrism and forming part of political history, this one compared to splashing waves on the ocean surface, noisy and picturesque, but built in one second and disappearing in another.
The two Carlisms are constantly present in Paz en la guerra, confusing both the protagonists and the readers; initially Unamuno was accused of nurturing Carlist sympathies, something he immediately denied. In fact, for him Carlism was an element in a dialectic process of forming national identity and as such could not have been simply ignored or rejected. The vision of Pachico from last pages of the novel, namely that "both sides were right and neither was right", is usually attributed to Unamuno himself. The title of the novel might be interpreted in two ways: as citizens of Bilbao finding internal peace amongst the Carlist siege, and as new life being born out of a dialectic confrontation. This confrontation was not necessarily symbolic; in numerous works and statements Unamuno openly praised civil war as means of overcoming dialectic differences. It was only once he had learnt the deadly toll of first months of the Spanish Civil War that he changed his view. He considered re-writing Paz en la guerra, probably with much less understanding for Carlism; in the last document written before death Unamuno claimed that the emerging Nationalist regime was spiritually governed by a Carlist-inspired "Catholic Traditionalist paganism".
Among noventayochistas Valle-Inclán is perhaps the most controversial figure when it comes to defining his position towards Carlism. It remains beyond doubt that the motive, though not omnipresent, features very prominently in his novels, from the Sonatas quadrilogy (1902-1905) to the La Guerra Carlista trilogy (1908-1909) to the El ruedo ibérico series (1927-1932), apart from novels which do not fall into the above cycles, first of all La Corte de Estella (1910). The controversy is whether the apparent exaltation of Carlism, demonstrated by many of his protagonists and not infrequently also by storytellers of his novels, should be taken at face value or whether it is part of an ironic and perhaps provocative discourse. Quoting numerous and undeniable biographical details some claim that Valle-Inclán was a genuine though somewhat heterodox Carlist. Others point to apparently incompatible episodes from his biography, e.g. being awarded a high Carlist honor in 1931, co-founding Asociación de Amigos de la Unión Soviética in 1933 and declaring himself a Fascist in 1936; they square the circle by concluding that Carlism was one of many masks that Valle-Inclán used to wear.
Settling the issue on basis of literature only seems close to impossible. For some, Valle-Inclán's Carlism represents grandeur of history, tradition, idealism, authenticity, spirit of freedom and heroism, as opposed to bourgeoisie narrow-mindedness and the Spain of mean niggards; it is part of regeneracionismo, a call to do away with the Restoration regime. For others, Carlism represents an ambiguous myth, an illusion, sometimes bordering farce; its role is to catalyze a discourse about Spanish history, which blends glory with absurd. Carlist setting is not to evoke a romantic gloom but quite to the contrary, "para presentar personajes satánicos, brutales o por lo menos misteriosos". According to this reading, Valle-Inclán's Carlism is about irony, caricature, grotesque, parody and farce. Always longing for grandeur and idealism, in fact he finds scarce authenticity in the movement, as in some of Valle-Inclán's novels "solo los ancianos suspiran por lealtad ya desaparecida". His key protagonist and perhaps the only goody among Carlists populating the great Spanish literature, Marqués de Bradomín, is a Carlist of his very own breed.
Among the giants of Spanish Modernism Baroja was the one who experienced most personal contact with Carlism, from his infancy days in the besieged Bilbao to his senility in Vera de Bidasoa. Carlism is the key theme in a few of his works – the best known of them Zalacaín el aventurero (1908), and is very much present in many others – e.g. 11 out of 22 volumes of Memorias de un hombre de acción (1913-1935) are set during the Carlist wars, though it is also entirely absent in many other novels. Among the noventayochistas – perhaps except Blasco Ibañez – Baroja is also the one most hostile to Carlism. Though he considered it "cosa muerta" and viewed rather the corrupted Restoration regime as key enemy of his Republican ideal, he still approached the gloomy Carlist legacy as haunting the Spanish and more specifically the Basque self. From his Nietzschean perspective Carlism was the movement of the weak, animated by the Church and luring those unable to become "men of action". Heavily attracted to rural vitality, at times primitive and brutal yet authentic, he lamented that it got hijacked by ideology powered by the priests, with the result of "double bestiality of being a Catholic and a Carlist".
Hardly anyone of numerous Carlists, populating the novels of Baroja, is a man who joined the movement out of conviction: they are foreigners, adventurers, criminals escaping justice, blinded fanatics incapable of reasoning, little men curing their inferiority complex, exalted boys who have read too much, village dumbs, those seeking personal revenge, those trying to get rich, those brainwashed by priests, those broken by failure in love, those willing to indulge, those bullied to join by their family, those conscripted by force, and so on and so on. Though Baroja was attracted to what he saw as authentic rural virility in the Carlist ranks, he believed it endured despite, not because of their very Carlist nature. His best known protagonist, Zalacaín, as a genuine man of action not only abandons the Carlists but he also beats them up and tricks them. Baroja is careful to strip the Carlists of their notorious machista appearance, in his vision reduced to cowardly brutality. Not only they can not wage the war like men, pursuing cowardly tactics and harassing women and children, but they are also beaten in one-to-one juvenile fistfights and lose miserably in pelota; of course, they are neither a match for their opponents when it comes to attracting females. A specific appendix to Baroja's concept of Carlism was written in July 1936, when he left his home in Vera to watch a Requeté column on the march across Navarre. He was identified, personally and as enemy of religion and Carlism, and at a roadside he was held by the Carlists at gunpoint. Following a brief discussion whether he should be executed, the 64-year-old got off with a punch in the face.
Baroja, Valle-Inclán and Unamuno made Carlism the key protagonist of the greatest Modernist works; another of the noventayochistas, Vicente Blasco Ibañez, preferred to fight the Carlists on the streets and only marginally allowed them presence in his novels. The most explicit case is La catedral (1903); the work is resemblant of an old-style militant assault rather than of the Modernist ambiguous discourse, as the Carlists are portrayed typically as hypocrites, who in the name of God engage in most ungodly atrocities or simply indulge in most earthly pleasures. Other personalities of Generación de 1898 did not feature Carlism or Carlists in their works; Azorín confronted them a number of times in his press contributions, yet they are not considered here.
The genuine Carlist literary voice – with reservations related to Valle-Inclán in mind – was hardly heard during the Modernist era. The author most popular at the time was Antonio de Valbuena, high Carlist admin official during the last civil war who developed a genre dubbed "novela de edificación", marked by clear educative purpose; perhaps its samples, first of all Aqua turbiente, should rather be viewed as part of the late Realist literature. Historical novel is represented by Ramón Esparza Iturralde and his En Navarra (1895). Ciro Bayo released Dorregaray. Una correría por el Maestrazgo (1912), half-way between historical novel, adventure story and a memoir. As to poetry, perhaps the best-known Carlist rhymes were born in 1908, when Ignacio Baleztena wrote Spanish lyrics to the originally Basque Carlist anthem Oriamendi. Two Carlist poets somewhat popular at the time were Enrique de Olea and Florentino Soria López; especially the latter was rather unambiguous in his political sympathies, on display in the Cantos a la Tradición volume (1911). Carlos Arniches, a prolific author of vastly popular comical theatrical pieces who at one point sympathised with Carlism and ran on its ticket to the Cortes, steered clear of political topics; he is classified as "comico y costumbrista".
Joan Bardina during his Carlist phase in the 1890s fathered politically very militant and exalted poems and satires, yet they remain unknown even in the Catalan literature. In Catalan a very particular position is held by Marian Vayreda i Vila. As author of heterogeneous short pieces Recorts de la darrera carlinada (1898) he is compared to such authors of war stories as Hemingway or Babel, while his novel La Punyalada (1904) is counted among masterpieces of Catalan literature of all time. Both are set in the Carlist milieu, yet their message remains ambiguous; some consider La Punyalada a veiled discourse on the very nature of Carlism. Not exactly Catalan but rather Valencian was the language that Eduard Genovès i Olmos, "un Jaumiste de pura sang", used when writing his drama Comandant per capità (1915). Novels of a Carlist zealot Domingo Cirici Ventalló fall into a political fantasy genre; advancing a Carlist perspective they assault the Liberal outlook; his best known works are La República española en 1.91... (1911) and La tragedia del diputado Anfrúns (1917). A history of its own is a very short story Ego te absolvo (1905), by some attributed to Oscar Wilde. Authentic or not, it demonstrates that the prevailing Spanish image of a Carlist crossed the Pyrenees: a Carlist was brutal, wild, and loose about his religious principles; however, there were also opposite stereotypes held.
Spanish literature of the 20th century poses a major problem in terms of periodisation, with many conflicting proposals offered; it seems close to impossible to single out an aesthetic literary trend generally accepted as prevailing or even to specify temporal borderlines for any given period, regardless of its would-be name. The periodisation accepted here is focused on breakdown of traditional structures and extreme instability, entangled in conflict and eventually producing confrontation. Harboring a concept of violent clash as unavoidable outcome of current crisis, from the late regeneracionistas to the personalities of the Second Republic, is at times dubbed "catastrofismo". In terms of the Carlist theme, this period differs from Modernism very clearly; the interest in Carlism deteriorated, and during Primoderiverismo and the Second Republic the motive almost disappeared from literature, save for some noventayochistas continuing their older threads. The Civil War produced a brief spate of literature intended to mobilise support for the belligerent parties, including the Carlists.
Interwar novel: great names
Among great writers from the 1898 generation Baroja kept writing along the lines he had developed during Modernism, and at least in terms of the Carlist thread the late novels from Memorias de un hombre de acción released in the 1920s/30s and Zalacaín of 1908 form the same homogeneous opus. Unamuno has abandoned the Carlist motive, though he kept tackling the phenomenon in his treaties and studies. Some scholars claim that in case of Valle-Inclán one can speak of a new quality, resulting from his experiences during the First World War. Initially when in his role of a war correspondent Valle-Inclán posed as a Carlist-like patriarch, touring the frontlines in red beret and semi-military gear, but many students claim that war changed his perspective on grandeur and glory. They maintain that Valle-Inclán abandoned his earlier reportedly genuine Carlism and turned towards new ideas, perhaps somewhat attracted by the appeals of both Fascism and Communism. El ruedo ibérico (1927-1932) is viewed as increasingly saturated with grotesque and farcical Carlism; the change is sealed when Marqués de Bradomín eventually abandons legitimism.
One of few rare cases of Carlism featured as key motive in writings of a literary giant who did not come from a Hispanic culture is The Arrow of Gold by Joseph Conrad (1919). The Polish-English writer claimed he had been himself involved in smuggling arms for the rebels along the Mediterranean coast during the Third Carlist War, yet historians of literature do not agree whether these claims should be taken seriously. However, he must have at least witnessed Carlist conspiracy in Southern France of the early-1870s and some suspect even a flaming love affair with Carlist motives in the background. The Arrow of Gold seems heavily based on these juvenile experiences, yet Carlism serves mostly as a background evoking an atmosphere of mystery. It is difficult to find either particular sympathy or particular hostility for the movement, yet many scholars claim that the key protagonist considered Conrad's alter-ego was cynically used by Carlist conspirators. On the other hand, the mysterious heroine he falls in love with, Doña Rita, is a Carlist, though this seems to have little to do with the love affair. Overall, the novel is considered a treaty on "emotional boundary between people"; Conrad has never again displayed any literary interest in Spanish issues.
Carlism attracted also another English writer, at that time yet to become eminent, Graham Greene. Either in the late 1920s or in the very early 1930s he wrote The Episode, the novel which traced the experiences of an idealistic young man against very loose background of revolutionary turmoil in the 19th-century Spain; the narrative contained non-marginal Carlist threads. The novel has never been published, but some of its threads and protagonists were recycled in Rumour at Nightfall (1931), the work considered Greene's "first Catholic novel", set during the First Carlist War. The novel's torrid action focuses upon a love affair and jealous relationship of two Englishmen, which dominates over potentially exciting political action. The protagonists become infatuated with a beguiling Catholic woman, highly resemblant of Conrad's female protagonist Doña Rita, while another elusive protagonist, a Carlist commander Cavera, bears some resemblance to Cabrera. By critics the novel is considered a rather unfortunate attempt “to combine the conflicting forms of a Christian morality drama and an international adventure story"; the role of Carlism is to evoke moral dilemmas related to "intense spirit of religious devotion".
Interwar novel: not-so-great names
Another foreigner who demonstrated interest in Carlism was Pierre Benoit, one of the most-read French writers of the 20th century and himself a Traditionalist; he adhered to its specific secular breed, in France shaped by the personality of Charles Maurras. His Pour don Carlos (1920) was marked by Benoit's trademark style: well-constructed adventurous plot combined with good historiographic research and somewhat simplified psychology; in terms of political sympathies it clearly hailed the legitimist cause. The novel was fairly popular and in 1921 it served as a screenplay for a movie of the same title, perhaps the first one featuring the Carlist theme.
Amongst the Spanish novelists Gabriel Miró is a writer counted among Generación de 1914; he excelled in "lyrical novels". He is worth noting because some of his novels, e.g. El abuelo del rey (1915), provide a veiled discourse on tradition and change with Traditionalism present in the background. Moreover, in his later novels some of his Carlist personalities, like Don Alvaro from Nuestro Padre San Daniel (1921) and El obispo leproso (1926) escape the usual scheme and provide an ambiguous and rather mysterious point of reference. Despite scarce Carlist motives, some scholars consider Miró one of key writers forming the Carlist literary thread across almost two centuries. Estanislao Rico Ariza, active under the pen-name "Francisco de Paula Calderón", was a Carlist militant involved in clashes with the Anarchists. Banking on his first-hand experience he released a unique novel on Anarchist terrorism, Memorias de un terrorista: Novela episódica de la tragedia barcelonesa (1924); 12 years later he paid for it with his life. Benedicto Torralba de Damas fathered En los nidos de anta��o (1926), a novel which in the Traditionalist realm earned him the prestige of "distinguido literato". Dolores Gortázar, a Carlist militant active as a propagandist in the early 1920s, during the primoderiverista period was very popular as a novelist; however, she penned banal prose deprived of ideological threads. Benjamin Jarnés penned his Zumalacárregui, el caudillo romántico (1931) in a very peculiar way; his protagonist is presented as more than a military hero, a genius embodiment of individuality who could have been an icon of both the Carlists and the Liberals, "artista de la acción". Villaescusa excelled in historical prose with La odisea de un quinto (1930), the Traditionalism-flavored novel set during the Third Carlist War; of similar genre, Florentino Soria López released Los titanes de la raza (1925), featuring exalted patriotism rathen than Carlism. Antonio Pérez de Olaguer commenced his later longtime literary career with a somewhat new genre, a grotesque novel La ciudad que no tenía mujeres (1932).
Among writers advancing clearly anti-Carlist views the one to be singled out is Félix Urabayen, who set some of his novels in Navarre. In El barrio maldito (1925) he portrays the province as held in reactionary grip of the Carlists, who themselves are traditionally presented as hyprocrytes; in Centauros del Pirineo (1928) in a somewhat Barojian manner he hailed smugglers, who represent "sensibilidad fina, moderna, europea" as opposed to "elemento tradicionalista". In another Carlist stronghold, Catalonia, one has to note Pere Coromines, whose anti-Carlist zeal climaxed in the novel Silèn (1925); however, though a man of vehemently liberal convictions, he still preferred Carlist triumph to continuation of the corrupted Alfonsine monarchy. The future prime minister and president of Spain, Manuel Azaña, in his Fresdeval (1931) pictured Carlism as a half-dead relic - even if depicted with some melancholy - of old aristocratic Spain.
Drama and poetry
Drama lost importance as political battleground already in the mid-19th century, yet echoes of Carlism-related debates were heard also among the playwrights. Among the spate of pro-Republican theatrical pieces of the 1920s or even more militantly left-wing dramas of the early 1930s many contained more or less explicit Carlist threads. Because of its author a good example is La corona (1931) by Manuel Azaña; it featured a Traditionalist, Aurelio, who first leads a coup against the legitime ruler and then murders a Liberal protagonist. Works written by the Carlists were far less popular, staged on local scenes, Carlist circulos or religious establishments. Within this realm a particular position was held by Manuel Vidal Rodríguez, related to the Integrist breed of Traditionalism. In three first decades of the 20th century he was contributing as a prosaist and publisher, though especially as a playwright; his dramas embrace religious topics in historical setting, like La Reina Lupa (1924). His stand in the realm of letters, however, stemmed rather from his role as professor of lengua y literatura castellanas in the University of Santiago de Compostela. Sympathy for Carlism is clearly visible in early works of José del Rio Sainz; they climaxed in his poema dramático La amazona de Estella (1926), considered a Carlist homage. There were also a few, usually young people associated with Carlism who tried their hand as playwrights. Antonio Pérez de Olaguer made his name within the Carlist realm of the early 1930s as a novelist and essayist, though he contributed also to drama. Together with Benedicto Torralba de Damas he was the author of Más leal que galante (1935), a fairly unique, explicit theatrical Carlist manifiesto which earned him the status of a party literary celebrity. Few militant and moralizing dramas classified as costumbrismo nostalgico were written by Jaime del Burgo. Today plays like Lealtad (1932), Cruzados (1934), Al borde de la traición (1936) are considered "ejemplos de teatro carlista tradicionalista”, with their key objective identified as presenting genuine Navarre and its customs as the fortress of traditional values.
In poetry Cristóbal Botella y Serra kept publishing poetry under pen-names in Integrist periodicals like El Siglo Futuro until he died in unclear circumstances in the early 1920s. Another Carlist poetic offshoot was Florentino Soria López, who abandoned Jaimismo and sided with the rebellious Mellistas, later amalgamating into primoderiverista institutions. The old orthodox party executive José Pascual de Liñ��n y Eguizábal also went on with poetic pieces, his classic verses praising traditional Spanish virtues, commenting ongoing events and honoring great men of Carlism. Some foreigners considered him "the best Spanish poet". A poet from the younger generation, Manuel García-Sañudo, whose literary Carlist zeal carried him behind bars during the late Restoration years, moved from early lyrics of Sonetos provincianos (1915) and Romance de pobres almas (1916) to more belligerent strophes related to his assignement to Morocco. Francisco Ureña Navas, a Carlist publisher from Jaen, was locally recognized for his traditionalist poems, published in Alma española (1918) or Hojas y flores (1922); he was the leader of a local poetic grouping "El Madroño". Luis Carpio Moraga, a writer from Baeza, wrote a sonnet in honour of the Carlist politician Juan Vázquez de Mella a few days before the beginning of the Spanish Civil War. Last but not least, on the vanguard end there was José María Hinojosa, the young Carlist jefe in the province of Málaga and contributor to Spanish surrealist poetry; however, instead of Carlist themes he advanced somewhat icononoclastic vision. Hinojosa, along Ureña Navas, Torralba de Damas, Carpio Moraga and Rico Ariza, is among Carlist writers killed by their political opponents. In Gallego the Traditionalist poetry was contributed by Enrique García-Rendueles.
The 1936 outbreak of the warfare triggered a spate of literary works intended to mobilize support and sustain enthusiasm. Literary production of the Republicans remained far lower than on the opposite side; in none of some 30 works identified there is a Carlist personaje worth noting, though some feature Carlist themes, like A sangre y fuego by Manuel Chaves Nogales (1937) or Loretxo by Txomin Arruti (1937). Among the nacionales there were at least 10 novels which featured the Carlists as major protagonists. They all fall into the wartime version of novela de tésis; written with clear moralizing objectives in mind they offer unelaborate narrative and sketchy Manichean personalities. This surge of novels glorifying Carlism lasted shortly and is at times dubbed the Carlist literary "swan song"; following the 1937 unification decree literature was increasingly tailored to fit in official propaganda, which permitted Carlist threads only when leading to amalgamation into FET.
The novel singled out as the most typical of Carlist literary vision of the war is El teniente Arizcun by Jorge Claramunt (1937); other candidates are El Muro by José Sanz y Díaz (1937) Guerra en el frente, paz en las almas (1936), Hágase tu voluntad (1937), La Rosa del Maestrazgo (1939) by Concepción Castella de Zavala; Rosa-roja y flor de lis (1936), La mochila del soldado (1937) by Juan Bautista Viza, and the novels of Jesús Evaristo Casariego: Flor de hidalgos (1938) and especially La ciudad sitiada (1939), the latter dubbed "patética apología del carlismo". La promesa del tulipán by Ignacio Romero Raizábal (1938) is slightly distinct as its protagonist is not the usual idealist but a sybarite who undergoes evolution before he volunteers to Requeté and finds reward, also in matters of the heart. La enfermera de Ondárroa by Jorge Villarín (1938) untypically focuses on female figure, who dies with Viva Cristo Rey on her lips. Unlike a characteristically post-unificación work of Villarín and like Casariego, Pérez de Olaguer in short stories Los de siempre (1937) and a novel Amor y sangre (1939) advanced the Carlist cause up to the limits permitted by censorship, heroic Carlists are also protagonists of Por mi Patria y por mi dama by Ramón Solsona y Cardona (1938). Triunfo and En el gloria de amanacer by María Sepulveda (both 1938) are samples of novels where the Carlists do not dominate, merged in a patriotic blend perfectly as expected by the regime. An infantile version of wartime literature was a Carlist review Pelayos.
The Spanish Civil War triggered massive literary response abroad, yet most authors ignore Carlist threads; they are absent either in well-known works like The Confidential Agent by Graham Greene (1939) and L’Espoir by André Malraux (1945), or in most minor pieces. Definitely the most famous literary work written during or shortly after the Spanish Civil War, For Whom the Bell Tolls of Ernest Hemingway (1940), is only marginally related to the Carlist theme. A minor character lieutenant Paco Berrendo does not resemble a typical Carlist literary monster; also an anonymous mounted requeté, shot by Robert Jordan, is portrayed with compassion, resulting perhaps not that much from Hemingway's idea of Carlism but because of his fascination with Navarre. The Carlist theme attracted also few less-known writers, though. A novel of above-the-average literary quality is Requeté by the French author Lucien Maulvault (1937). The work stands out for psychological undertones, unpredictable twists and turns of the plot and the overall tragic perspective. Sympathetic to the requeté effort rather than to Carlism as such, the novel laments the horror of civil war and seems pre-configuration of existentialist literature; others underline rather that it "articulates the aesthetics of engagement".
Terminology and periodization problems related to history of Spanish literature in the 20th century apply also to the years after the Civil War. "Francoism" is generally a term used to denote a political system, not a prevailing cultural or literary trend, though it might be employed also in this mode. Alternative designations applied to culture of the era are "nacionalcatolicismo" or "fascismo", though both are disputed. In terms of the Carlist motive in literature, the period is marked by a specific approach, which was heavily related to official control over cultural life and which reflected political role of Carlism in the Francoist Spain. Carlism was welcome when presented as a glorious movement of the past; on the other hand, Carlism was unwelcome as a cultural proposal for the present. The novel which turned into a best-selling book set in the Civil War and published in Francoist Spain, Un millón de muertos by José María Gironella (1961), also presented the Carlists in highly ambivalent terms.
Novela de tesis
During first decades of post-war Spain the trend which clearly prevailed when it comes to the Carlist theme was continuation of the wartime-style novels; it was visible in the 1940s but started to dry out and disappeared almost completely in the 1950s. None of the key features changed: nagging moralising objectives, sketchy and Manichean characters, Civil War setting, lively yet predictable plot. As Falange was clearly gaining the upper hand in internal power struggle, also the Falangist historical perspective started to prevail, with Carlist characters relegated to secondary roles in the narrative; this is the case of Rafael García Serrano and his La fiel infanteria (1943), Cuando los dioses nacían en Extremadura (1947), Plaza del Castillo (1951) or Los ojos perdidos (1958). Casariego kept writing, but the most successful of his wartime novels, Con la vida hicieron fuego (1953), did not contain Carlist threads. Re-published a number of times and translated into French, English, German and Italian, it featured a fisherman's son turned navy commander; the novel soon served as screenplay for a movie. José Sanz y Díaz kept writing, releasing - among numerous non-narrative works - the novels El secreto del Lago (1943) and La herrería de Hoceseca (1950). Con capa y chistera (1945) and Mi ciudad y yo (1948) are Spanish translations of originally Catalan novels of Ramón Solsona, both heavily based on his own experience when in hiding in the Republican zone.
The novels of Jaime del Burgo assumed a heterogeneous format. His Huracán (1943) was a fairly conventional novel initially set in pre-war Barcelona. The protagonist, a young Santiago, was constantly harassed by revolutianary mob, until during the war he fled to the Nationalist zone and enlisted to the Carlist units, wreaking havoc on his enemies; the only non-conventional motive was his Communist friend, who at the end abandoned the false prophets. El valle perdido (1942) involved magic threads; two Nationalist pilots who during the Civil War crash-landed somewhere in the Pyrenees found themselves in a valley cut off from the outer world. It was inhabited by descendants of those fighting in the 19th-century Carlist wars; for a century they lived in complete isolation, descendants of the Carlists becoming an honest, brave community, and descendants of the Liberals becoming an immoral, bestial bunch. Finally, Lo que buscamos (1951) traditionally acclaimed patriotic merits but embraced the tone of bitterness and naturalism, if not indeed melancholy. Chronologically the last novel of the genre is ¡Llevaban su sangre! by a prolific Carlist publisher Francisco López Sanz (1966). The novel stands out due to its political intransigence, especially that it was recommended more than quarter of a century after the end of the Civil War; López argued that the defeated Republicans did not deserve any compassion, as they would respond with "imperdonable ingratitud". The case is presented by a story of longtime rivalry between two Navarrese families, a Carlist and a Liberal one. The only related novelas de tésis written on exile identified are Ekaitzpean by José Eizagirre (1948) and Laztantxu eta Betargi by Sebert Altube (1957). The former features a patriarch Basque Carlist who decides to join the gudaris, the latter pictures a girl from a well-off family who has to overcome resistance of her Carlist relatives to marry a simple worker, a Basque nationalist. Not exactly novelas de tésis but rather novels which offer a Traditionalist historiographic vision of Italian past are works of Carlo Alianello, some of which - like L'eredità della priora (1963) contain explicit Carlist threads.
Many of the wartime novelas de tesis were built upon action-packed intrigues, yet nagging moralising objectives and clear pedagogical if not propagandistic purpose usually prevailed over their adventurous features. This is not the case of another novelistic subgenre, where adventure is on the forefront; it might be cast in historical or contemporaty setting. In Spanish history of literature they are dubbed "novela de aventura" or - usually when romance threads prevail - "novela rosa", the latter intended mostly for female audience. This kind of literature was another one featuring the Carlist threads and Carlist protagonists; unlike novela de tesis works falling into this rubric were usually though not always cast against the historic framework, especially during the Carlist Wars of the 19th century. Especially in case of Carlist authors such background allowed more flexibility when promoting their political cause, subject to much more rigorous censorship scrutiny in case of the last civil war. This literature was on the rise since the 1940s, in mid-Francoism becoming the key platform of sustaining Carlist presence in culture.
Most of the Carlist authors who contributed to party propaganda as editors, publishers or authors of novelas de tesis tried their hand in adventure novel. Casariego published Jovellanos, o el equilibrio: ideas, desventuras y virtudes del inmortal hidalgo de Gijón (1943) and Romances modernos de toros, guerra y caza (1945). Pérez de Olaguer specialized in travel literature yet he fathered also Hospital de San Lázaro, sub-titled "autobiografia novelesca" (1953). Sanz y Díaz was closest to formatting his novels as novela histórica when focusing on historic figures in Santo Tomás de Villanueva (1956), Castillos (1959) or Tirso de Molina (1964). However, three prolific Carlist authors who excelled in this literature were Concepción Castella de Zavala (some 15 novels), Ignacio Romero Raizábal (around 25 titles), and Carmela Gutiérrez (some 40 works). Their novels are cast in vastly different settings, from the early 19th century to contemporary Spain. Intended for popular audience they indeed make an easy read, featuring adventurous or romantic plots; the Carlists often appear as key protagonists. While writings of Romero Raizabál, who penned also poetry, reflect a penchant for sentimental format, it is not the case of Gutíerrez. An analytical intellectual, she diagnosed that in culture dominated by mass media the dissemination was key, and Carlism would be better served by simple but popular novels rather than by great sophisticated works read by few. Les històries naturals of Joan Perucho (1960) was a vastly popular vampyrical fantasy which commenced the trend, popular later, to increasingly deviate from a typical adventure story. A place of his own is held by Josep Pla, by some referred to as "obsessed with Carlism". The theme is frequently featured in his discursive writings, yet also in fiction - e.g. in Un senyor de Barcelona (1951); he portrayed it "com un tret important de la nostra historia i com un antecedent d'un determinat corrent dins el catalanisme".
In poetry José Bernabé Oliva released, among prosaic attempts, Hispánica: Romancero de Mío Cid y otros poemas (1942), but his contribution is dwarfed - at least in numerical terms - by poems of Manuel García-Sañudo, who kept writing since the 1910s; his poetic volumes Las razones de Alonso Quijano (1941), El dolor de Cádiz (1947), Elogio de Marchena (1951) revolve around traditional themes, which appear also - at times as straightforward exaltation of Carlism, e.g. Elegía de los Requetés (1966) - in poems of Maximo Gonzalez del Valle. However, it was Ignacio Romero Raizábal who emerged as the best-known clearly Carlist man of belles-lettres of Francoism, especially that he kept publishing until the early 1970s and became sort of a Carlist literary patriarch; apart from novels and non-fiction he used to release also poems, some included in a 1955 anthology of all-time Spanish poetry. An author who remains almost forgotten but whose poetic work is among most-performed ones during official military ceremonies in present-day Spain is Martin Garrido Hernando, who volunteered to Carlist troops during the Civil War at the age of 40. He penned a poem titled Soneto a los Caídos, intended as a lament of the Carlist and Nationalist dead. Over time the poem with accompanying music was accepted by the army and is performed during military funerals. However, the original lyrics have been changed: passages "Inmolarse por Dios" and "servir al Rey" were replaced.
The rising star of poetry was Rafael Montesinos, who as teenager volunteered to requeté. Since the 1940s he regularly kept publishing poetry, which earned him Premio Ateneo de Madrid of 1943 and Premio Ciudad de Sevilla of 1957; during Francoism he released at least 10 volumes: Balada del amor primero (1944), Canciones perversas para una niña tonta (1946), El libro de las cosas perdidas (1946), Las incredulidades (1948), Cuaderno de las últimas nostalgias (1954), País de la esperanza (1955), La soledad y los días (1956), El tiempo en nuestros brazos (1958), La verdad y otras dudas (1967) and Cancionerillo de tipo tradicional (1971). Deprived of clearly Carlist or Traditionalist threads, his poetry is spanned between irony and melancholy. In terms of style he is considered a disciple of a Romantic Sevillan poet Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, to whom Montesinos dedicated a separate study. However, he is best known as the moving spirit behind La Tertulia Literaria Hispanoamericana, weekly sessions of live poetry; the event was launched in 1952 and has been operating as part of various institutional frameworks; the project outlived Francoism and earned Montesinos prestigious standing especially among the younger generation.
The fall of Francoism marked a change in Spanish cultural setting, though it was as late as in the 1990s that the anti-Francoist backlash started to prevail over the previously dominant "let’s not get back to this" approach. In terms of the Carlist theme, the literary works fall into two rubrics. The majoritarian one is about Carlism as a setting for adventure stories, usually combined with elements of historical novel, psychology, romance, fantasy, alternative history, horror and so on; historically these works are usually though not always set in the 19th century. Another, the minoritarian one, is part of broadly designed discourse about the Spanish self, with key points of reference set by democratic, tolerant, progressive mindset; these works tend to focus on the 20th century. In none of the above Carlism occupies a central or first-rate position.
Definitely the most popular role of Carlism in contemporary literature is to provide a setting for adventure novels, by some scholars dubbed also "literatura juvenil". The authors "tailor their proposals to the new values within current subgenres for young readers such as mystery, historical novel, books of knowledge, metafiction", with protagonists styled after Zalacaín. The novels continue the adventurous literature of the Francoist era; the difference is that they are increasingly sophisticated and no longer contain veiled Carlist propaganda. In terms of key message they advance praise of general values such as friendship, loyalty, courage, and can hardly be associated with any particular camp, though in some cases, e.g. Atxaga or Landaluce, Carlist protagonists seem to be treated with particular sympathy; they also usually convey more or less explicit message about absurdity of civil wars. They are typically set in the 19th century; the last civil war still appears too sensitive a topic for such a literature.
There are at least 50 novels falling into the genre identified. Among the early ones the titles to be noted are El capitán Aldama by Eloy Landaluce Montalbán (1975) and Un viaje a España by Carlos Pujol (1983), by some considered at the borders of "juvenile literature". Later on subgenres started to emerge. The mainstream one was basically an adventure story: El cementerio de los ingleses by José María Mendiola (1994), Un espía llamado Sara by Bernardo Atxaga (1996), El oro de los carlistas by Juan Bas (2001) or Corazón de roble by Emili Teixidor (2003). An example of educative literature for children is Las guerras de Diego by Jordi Sierra i Fabra (2009), Las huellas erradas by Eduardo Iriarte (2010) reveals features of a gothic story, Un carlista en el Pacífico by Federico Villalobos (1999) approaches exercise in alternative history, Veinticinco cartas para una guerra by Arantzazu Amezaga Iribarren (1999) is more of a romance, while El capitán carlista by Gerardo Lombardero (2012) is tilted towards psychology. Some like Sangre de guerrillero by Alain Martín Molina (2016) do not care much about historical detail. Viva Zumalakarregui! by Valentino Pugliese (2009) stands out as written by a foreigner. Perhaps "literatura juvenil" is the best available description which fits Heterodoxos de la causa by Josep Miralles Climent (2001), a novel written by a Partido Carlista militant; it traces history of a Carlist Castellón family across the last 100 years.
There is a group of novels which might be classified as falling into the adventure genre, yet they stand out because they focus on historical detail, feature – at times extensively or as key protagonists – historical figures, and their authors seem concerned with historical analysis rather than with offering an interesting plot. The borderlines cases are Galcerán, el héroe de la guerra negra by Jaume Cabré Fabré (1978) and La filla del capità Groc (La hija del capitán Groc) by Víctor Amela (2016), both awarded literary prizes. Focused on Carlist commanders Jeroni Galceran and Tómas Penarrocha they offer perhaps too much of psychology and brutality for a typical adventure story; the latter was compared to La Punyalada and criticized for excessive Carlist zeal. There is a number of novels focused on Ramón Cabrera, some offering original perspectives. El tigre rojo by Carlos Domingo (1990) is styled as unorthodox homage to a free man, always willing to pursue his convictions regardless of political circumstances; hailing late departure of Cabrera from the legitimist path, by no means can it be considered an orthodox Carlist lecture. A blend of erudition and creativity is El testamento de amor de Patricio Julve by Antón Castro (1996). El rey del Maestrazgo by Fernando Martínez Lainez (2005) focuses on last days of the general and this is also the case of El invierno del tigre: la aventura vital del héroe carlista Ramón Cabrera by Andreu Carranza (2006), both works calibrated as psychological analysis. La bala que mató al general by Ascensión Badiola (2011) is focused on Zumalacárregui. None of the claimants, especially the picturesque and charismatic Carlos VII, has attracted attention of the present-day authors.
Noticias de la Segúnda Guerra Carlista by Pablo Antoñana (1990) is to be noted for its epic scale, popularity and standing of the author. It reflects the Unamunian attempt to follow "the inner history" made by the mute masses and adheres to the theory of two Carlisms, the popular one and the elitist one. It repeats also the Unamunian error of taking at face value the alleged Marx’s praise of Carlism; besides, it is seen as delivering the pessimistic vision of civil warfare as intrinsic part of Spanish history. La flor de la Argoma by Toti Martínez de Lezea (2008), the author specializing in juvenile literature, is this time intended for mature audience and is a symbolic discourse on paroxysms of ideology. El médico fiel by Antonio Villanueva (2010) depicts the First Carlist War in terms of horrors of the armed conflict, while La sima by José María Merino (2009) is a bit more typical lament of casualties of fratricidal wars. El baró d’Herbes by Antonio Calero Picó (2001) is a case of extreme erudite knowledge – this one about Maestrazgo – prevailing over narrative skills of the author.
Literature on 1936-1939 Civil War
The Spanish Civil War is immensely popular as a setting for contemporary narrative prose and as a matter of literary discourse. There were thousands of related fiction titles published in Spain since the fall of Francoism; in the 21st century only there were 1,248 such works which appeared on the market. Many of them do not feature Carlist motives at all. Many novels contain only marginal Carlist motives, supposed merely to add authenticity to the plot; some like El ultimo invierno by Raúl Montilla (2012) can be reconciled against historiography, some like El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina (1991) can be not. The only Spanish novelist awarded the Nobel Prize in literature, Camilo José Cela, set most of his Mazurca para dos muertos during the 1936-1939 civil war; the Carlist thread is almost absent, save for few comments and one marginally mentioned historical figure, María Rosa Urraca Pastor, who receives her share of ridicule no larger than that reserved for other protagonists. Scholarly works on the last civil war as reflected in the Spanish literature either do not mention Carlism or mention it only marginally.
Novels where Carlism is granted more than a negligible role are few. It is moderately present in Herrumbrosas lanzas by Juan Benet (1983), an extraordinary and monumentally epical volume which if only because of its sheer size offers numerous comments on Carlism; its key protagonist, Eugenio Mazón, comes from a Carlist family and at one stage is himself seduced by Carlism; the discourse is very much a reference to Barojian and Unamunian concepts of various ingredients in fusion. Not exactly the same scale yet not that different approach is demonstrated in Poliedroaren hostoak by Joan Mari Irigoien Aranberri (1983), a vision of recent history of the Basque region told as tale about two families, a Carlist and a Liberal one; written in Euskara, it was awarded a number of prizes. Gironella published the 4th novel of his epic series, Los hombres lloran solos (1986), and Carlist characters he created 25 years earlier assumed a somewhat post-Francoist shape. Verdes valles, colinas rojas by Ramiro Pinilla (2004-2005) advances the thesis that once commenced, the wars never end; the protagonist to prove the point is a Carlist priest padre Eulogio del Pesebre, obsessed with visions of conflict and revenge. El requeté que gritó Gora Euskadi by Alberto Irigoyen (2006) is written by an Uruguayan descendant of a requeté; portrated as key protagonist of the novel, the Carlist ex-combatant realizes injustice of the war. The novel most hostile to Carlism is probably Antzararen bidea by Jokin Muñoz (2008), which repeatedly refers to anti-Republican repression, exercised in Navarre by the Carlists. Its Manichean personalities are representative for "novela do confrontacion historica", penned by young authors who construct their own identity by means of "acto afiliativo" versus the Republican combatants. La enfermera de Brunete by Manuel Maristany (2007) is an example of adventure-romance genre, unusually featuring a Carlist as its key protagonist. Sort of a milestone is En el Requeté de Olite by Mikel Azurmendi (2016); it is the first novel identified which clearly and with no reservations sympathizes with a Carlist because he is a Carlist. Celebrated in Carlism-flavored groupings it drew heavy fire from many other sides.
Drama and poetry
The Carlist theme has almost entirely disappeared from drama, yet one theatrical piece merits attention: Carlismo y música celestial by Francisco Javier Larrainzar Andueza (1977) offered the author's vision of Carlist history; it climaxed in almost byblical confrontation of two brothers from the Carlist dynasty, Carlos Hugo and Sixto. Jaime del Burgo, who launched his career as a poet in 1937, parted the poetic muse for the next 50 years; he dedicated himself to prose and historiography. By the end of his life he returned to drama with Llamada sin respuesta (1978) and to poetry with Soliloquios: en busca de un rayo de luz perdido (1998). The old former requeté, now almost blind, ostracized and personally accused of being a murderer, has given himself to bitterness and melancholy as certified by titles of the works quoted. Efrain Canella Gutiérrez, not very much younger than del Burgo and also an active Carlist, fathered poetry, stories and novels flavored with Traditionalism yet evading Carlist threads, like Balada del sargento Viesca (2009). Few of his verses, however, are fairly explicit in their political militancy. This is especially the case of El Quijote carlista, a poem which gained sort of iconic status in the Carlist realm and is itself – like in case of del Burgo's late poems – a demonstration of pessimism if not defeatism among the Carlists. Carlist theme has barely surfaced in poems of a Pamplona party activist and editor, María Blanca Ferrer García.
A place of his own in the realm of poetry was already held by Rafael Montesinos; after the fall of Francoism he published Último cuerpo de campanas (1980), De la niebla y sus nombres (1985), Con la pena cabal de la alegría (1996), Madrugada de Dios (1998) and La vanidad de la ceniza (2005). The Tertulia Literaria Hispanoamericana he launched and animated since 2005 are named La Tertulia Literaria Hispanoamericana Rafael Montesinos and are still held weekly, usually in Madrid on Tuesdays. A different chord is struck with Luis Hernando de Larramendi, the third in sequence from a dynasty of Carlist authors. Since his 40s he had been publishing poetic volumes; Traditionalist zeal is more than explicit in his latest collection, Fronda Carlista (2010), much of its content dedicated to Carlist kings and leaders. The current leader of Comunión Tradicionalista Carlista, Javier Garisoain, is also a poet; some of his poems advance explicit Carlist themes and threads.
The author whose poetic contribution to the Carlist cause is by many considered of greatest literary value – not only in terms of contemporary poetry but in terms of 200 years of Carlist history – came from a somewhat unexpected side. José Pancorvo was a Peruvian author of various prosaic volumes, yet he gained recognition for his unique poetry, considered baroque or neo-baroque in terms of style and millenarian, mystic and prophetic in terms of breadth. His volume Boinas rojas a Jerusalén (2006) combines unique technique with militant Carlist zeal; the volume was dedicated to Comunión Tradicionalista and Sixto Enrique de Borbón.
- Amelina Correa Ramón, Otra novela histórica del carlismo: La sima de Igúzquiza (1888) de Alejandro Sawa, [in:] María de los Angeles Ezama Gil (ed.), Aún aprendo: estudios dedicados al profesor Leonardo Romero Tobar, Zaragoza 2012, ISBN 9788415538233, p. 281
- the birth moment of Carlism is fairly clear: October 2, 1833, around 7 PM. At that time a post official in Talavera de la Reina, Manuel María Gonzalez, gathered his armed men on the town square and raised the "Viva Don Carlos" cry. For detailed discussion compare e.g. Felix Rubio López de la Llave, El pronunciamiento carlista de Talavera de la Reina, Toledo 1987, ISBN 845056722X
- Ermanno Caldera, Liberalismo y anticarlismo en la dramaturgia romántica, [in:] Crítica Hispanica 16/1 (1994), pp. 103-117
- Caldera 1994, pp. 103-105
- other Rebreño’s anti-serviles dramas penned in the mid-1820s are Tragedia para los serviles y sainete para los liberales, La vuelta del faccioso, Ex expatriado en su patria, Los milicianos de Porrera o Numencia de Cataluña, Manuel Morales Muñoz, Inaugurando la modernidad. Teatro y política en el liberalismo democrático, [in:] Baetica. Estudios de Arte, Geografía e Historia 28 (2006), p. 622
- Pedro Rújula, Una guerra literaria, [in:] Jordi Canal (ed.), Rompecabezas carlistas [insert to La Aventura de la Historia 77/2005], pp. 60-61, Pere Anguera i Nolla, El teatre anticarli de Robrenyo, [in:] Josep María Solé i Sabaté (ed.), Literatura, cultura i carlisme, Barcelona 1995, ISBN 9788478097920, pp. 3-21
- Gregorio de la Fuente Monge, Introducción. Los estudios sobre el teatro político de la España del siglo XIX, [in:] Historia y Política 29 (2013), p. 21
- Fuente Monge 2013, pp. 22-23
- Fuente Monge 2013, p. 22
- Fuente Monge 2013, p. 21
- full title Calendario del año de 1823 para la ciudad de Oviedo: dispuesto por el observatorio ultra-pirenaico y arreglado á las beatificaciones y canonizaciones hechas por la gran Junta de Oriente
- Fermín Canella y Secades, Historia de la Universidad de Oviedo y noticias de los establecimientos de enseñanza de su distrito, Oviedo 1873, p. 449
- José Zorilla y el carlismo, [in:] El Matiner Carlí service 31.10.12, available here
- there is an unedited monograph dedicated to the Carlist theme in poetry and covering the period up to the mid-20th century, Melchor Ferrer, Musa carlista: El tema carlista en la poesia, referred after Rafael Gambra, Melchor Ferrer y la ‘Historia del tardicionalismo [sic!] español, Sevilla 1979, p. 4 [in sequence, no pagination in original text]
- Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, La Primera Guerra Carlista en la Poesía, [in:] Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Las Guerras Carlistas, Madrid 1993, ISBN 9788487863158, p. 292
- Bullón de Mendoza 1993, pp. 291-419
- fragmentation referred after Bullón de Mendoza 1993
- Alberto Ramos Santana, Marieta Cantos Casenave, La sátira anticarlista en el Cádiz romántico, [in:] Ermanno Caldera (ed.), Romanticismo : actas del V Congreso, Roma 1995, ISBN 8871197518, pp. 69-72
- he recited it on 22nd Oct. 1835 in the Teatro de la Cruz of Madrid. José Sanromá Aldea, Introducción a cinco clásicos de nuestra literatura, Madrid 1976, ISBN 84-7393-055-X, p. 123. One of the verses quite explicitly said: ¡Al arma!, ¡al arma!, ¡mueran los carlistas!, Guerra, available here
- dates quoted are the first identified publication, yet it seems that in case of most of the works quoted they have appeared earlier in the press
- Carlos Mata Indurain, Navarro Villoslada y el carlismo: literatura, periodismo y propaganda, [in:] Imagenes en carlismo en las artes, Estella 2009, ISBN 9788423532278, p. 193 and many other works of the author on Navarro Villoslada
- Navarro Villoslada has later served as personal secretary to the claimant, Carlos VII, Carlos Mata Indurain, Navarro Villoslada, periodista. Una aproximación, [in:] Príncipe de Viana 60/217 (1999), p. 598
- origins of the word are usually associated with "guiristino", the specific Basque pronunciation of "cristino". However, some poems suggest the word might rather be derived from GRI, abbreviation of Guardia Real de Infantería, Bullón de Mendoza 1993, p. 324
- María de los Ángeles Ayala, La primera guerra carlista a través de la mirada de Larra y Galdós, [in:] José Manuel González Herrán et al. (eds.), La historia en la literatura española del siglo XIX, Barcelona 2017, ISBN 9788447541478, pp. 175-177
- full title Panorama de la Corte y Gobierno de D. Carlos o un viaje a las Provincias, por un faccioso
- Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Las Guerras Carlistas en la literatura, [in:] Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Las Guerras Carlistas. Catálogo de la espoxisición delebrada del 6 de mayo al 13 de junio de 2004 en el Museo de la Ciudad de Madrid, Madrid 2004, p. 125
- Bullón de Mendoza 2004, p. 126
- J. Worth Banner, Ildefonso Antonio Bermejo, iniciador del teatro en el Paraguay, [in:] Revista Iberoamericana 33 (1951), pp. 98-99
- Bullón de Mendoza 2004, 128
- for details see Sylvie Baulo, Carlismo y novela popular: Ayugals de Izco y la historia-novela, [in:] Príncipe de Viana 17 (1996), pp. 59-68
- Ayuguals de Izco was member of Milicia Nacional during the First Carlist War and lost his own brother, killed by the Carlists during the fights against the Cabrera troops, Snezana Jovanovic, El costumbrismo en la narrativa de Wenceslao Ayguals de Izco. La realidad urbana madrileña [PhD thesis Complutense]. Madrid 2016, p. 19
- full title El palacio de los crímenes: o, El pueblo y sus opresores
- full title La marquesa de Bellaflor o El niño de la inclusa
- Rújula 2005, p. 61
- Jovanovic 2016, p. 78
- Jovanovic 2016, pp. 156-157
- Jovanovic 2016, p. 196
- Jovanovic 2016, p. 289
- works to be named are Doña Blanca de Navarra (1847), Doña Urraca de Castilla (1849), and especially Amaya y los Vascos en el siglo VIII (1879). Set in the medieval era the works do not refer to Carlism, yet they advance some ideas from the Carlist toolset, like Christian unity of Spain and confronting the unfaithfull, compare Mata Indurain 1999, Mata Indurain 2009
- these are the cases of El caballero de la reina (1847), El puñal del capuchino (1848), La camelia blanca (1852), Amor después de la muerte (1852), Víctimas y verdugos (1859) and La mujer fuerte (1859)
- Armando J. Escobedo, Proyección literaria del Carlismo religioso en la novelistica espanõla [PhD thesis University of Florida], Tampa 1983, pp. 44-45
- Fermín Ezpeleta Aguilar, Las guerras carlistas en la literatura juvenil, [in:] Tejuelo 16 (2013), p. 37
- Miguel de Unamuno in his Paz en la guerra blames Aparisi for implanting Carlist myths in the young protagonist, Ignacio. Aparisi’s writings are dubbed „énfasis nebuloso” and "nieblas de Aparisi". For scholarly discussion see e.g. José Manuel Cuenca, Parlamentariso y antiparlamentarisomo españoles. De las cortes de Cádiz a la Gloriosa, [in:] Boletín de Real Academia de la Historia CXCI/1 (1994), p. 147
- Joseba Agirreazkuenaga Zigorraga, Antologia de versos, canciones y sonetos relacionados con los fueros, la guerra y el Convenio de Bergara, [in:] Joseba Agirreazkuenaga Zigorraga (ed.), 150 años del Convenio de Bergara, Vitoria 1990, pp. 509-572; Antonio Zavala (ed.), Karlisten Leenengo Gerrateko bertsoak, Oiartzun 1992, ISBN 8471581590
- Fernández del Pino Alberdi, Iparraguirre o la expresión poetica del carlismo, [in:] Tiempo de historia IV/42 (1978), pp. 52-57
- Joaquim Auladell, Carlins a la primera novel-la catalana moderna, [in:] L'Erol 76 (2003), p. 40
- a scholarly work which tackles the Romantic gloom of Carlism fails to mention a single literary work related, though it refers a number of non-fiction titles, like works falling into the travel literature genre, see Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, Carlistas: un romanticismo perdurable, [in:] Nuestro tiempo 665 (2010), pp. 32-41, also Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Viajeros en España durante la Primera Guerra Carlista, [in:] Aportes 34 (1997), pp. 97-118
- Carlism is marginally mentioned in Stendhal's Lucien Leuwen; Victor Hugo visited Vascongadas in 1843 and provided account of this journey in En voyage, which contains a few references to Carlism
- the claim was made by Jaime del Burgo. Referred after Edina Polácska, Karlista emigráció Franciaorszagban (1872-1876) [PhD thesis University of Szeged], Szeged 2008, p. 147
- a single non-Spanish novel identified, Pan Zygmunt w Hiszpanii by Teodor Tripplin (1852), adheres to a walterscottian adventure format and does not demonstrate particular sympathy for any of the belligerent sides. The novel tells a story of an officer serving in a Polish unit within the French army, sort of legacy from the Napoleonic era. The French "leased" the unit to the Madrid government and as a result, the Poles fought on the Cristinos side. Some scholars summarise the book as "complicada intriga sentimental con evidentes connotaciones cervantinas", Piotr Sawicki, Don Quijote vence en Polonia. Correrías eslavas de un caballero manchego, [in:] Eslavística Complutense 6 (2006), p. 103
- a brief review of Carlist echoes in France is offered in the introductory chapter to Emmanuel Tronco, Les Carlistes espagnols dans l’Ouest de la France, 1833-1883, Rennes 2010, ISBN 9782753511194. The works quoted as related are not literary fiction, like the auto-biographic recollections of George Sand, Un hiver à Majorque. No title from the French belles-lettres is quoted as related. Similarly, no literary threads are identitifed in Mathieu Llexa, L’influence du contexte politique espagnol sur la diffusion des oeuvres litteraries entre les Pyrenees-Orientales et la Catalogne au XIXe siecle (1808-1886), [in:] Revista História e Cultura 3/1 (2014), pp. 189-203. Similarly, no great or even not-so-great work of English literature refers to the Carlist War. Tennyson was himself in Spain shortly before outbreak of the war, yet all found is vague references "to these inquisition dogs and the devildoms of Spain". Contemporary scholar notes that ballad-makers, so active during the Peninsular War, "kept quiet about Spanish politics", Rubén Valdés Miyares, Eloquent silence: the transformation of Spain in British balladry between the Peninsular War and the Carlist Wars, [in:] The Grove. Working Papers on English Studies 23 (2016), p. 180
- for a sample from Eastern Europe compare a democratic theorist, Wiktor Heltman, Rewolucyjne żywioły w Hiszpanii, ich walka do 1833 roku, [in:] Pismo Towarzystwa Demokratycznego Polskiego 2 (1840), pp. 471-499. The work presents Carlism as obscurantism, absolutism and religious fanaticism
- José Rubio Jiménez, Un drama nuevo, de Manuel Tamayo y Baus: las paradojas del comediante y del juego dramático, [in:] Arbor CLXXVII (2004), pp. 677-690
- Bullón de Mendoza 2004, p. 127
- Bullón de Mendoza 2004, p. 128
- Bullón de Mendoza 2004, p. 129
- by some Trueba is counted among authors of “Segundo Romanticismo español”, Begoña Regueiro Salgado, Las guerras carlistas en la obra de Antonio Trueba y en la tercera serie de los Episodios nacionales de Benito Pérez Galdos, [in:] José Manuel González Herrán et. al. (eds.), La historia en la literatura española del siglo XIX, Barcelona 2016, ISBN 9788447541478, p. 310; some tend to place him rather in the Realism rubric, as a follower of Fernán Caballero, Mariano Baquero Goyanes, El cuento español: del romanticismo al realismo, Madrid 1992, ISBN 8400072138, pp. 67-75
- ”existe un autor que alude al conflicto [carlista] en prácticamente toda su obra”, Regueiro Salgado 2016, p. 310
- if fighting in the Carlist ranks the Basques are usually presented as drafted by force; Trueba himself twice fled the Vascongadas to avoid the Carlist rule, Regueiro Salgado 2016, pp. 315-322
- Correa Ramón 2012, p. 282
- Correa Ramón 2012, p. 286
- Escobedo 1983, p. 87
- Escobedo 1983, pp. 47-49
- and his novel El enemigo (1887), Noël Maureen Valis, Jacinto Octavio Picón, novelista, Madrid 1991, ISBN 9788476582893, p. 137
- and his novel Paniagua y Compañía (1877), see currosenriquez service, available here
- José María de Pereda was an active Carlist in the 1860s, and he excelled as the party progagandist, author of numerous articles and pamphlets; by some he is referred to as "José María Pereda, el carlista que fundó la narrativa realista y anunció la novela social", Josep Carles Clemente, Raros, Heterodoxos, Disidentes y Viñetas Del Carlismo, Barcelona 1995, ISBN 9788424507077, pp. 155-157
- one scholar claims that during much of her lifetime Pardo Bazán located her political sympathies between Integrism and Carlism, see José María Paz Gago, Una nota sobre la ideología de Pardo Bazán. Doña Emilia, entre el carlismo integrista y el carlismo moderado, [in:] La Tribuna: cadernos de estudios da Casa Museo Emilia Pardo Bazán 5 (2007), pp. 349-366
- the opinion of Miguel Ayuso, see a TV debate Lágrimas en la lluvia aired on March 17, 2003, 32:40 at youtube service
- in case of Pereda political threads are present in Don Gonzalo (1879), Los hombres de pro (1888) and Peñas arriba (1895), Benito Madariaga de la Campa, José María de Pereda y su tiempo, Santander 2003, pp. 43, 73. Pardo in her non-fictional writings like Mi romería (1888) adhered to a heroic, idealist vision; her novels like La Mayorazga de Bouzas (1886), Morrión y boina (1889) or Madre gallega (1896) display watered-down sympathy for Traditionalist outlook rather than for Carlism.
- Madariaga de la Campa 2003, p. 69, Correa Ramón 2012, p. 282
- Manolín lamented disappearing traditional Asturian customs and lifestyle; Oremus was set in the Third Carlist War, Jean Kenmogne, Una escritora asturiana en América: Eva Canel, [in:] Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos 546 (1995), p. 60
- contemporary critic noted that Hernández Villaescusa was the Murcian equivalent of Fernán Caballero for Andalusia, Trueba for Vascongadas, Pereda for Cantabria or Polo y Peyrolón for Aragón, El Correo Español 27.10.92, available here
- e.g. in Los Pazos de Ulloa (1886), Armando J. Escobedo, Proyección literaria del Carlismo religioso en la novelistica espanõla [PhD thesis University of Florida], Tampa 1983, pp. 49-50, or even horror, like in La madre naturaleza (1887), Escobedo 1983, pp. 50-51
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, p. 38
- Correa Ramón 2012, p. 282
- Jordi Canal i Morell, Banderas blancas, boinas rojas: una historia política del carlismo, 1876-1939, Madrid 2006, ISBN 9788496467347, p. 131
- Maria de los Angeles Ayala, Impresiones y recuerdos de Julio Nombela, [in:] Anales de la Literatura Española 14 (2001), pp. 11-28
- his numerous plays, e.g. La dama del Rey (1877), La flor del espino (1882) or El perro del hospicio (1888) advance Traditionalist outlook politically enveloped in pidalismo, a breed of Carlism which broke away from legitimism and accepted the Restoration regime as "hypothesis", José Carlos Clemente, El carlismo en el novecientos español (1876-1936), Madrid 1999, ISBN 9788483741535, p. 44
- like in case of the First Carlist War also the Third One triggered a spate of travel literature among the English, see e.g. Francisco Javier Caspistegui, Pablo Laraz, Joaquín Ansorena, Aventuras de un gentleman en la tercera carlistada, Pamplona 2007, ISBN 9788423529544. The war was followed closely also far away, compare the 1873-1874 sections of Dostoyevsky's Writer's Diary, an extremely hostile account, interesting when combined with Dostoyevsky's anti-democratic and highly religious outlook. However, none of the works mentioned qualifies as belles-lettres.
- the first part, titled Il passato e il presente ossia Ernesto il disingannato, was serialized in a Naples daily Il Trovatore between August and November 1873; the second one went to print as La fine di Ernesto il disingannato and was published between June and September 1874; both were combined in a 2017 edition titled Ernesto il disingannato
- considered “il primo romanzo “borbonico” scritto a Napoli ed è il primo romanzo italiano a parlare di Carlismo”, it was set in Naples and in Spain between 1858 and 1873, Gianandrea de Antonellis, Introduzione. Dal Legittimismo al Carlismo, [in:] Gianandrea de Antonellis (ed.), Ernesto il disingannato, Salerno 2017, ISBN 9788899821074, pp. III-XX
- Chronon H. Berkowitz, Pérez Galdós, Spanish Liberal Crusader, Madison 1948
- Biruté Ciplijauskaité, Configuraciones literarias del Carlismo, [in:] Stanley G. Payne (ed.), Identidad y nacionalismo en la España contemporánea, el Carlismo, 1833-1975, Madison/Madrid 1996, ISBN 8487863469, p. 64, Madeleine de Gogorza Fletcher, The Spanish Historical Novel, 1870-1970: A Study of Ten Spanish Novelists, and Their Treatment of the "episodio nacional", London 1974, ISBN 9780900411694, p. 9
- Hans Hinterhauser, Los episodios nacionales de Benito Pérez Galdós, Madrid, 1964, p. 92
- Juan Carlos Ara Torralba, Pérez Galdós y Baroja frente al carlismo, [in:] Imagenes en carlismo en las artes, Estella 2009, ISBN 9788423532278, p. 32
- Peter A. Bly, De héroes y lo heroico en la tercera serie de Episodios Nacionales de Benito Pérez Galdós: ¿Zumalacárregui como modelo a imitar?, [in:] Salina 14 (2000), pp. 137-142, Pedro Rújula, Cabrera y Zumalacárregui nei tempi della letteratura, [in:] Memoria e Ricerca 24 (2007), pp. 7-20
- Antoni Zavala (ed.), Karlisten Bigarren Gerrateko bertsoak, Oiartzun 1997, ISBN 8489080585
- Ramon Pinyol Torrents, Verdaguer i el carlisme. Notes aproximatives, [in:] eHumanista 5 (2014), pp. 110-119
- Ricard Torrents, Verdaguer. Estudis i aproximacions, Vic 1995, ISBN 9788476023921, pp. 243-244
- Poema carlista en gallego, [in:] Carlismo Galicia service 26.06.17, available here
- for details see Acebal y Gutiérrez, Juan María, [in:] Gran Enciclopedia Asturiana, vol. I, Gijon 1981, p. 17, José Miguel Caso González, La poesía de Juan María Acebal, [in:] Lletres asturianes II (1982), pp. 42–51, Antón García, Prólogu, [in:] Xuan María Acebal, Obra poética, Oviedo 1995, pp. 9–60, Antón García, Xuan María Acebal, [in:] Lliteratura asturiana nel tiempu, Oviedo 1994, pp. 67–68, Enrique García-Rendueles, D. Juan Mª Acebal y Gutiérrez, [in:] Los nuevos bablistas, Gijon 1925, pp. 42–73, Miguel Ramos Corrada, Sociedad y literatura bable (1839–1936), Gijon 1982, pp. 59–66, Milio Rodríguez Cueto, Tiadoru y Acebal, [in:] Vistes lliteraries, Oviedo 1993, pp. 59–63, Xuan Xosé Sánchez Vicente, Cantar y más cantar : un comentariu testual, [in:] Lletres asturianes 36 (1990), pp. 51–57
- in 1898 one of the press critics noted with melancholy: “what a pity that such a man dedicated himself to politics!”, Eduardo Valero, El marqués coleccionista, [in:] Historia urbana de Madrid website. Cerralbo’s El Arco Romano de Medinaceli has even made it to a contemporary Spanish poetry anthology; his style, like this demonstrated in Leyenda de Amor, merged classical perfection of verse with romantic sentiment, appealing to contemporary taste
- he published poems in the press and almanacs of the era, his items grandiose in style and revolving around religious topics, see e.g. La Cruzada 27.02.69, available here or La Esperanza 09.02.72, available here
- for his poem dedicated to the First Vatican Council see Francisco Melgar, Veinte años con Don Carlos. Memorias de su secretario, Madrid 1940, p. 8. .In the 1870s Melgar was known as "poeta y periodista" rather than as a militant, see 1873 comments of Alejandro Pidal, quoted after José Manuel Vázquez-Romero, Tradicionales y moderados ante la difusión de la filosofía krausista en España, Madrid 1998, ISBN 9788489708242, p. 95
- and was held in high esteem by Marcelino Mendendez Pelayo, though surely it received its share of abuse on part of the liberal press, José María Martínez Cachero, Más noticias para la bio-bibliografía de Ceferino Suárez Bravo, [in:] Biblioteca Virtual de Miguel Cervantes service, available here
- full title Los Mayos. Costumbres populares de la Sierra de Albarracín
- Roberto Sanz Ponce, La Sierra de Albarracín y Polo y Peyroloñ: historia de una relación ascética, [in:] Rehalda 13 (2010), p. 23
- Javier Urcelay Alonso, Introducción, [in:] Memorias políticas de M. Polo y Peyrolón (1870-1913), Madrid 2013, ISBN 9788499405872, p. 12
- full title Sacramento y concubinato. Novela original de costumbres aragonesas
- Sanz Ponce 2010, p. 23
- full title Pacorro. Novela de costumbres serranas
- Sanz Ponce 2010, p. 24
- full title El guerrillero. Novela tejida con retazos de la historia militar carlista
- Sanz Ponce 2010, p. 24
- Among his contemporaries Polo was appreciated usually by those sharing similar traditional outlook, like Emilia Pardo Bazán, Jesus Bregante, Diccionario espasa. Literatura española, Madrid 2003, ISBN 8467012722, p. 753; relations between Polo and Baztan soured as she later accused him of plagiarism. Other great figure appreciative of Polo’s works was Marcelinó Menéndez y Pelayo, Paula Lázaro Izquirerda, Lengua patria y dialectos regionales: una convivencia necesaria en el pensamiento de Manuel Polo y Peyrolon, [in:] Rehalda 5 (2007), p. 28, and José María de Pereda, Jose Maria de Pereda, Cuarenta cartas ineditas a Manuel Polo y Peyrolon, Santander 1990, ISBN 9788485429875. A conservative literary review Ilustración Católica identified him as a brilliant follower of Fernán Caballero, Ulpiano Lada Ferreras, La narrativa oral literaria: estudio pragmático, Oviedo 2003, ISBN 9783935004367, p. 96, classified his writings as "novela de familia" and hailed his prose as "restauradora de la novela castellana en los tiempos modernos", quoted after María del Carmen Servén Díez, La ilustración católica frente a la novela: 1877-1894, [in:] Revista de literatura 127 (2002), p. 229
- compare his theoretical study El naturalismo ¿ es un signo de progreso ó de decadencia en la literatura?, published in 1885
- Bregante 2003, p. 753. It was noted for conventional plots which can hardly support the weight of nagging moralizing objectives, Sanz Ponce 2010, p. 22, Magdalena Aguinaga Alfonso, El costumbrismo de Pereda: innovaciones y técnicas narrativas, Oviedo 1996, ISBN 9783930700813, p. 154. On the other hand, it is today appreciated as inexhaustible source of perfectly captured anecdotes and customs, Polo y Perolón, Manuel entry in Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa online, available here
- author of Leyes de honor (1873), Enseñar al que no sabe (1877), Trabajar por cuenta propia (1878), La tabla de salvación (1878) and La mejor victoria (1880), Pedro Gómez Aparicio, Historia del periodismo español: De la Revolución de Septiembre al desastre colonial, Madrid 1967, p. 330.
- e.g. for Unamuno the nascent Basque nationalism was exactly this long shadow of Carlism, compare Jean-Claude Rabaté, Miguel de Unamuno frente al 2 de mayo de 1874: entre memoria y mito, [in:] Hispanisme 3 (2014), pp. 159. Detailed discussion of Generation 1898 and Carlism in Biruté Ciplijauskaité, The "Noventayochistas" and the carlist wars, [in:] Hispanic review 3 (1976), pp. 265-279
- yet extremely important one. In 1924 Unamuno, somewhat disappointed that the first edition did not receive much attention, re-published it with a specific prologue. Throughout the 1930s and especially after the outbreak of the 1936 civil war he considered re-writing the entire novel to re-emphasize some threads, Rabaté 2014, pp. 161-162
- however, unlike Sonata and Zalacaín, Paz en la guerra did not make it to the list of 100 best novels in Spanish language, compiled by El Mundo, compare El Mundo 13.01.01, available here
- Rabaté 2014, pp. 151-164
- Gogorza Fletcher 1974, pp. 70-79
- opinion expressed in his letter to Ganivet, Manuel Fernández Espinosa, Quien niega la historia, se condena a la intrahistoria: el caso Unamuno, [in:] Raigambre. Revista Cultural Hispanica 14.10.13, available here
- Rabaté 2014, p. 153
- the Traditionalists claimed that Unamunian "intrahistoric" Carlism was his pure invention, Fernández Espinosa 2013. Progressists from Partido Carlista keep banking on Unamunian opinion about proto-socialist Carlism until today, see comments of their leader Evaristo Olcina, [in:] EKA-Partido Carlista service, available here
- Rabaté 2014, p. 162
- Francisco Blanco Prieto, Unamuno y la guerra civil, [in:] Cuadernos de la Cátedra Miguel de Unamuno 47/1 (2009), p. 50
- for a comprehensive review of scholarly views on Valle and Carlism see the second chapter of Margarita Santos Zas, Tradicionalismo y literatura en Valle-Inclan: 1866 1910, Madrid 1993, ISBN 9780892950683
- the very same paragraph from La Corte de Estella, discussing how conde Pedro Soulinake compared liberal troops ('ejercito de almas muertas') to the Carlist ones ('mancebos encendidos y fuertes'), might be quoted as ironic, see Ciplijauskaité 1996, p. 64, and as genuine, see José F. Acedo Castilla, La segunda guerra carlista en las novelas de Valle-Inclán, [in:] Boletín de la Real academia Sevillana de Buenas Letras: Minervae Baeticae 21 (1993), p. 77
- in 1910 Valle-Inclán declared in public that the only arm he had was at the service of the Carlist claimant; also in 1910 he was supposed to run on the Carlist ticket for the Cortes; in the 1920s was on friendly terms with Jaime III; in 1931 he was awarded the Carlist order of Legitimidad Proscrita; according to some accounts, portraits of Carlist claimants were always on his desk, Josep Carles Clemente, Valle-Inclán y el carlismo, [in:] Tiempo de historia VI/67 (1980), pp. 129-130
- one scholar names Valle-Inclán "carlista atípico", Clemente 1995, pp. 153-154. Similar opinion in María José Alonso Seoana, Prologo, [in:] Ramón Valle-Inclan, La guerra carlista, Madrid 1980, Eugenio G. de Nora, La novela española contemporánea, Madrid 1953, p. 76, Carlos Luis Valle-lnclán Blanco, Prólogo, [in:] Ramón Valle-Inclan, Gerilfaltes de Amaño, Buenos Aires 1945, p. 8. This is the view that the author of so far most exhaustive work on the issue tends to agree with, see Santos Zas 1993. However, reviewers point out to some problematic omissions in her work, e.g. she did not note that in the late 1890s Valle contributed to Don Quijote, a weekly generally perceived as an anti-Carlist, and he must have been aware of it, Eliane Lavaud-Fage, Review: Tradicionalismo y literatura en Valle-Inclán (1889-1910) by Margarita Santos Zas, [in:] Reseñas iberoamericanas. Literatura, sociedad, historia 3 (1996), p. 59
- the issue is not entirely clear. One scholar claims that in early 1931 Jaime III addressed Valle-Inclán with a very cordial letter, informing him about the intention to decorate the writer. It is not clear whether Valle-Inclán accepted the honor and whether he bothered to respond at all; shortly afterwards Jaime III passed away and the issue was not resumed by his successor, Alfonso Carlos, Jacek Bartyzel, Nic bez boga, nic wbrew tradycji, Radzymin 2015, ISBN 9788360748732, p. 298
- Acedo Castilla 1993, p. 80
- Melchor Fernández Almagro, Vida y literatura de Valle -lnclán, Madrid 1943, pp. 143-144, Ramón Gómez de la Serna, Don Ramón M. del Valle-lnclán, Buenos Aires 1948, p. 71, all referred after Ciplijauskaité 1996, p. 62
- compare Acedo Castilla 1993
- Gaspar Gomez de la Serna, España en sus episodios nacionales, Madrid 1945, Alison Sinclair, Valle-Inclan’s Ruedo Ibérico: A Popular View of Revolution, London 1977, Emma Sperati-Piñeiro, e Sonata de otoño al esperpento, London 1968, Leda Schiavo, Historia y novela en Valle-Inclán, Madrid 1980, all referred after Ciplijauskaité 1996, p. 62
- Ciplijauskaité 1996, p. 57
- Leda Schiavo, Historia y novela en Valle-Inclán, Madrid 1980, p. 29, referred after Ciplijauskaité 1996, p. 62
- Ciplijauskaité 1996, p. 62
- Fernandez Almagro 1966, p. 170, referred after Ciplijauskaité 1996, p. 62
- Bradomin is reportedly skeptical "about the practicality of Carlism", Gogorza Fletcher 1974, p. 82
- Baroja claimed that his first recollections from infancy are the horrors of Bilbao being pounded by the Carlist artillery. The siege of Bilbao lasted until May 1874; Baroja was 16-months-old at the time
- some scholars, though, claim that Baroja along Unamuno and Valle nurtured a "pro-Carlist sentiment", with the reservation that this Barojian Carlism was not "theocratic and reactionary ideology" but "popular regionalist movement", Gogorza Fletcher 1974, p. 9
- though his mother warned their sons that "the Carlists always return", anecdote circulated by Caro Baroja and referred after Evarist Olcina, Hijo, los carlistas vuelven siempre, [in:] Naiz 27.02.17, available here
- Ara Torralba 2009, p. 36
- Ara Torralba 2009, p. 37
- this vision has well filtered into the present-day Spanish culture; in a celebrated movie Vacas (1992) a Carlist protagonist is sure beaten by his opponent in the Basque woodchopping competition
- according to one of numerous and not necessarily coherent versions of the incident he later propagated. Following the incident Baroja was detained and spent a night in the Guardia Civil prison in the nearby Santesteban, yet he seemed to prefer this option, as he felt safer in prison than among the Carlists. He later recolled that "Los carlistas tenían tomado todo aquello con el mismo espíritu de siempre. Se mantenían con el mismo terror con que los he dibujado a lo largo de mis libros", La Voz 01.08.36, available here
- Blasco Ibañez was among instigators of riots, intended to prevent public address of the Carlist leader Marqués de Cerralbo in Valencia in 1890, Canal i Morell 2006, p. 143
- Escobedo 1983, pp. 52-54
- he was auditor general del ejército
- known also as novela católica, moral, casta, integrista, didáctica, docente, Jean-Francois Botrel, Antonio de Valbuena y la novela de edificación (1879-1903), [in:] Revista Tierras de León 1984, p. 134
- see also Capullos de novela (1891), Novelas menores (1895), Rebojos (1901) and Parábolas (1903)
- himself a Carlist volunteer during the Third Carlist War
- Correa Ramón 2012, p. 282
- for history of the anthem see Rafael Garcia Serrano, Cantatas de mi mochila, [in:] Navarra fue la primera, Pamplona 2006, ISBN 8493508187, pp. 523-530
- who published under the pen-name "Pedro Sánchez Egusquiza"
- Begoña Rodríguez Acuña, Pruebas Acceso Grado Superior: Lengua castellana y Literatura: Ciclos Formativos, Madrid 2014, ISBN 9788490039717, p. 305
- one of the poems, A mi novio, was styled as a letter from a girl to her fiancé; she explained why she would never marry a Liberal; in another one, A Carlos VII, en lo dia del seu sant, Bardina was offering his life to the claimant, Carlos VII
- in a satirical weekly El Voluntario, Jordi Canal, El carlismo catalanista a la fi del segle XIX: Joan Bardina i Lo Mestre Titas (1897-1900), [in:] Recerques 34 (1996), p. 48
- Vicanç Pagés Jordá, "Records de la darrera carlinada" - Marià Vayreda, [in:] vicencpagesjorda service
- "en un dels lloca més alts, si no el més alt, de la novella catalana", Maurici Serrahima, Maria Teresa Boada, La novella històrica en la literatura catalana, Montserrat 1996, ISBN 9788478267712, p. 140
- L’Ibo (with his masculine appeal attractive as it may seem) stands for wild non-reflexive violence, Albert (with his apparent timidity and indecision) stands for order, family values and religion. On Vayreda and Carlism see Jordi Canal, Carlisme i catalanisme a la fi del segle XIX. Notes sobre unes relacions complexes, [in:] Le discours sur la nation en Catalogne aux XIXe et XXe siècles. Hommage à Antoni M. Badia i Margarit, Paris 1995, pp. 211–230, Jordi Canal, ¿En busca del precedente perdido? Tríptico sobre las complejas relaciones entre carlismo y catalanismo a fines del siglo XIX, [in:] Historia y Politica 14 (2005), p. 45-84, Jordi Canal, Marian Vayreda, entre el carlisme i el catalanisme, [in:] Revista de Girona 225 (2004), pp. 41–46
- the play was performed in Jaimista circulos, see Diario de Valencia 27.01.15, available here. The drama was set in the Third Carlist War and featured historical figures like Don Carlos and Doña Margarita
- "sempre des de la seva optica carlina", Àngels Carles Pomar, Domingo Cirici Ventalló, escriptor i publicista, [in:] Ciutat. Revista cultural d'Amics de les Arts i Joventuts Musicals 10 (2000), p. 26
- his most popular novel, El secreto de lord Kitchener (1914), is a display of anglophobia and germanophilia, rampant among some Carlist circles during the Great War
- authenticity of Ego te absolvo is disputed. The story was first published in a volume issued in Paris in 1905; it contained French translations of Lord Arthur Savile's Crime and Other Stories collection, but also a number of previously unknown stories, also in French. Ego te absolvo was among them, reportedly a translation from an earlier publication in an unidentified US magazine. It was soon claimed that the story was among those "fraudulently attributed to Oscar Wilde, generally by unscrupulous publishers"; this was e.g. the opinion of Robert Harborough Sherard, The life of Oscar Wilde, London 1906, p. 460. Since then Ego te absolvo is generally ignored in the English-language publications, compare e.g. the University College Cork collection available here, and generally attributed to Wilde in the Spanish-language ones, compare e.g. Cuentos de Oscar Wilde, Santiago de Chile 2005, ISBN 9789561117549, or the online Biblioteca Virtual de Miguel de Cervantes, available here. The story was also included in a volume Tres cuentos carlistas, published by Museum of Carlism, Estella 2010, ISBN 9788423532384
- the story is set during the Third Carlist War; two Carlists argue about an unknown woman, treated as a war booty, and both die during the altercation
- not exactly literature is La Navarraise, an opera by Jules Massenet (1894); it was set in the Third Carlist War and seemed quite sympathetic towards the Carlists, Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, Between repulsion and attraction: Carlism seen through foreign eyes, [in:] Revista internacional de los estudios vascos 2 (2008), p. 128
- in terms of language some scholars speak about "época de Valle, Ortega y Lorca", lasting from 1902 to 1939, Francisco Abad, Problemas de periodización y caracterización en historia de la lengua literaria española, [in:] Revista de Filologia Románica 15 (1998), p. 32. The same author when discussing history of literature singles out "Edad de Plata", lasting form late 19th-century to 1939 and followed by a period named "literatura actual de hoy", Francisco Abad, Sobre la periodización de la literatura española, [in:] Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos 469-470 (1989), pp. 205-206. Another scholar suggests to single out a long "Vanguardias y posguerra" period, which follows "La crisis finisecular" and precedes "hacia el siglo XXI", Juan González Martínez, Breve historia de la literatura española, Barcelona 2009, ISBN 9788499210261. Another one proposes to distinguish between a period spanned between generation 1898 and generation 1927, "wartime and Francoism" and present day, Alberto de Frutos Dávalos, Breve historia de la Literatura española, Madrid 2016, ISBN 9788499677927. One more proposal is to tell "Siglo XIX" from "Modernidad y nacionalismo" (1900-1939) and "Siglo XX" (which commences in 1939), José-Carlos Mariner (ed.), Historia de la literatura española, Madrid 2007-2011, ISBN 9788498921007. Others simply follow the sequence set by the centuries, see Felipe B. Pedraza Jiménez, Milagros Rodríguez Cáceres, Historia esencial de la literatura española e hispanoamericana, Madrid 2000, ISBN 9788441407893
- for application to the regeneracionistas, see e.g. Julián Casanova, Carlos Gil Andrés, Historia de España en el siglo XX, Barcelona 2009, ISBN 9788434434912, p. 9. For application to the Second Republic, see e.g. Eduardo González Calleja, Los discursos catastrofistas de los líderes de la derecha y la difusión del mito del «golpe de Estado comunista», [in:] El Argonatua Espanol 13 (2016)
- Alison Sinclair, Valle-Inclan’s Ruedo Ibérico: A Popular View of Revolution, London 1977
- the key skeptic is Zdzisław Najder, Życie Conrada-Korzeniowskiego, Warszawa 1980, ISBN 9788306001716, pp. 45-50. Some scholars accept the account with no reservations, see Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, Affinity and Revulsion: Poland reacts to the Spanish Right (1936-1939), [in:] Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, John Radzilowski (eds.), Spanish Carlism and Polish Nationalism: The Borderlands of Europe in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Charlottesville 2003, ISBN 9781412834933, p. 48
- see brief review at GoodReads service, available here
- exact plot is not clear; according to some sources it might have been at least partially set during the First Carlist War, see Michael G. Brennan, Graham Greene: Political Writer, London 2016, ISBN 9781137343963, p. 19; in the 1980s Greene believed it was rather set in Victorian London among Spanish refugees, Mike Hill, Jon Wise, The Works of Graham Greene, Volume 2, New York 2015, ISBN 9781472527783, page unavailable, see here. The manuscript survived and is now in the Georgetown University
- it is not clear why it did not go to print in the 1930s, perhaps because Greene thought it an unfinished work of low quality. He considered publication in the 1990s, but eventually abandoned the idea, Hill, Wise 2015
- completed in April 1931. Greene was later profoundly unhappy about the novel and suppressed it. He described it as "badness beyond the power of criticism", pretentious and excessively influenced by "Conrad's worst novel", The Arrow of Gold, Graham Greene, Ways of Escape: An Autobiography, New York 1980, ISBN 9780671412197, p. 19
- Greene converted to Roman-Catholicism in his mid-20s and was baptised in 1926; he ceased to practice in the 1940s and later he called himself a "Catholic agnostic". During the Spanish Civil War the Left Review sent to many English writers questionnaires to determine which side their supported; Greene did not respond, but shortly afterwards declared that "I stand with the people and the Government of Spain". His biographer claims he indeed tended to support the Republicans, but was estranged by their perceived atrocities. His intuitive preferences were reportedly with the Basques, as he perceived them as Catholics not engaged in brutal terror, Norman Sherry, The Life Of Graham Greene, vol. 1, London 2016, ISBN 9781473512139, page unavailable, see here. Two later Greene's works related to Spain, The Confidential Agent (1939) and Monsignor Quixote (1982) demonstrate clear preference for the Republicans; they do not touch upon the Carlist theme
- Michael G. Brennan, Graham Greene: Fictions, Faith and Authorship, London 2010, ISBN 9781847063397, p. 19,
- Brennan 2016, p. 19
- Brennan 2016, p. 19
- Brennan 2010, p. 20
- Brennan 2010, p. 20
- Rújula 2005, p. 62
- see e.g. the brief film tag in Webmuseo service, available here
- Carlos Ruiz Silva, Introducción, [in:] Gabriel Miró, El obispo leproso, Madrid 1984, ISBN 9788485866496, p. 45, Escobedo 1983, pp. 56-58.
- Bartyzel 2015, p. 13
- for more insight on the Barcelona pistolerismo see Eduardo González Calleja, El máuser y el sufragio: órden público, subversión y violencia política en la crisis de la Restauración (1917-1931), Madrid 1999, ISBN 8400078373 (esp. p. 197), for Rico's death see César Alcalá, Diálogos sobre la Guerra Civil, Barcelona 2000, p. 66
- El Siglo Futuro 02.11.33, available here
- she might be noted rather for poems revolving around Christian virtues, advantages of family life and patriotic values. They are scattered across various periodicals and in the volume Nimias (1898). She contributed also to drama, having written two one-act comedies Margarita (1890) and En el buen retiro (1909), both featuring "tipos y costumbres leonesas" and played in León, La Tradición 16.06.00, available here, El Pueblo 10.06.09, available here. Some scholars claim they were inspired by Zorilla and Campoamor, María del Camino Ochoa Fuertes, Dolores Gortázar Serantes, [in:] Filandón 07.12.1997, p. 8
- Rújula 2005, p. 63
- the "quinto" was a conscript, who later switched sides and joined the Carlists; the novel was widely acclaimed for torrid narrative action combined with non-partisan perspective, see e.g. Contemporanea 12 (1935), available here, El Sol 20.02.31, available here, La Vanguardia 30.07.30, available here, El Siglo Futuro 07.06.30, available here, La Hormiga de Oro 11 (1931), available here
- it was originally sub-titled "novela humoristica", compare here. It seems that the novel was soon turned into a theatrical play, the joint work of Perez and Torralba de Damas, and staged in Barcelona theatres, compare La Libertad 12.07.33, available here
- they are presented as ostentatiously religious but in fact the last ones to "stop blaspheming" ("y hasta los carlistas dejaron de blasfemar"). Some scholars have taken this fairly typical literary anti-Carlism at face value and quote Urabayen as authority on Carlism, compare Jeremy MacClancy, The Decline of Carlism, Reno 2000, ISBN 0874173442, p. 64
- Antonio Linage Conde, Félix Urabayen en su edad de plata, [in:] Anales toledanos 37 (1999), p. 277
- Canal 2006, p. 261
- Andreu Navarra Ordoño, La región sospechosa. La dialéctica hispanocatalana entre 1875 y 1939, Barcelona 2013, ISBN 9788449029844, page unavailable, see here
- the Carlist protagonist of the novel, Falcón de Saavedra, is depicted as "característico figurón señoral, arquetípico y representativo del más acrisolado tradicionalismo carlista", Jesús Ferrer-Solá, Manuel Azaña: una pasión intelectual, Alcala de Henares 1991, ISBN 9788476582640, pp. 83-84
- María del Carmen Gil Fombellida, Rivas Cherif, Margarita Xirgu y el teatro de la II República, Madrid 2003, ISBN 9788424509545, pp. 150-151
- Revista católica de las cuestiones sociales 7 (1924), p. 40.
- Guía oficial de España 1923, p. 745
- though coming from a family of Liberal writers, in his youth he was a Carlist, Jose Ramon Saiz Fernandez, Apuntes sobre José del Río Sainz, Pick, [in:] Cantabria 24 Horas 19.10.2014, available here
- Luis Alberto de Cuenca, José del Rio Sainz, un poeta olvidado, [in:] Hispanic Poetry Review 1-2 (1999), p. 78
- Gerardo Diego, Obras completas, Vol. VII: Prosa, Madrid 2000, ISBN 9788420442297, p. 296. During the Civil War del Rio was more explicit when working as a publisher; in 1943 he released a biography of Zamalacarregui. Some place him in "gloriosa galeria de los grandes escritores del Carlismo", see Ignacio Romero Raizabal, De cómo volvió al Carlismo el gran "Pick", [in:] Montejurra 46 (1964), p. 7
- in literature the work is attributed either to Torralba, or to Pérez de Olaguer or to both. For the Pérez de Olaguer attribution see Javier Domínguez Arribas, El enemigo judeo-masónico en la propaganda franquista, 1936-1945, Barcelona 2009, ISBN 9788496467989, p. 264; for Torralba attibution see e.g. casadellibro service, available here. Perez de Olaguer has later claimed the work was the result of their common work, see his Mi padre, un hombre de bien, Madrid 1967, p. 89. Torralba was killed in 1936
- Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia
- Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, „Esa ciudad maldita, cuna del centralismo, la burocracia y el liberalismo": la ciudad como enemigo en el tradicionalismo español, [in:] Actas del congreso internacional "Arquitectura, ciudad e ideología antiurbana", Pamplona 2002, ISBN 8489713510, p. 92
- "todos ellos coinciden en reflejar en sus obras cómo la perniciosa influencia de lo foráneo va pervirtiendo las sanas y católicas costumbres locales de la Navarra ‘auténtica’", Javier Dronda Martínez, Con Cristo o contra Cristo. Religión y movilización antirrepublicana en navarra (1931-1936), Tafalla 2013, ISBN 9788415313311, p. 22
- El Siglo Futuro 21.03.21, available here
- Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana (Espasa) 1927, pp. 548-549
- in 1928 he responded with rhymes to the death of Juan Vázquez de Mella, see La Lectura Dominical 11.02.28, La Lectura Dominical 06.02.29
- Mundo Grafico 13.10.15
- Manuel Fernández Espinosa, La poesía en Jaén. D. Francisco de Paula Ureña Navas y el grupo literario "El Madroño", [in:] Giennium: revista de estudios e investigación de la Diócesis de Jaén 11 (2008), pp. 169-210
- Carpio Moraga, author of numerous dramas, literary chronicles and patriotic poems, also contributed as a literary critic to the Carlist daily El Eco de Jaén and was killed by the Republicans soon after the outbreak of the war, see Carpio Moraga (Luis), [in:] Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada Europeo-Americana (Espasa), 1936-1939 supplement, vol. 1, 1944, pp. 380-381
- Leandro Alvarez Rey, La derecha en la II República: Sevilla, 1931-1936, Sevilla 1993, ISBN 9788447201525, p. 316
- Hinojosa remains a forgotten figure. For the Republicans and their followers he was a reactionary señorito, for the Nationalists he was the author of extravagant iconoclastic poems. For attempts to recover his memory see Joselu, José María Hinojosa, el poeta olvidado, [in:] Profesor en la secundaria blog, available here, or Francisco Torres, José María Hinojosa, el otro poeta asesinado por los otros, [in:] La Nación, re-published by Fundación Nacional Francisco Franco service, available here
- there were many Carlist authors executed by the Republicans during the Civil War, the key names being these of Víctor Pradera, Juan Olázabal and Emilio Ruiz Muñoz (Fabio). However, all of them were periodistas or political theorists who did not contribute to belles-lettres
- discussed in detail in Javier Cubero de Vicente, Del Romanticismu al Rexonalismu: escritores carlistes na lliteratura asturiana, Ovieu 2014, ISBN 9788480535854
- Piotr Sawicki, La narrativa española de la Guerra Civil (1936-1975). Propaganda, testimonio y memoria creativa, Alicante 2010, p. 20. Scarce literary production in the Republican zone might seem surprising, given left-wing preferences of most men of letters and given the fact that urban population, key social basis of potential readers, found themselves mostly in the Republican zone. None of the works consulted analysed the phenomenon. It well might be that increasingly chaotic economy, including the printing industry, rendered literary production difficult. Moreover, mounting hardships of daily life, including shortages of food and basic supplies, have probably relegated books to marginal position
- with the personality of "viejo Tudela"
- a girl from accommodated family falls in love with a simple worker; she has to overcome resistance of her conservative, Carlist family to marry him, Amaia Serrano Mariezkurrena, Narrativa vasca sobre la Guerra Civil: historias para al recuerdo. La literatura vasca abriendose al realismo, [in:] Agnieszka August-Zarębska, Trinidad Marín Villora (eds.), Guerra. exilio, diaspora. Approximaciones literarias e históricas, Wrocław 2014, ISBN 9788322934258, pp. 31-32
- Derek Gagen, David George, La Guerra Civil Española: arte y violencia, Murcia 1990, ISBN 978847684954, p. 19
- Didier Corderot, La biblioteca Rocío (1937-1939) o las virtudes de la novela rosa durante la Guerra Civil Española, [in:] Tropelias. Revista de la Literatura y Literatura Comparada 23 (2015), p. 39
- Sawicki 2010, p. 65
- Sanz Martínez 2015, p. 146
- detailed discussion in José María Martínez Cachero, Liras entre lanzas. Historia de la Literatura «Nacional» en la Guerra Civil, Madrid 2009, ISBN 9788497402675, pp. 288-289
- the novel is fairly simple in terms of plot and personalities; requeté’s love for a communist girl might have developed into a psychodrama but ended up in rather banal way, as the girl was declared unworthy and the two parted, Sawicki 2010, pp. 57-58
- it contains also some veiled anti-Falangist features, Sawicki 2010, p. 135. For a review of the genre - equally hostile as the review penned by Sawicki - see Julio Rodríguez-Puértolas, Historia de la literatura fascista española, vol. 2, Madrid 2008, ISBN 9788446029304, especially chapter V, Literatura fascista espanola, 1939-1975. La narrativa
- Sawicki 2010, pp. 66-67
- Sawicki 2010, p. 69
- some scholars single this novel out as one of most typical cases of literature servile to the Francoist regime, Iker González-Allende, La novela rosa de ambientación vasca e ideología franquista durante la Guerra Civil española, [in:] Revista Internacional de Estudios Vascos 50/1 (2005), pp. 79-103
- Corderot 2015, p. 38
- Sawicki 2010, p. 65
- animated mostly by Catalan refugee artists settled in Donostia, it stuck to high graphical standards until it was amalgamated into the Francoist propaganda machine and turned into Flechas y pelayos.
- L'Espoir does not mention either Carlism or the Carlists and in general refers to the rebels as "Fascists". However, at one point its Republican protagonists mention „monarchist farmers with berets on their heads and cloaks on their shoulders”, who arrived at Burgos to drink with aristocratic ladies in big hotels, „ready to die for them while they were not ready to die for the farmers”
- for review of British literature see Gabriel Insausti (ed.), La trinchera nostálgica: escritores británicos en la guerra civil española, Sevilla 2010, ISBN 978496956797, especially the chapter of Francisco Javier Caspistegui Gorasurreta, El peso del pasado en los relatos británicos sobre la guerra civil espanóla, pp. 401-459. The Carlist theme was rather present in travel literature or correspondence, presented according to political preference of the author. For a Communist propagandist Arthur Koestler Carlist-controlled Navarre was like "the shadows of the Middle Ages appeared to have come alive", for a Polish Nationalist Jędrzej Giertych Navarre was (quoting Joan Pujol) "religiosa sin fariseísmo, alegre sin corrupción, laboriosa y valiente sin jactancia"
- though he shots a wounded Republican soldier and orders his men to chop off heads of fallen enemies Berrendo also demonstrates empathy and laments the horrors of war. At one point he also represents prudence against exaltation of his fellow officer, a non-Carlist, a rather unique representation of a Carlist in literature. See e.g. David Caute, Politics and the Novel During the Cold War, London 2017, ISBN 9781351498364, p. 41, Ichiro Takayoshi, American Writers and the Approach of World War II, 1930–1941, Cambridge 2015, ISBN 9781107085268, p. 88. Some go as far as claiming that Berrendo, represents "one more Civil War equation of hunter and hunted in the novel's overall pattern", A. Robert Lee, Gothic to Multicultural: Idioms of Imagining in American Literary Fiction, New York 2009, ISBN 9789042024991, p. 295. Another opinion in Martin Blinkhorn, Carlism and Crisis in Spain, Cambridge 1975 [re-printed with no re-edition in 2008], ISBN 9780521086349, p. 356; for Blinkhorn "requete appears as the incarnation of Nationalist fanaticism" in the Hemingway's novel
- the author penned also short stories set in the wartime Carlist milieu, titled Lasarte maison morte
- the key protagonist Juan Vicente is a requeté, but his friend Gil Harispe is an anarchist; the two sort of depend on one another during a complex plot, featuring getting Vicente’s father out of the Republican prison
- Gagen, George 1990, pp. 161-162
- Martin Hurcombe, France and the Spanish Civil War: Cultural Representations of the War Next Door, Farnham 2013, ISBN 9781409478805, p. 55
- compare e.g. Antonio Martín Puerta, El franquismo y los intelectuales: La cultura en el nacionalcatolicismo, Madrid 2014, ISBN 9788490552520
- Julio Rodríguez-Puértolas, Historia de la literatura fascista española, vol. 2, Madrid 2008, ISBN 9788446029304
- the key Carlist protagonist, Javier Ichaso, appears to be a rather unsophisticated if not raw young man; incapable of genuine religious reflection, he approaches faith as "family heritage". Other requetes - though some of them heroic - are "monstruosa mezcla de fe y de ignorancia". The Carlists were particularly irritated by a scene of requetes executing a Basque priest, compare La "pella" de Gironella, [in:] Montejurra 5 (1961)
- María del Carmen Alfonso García, Llamas y rescoldos nacionales: Con la vida hicieron fuego, novela de Jesús Evaristo Casariego (1953) y película de Ana Mariscal (1957), [in:] Arbor 187 (2012), pp. 1088-1093.
- Sanz Martínez 2015, p. 146
- Sawicki 2010, p. 127
- Sawicki 2010, pp. 140-141
- Sawicki 2010, p. 240
- López Sanz excelled as a periodista and historian, though he also tried "algunas incursiones en el campo literario", Sawicki 2010, p. 198
- Sawicki 2010, p. 198
- Marí Jose Olaziregi Allustiza, La recuperación de la memoria histórica en la novela contemporánea vasca, [in:] Euskera 54/2-2 (2009), p. 1035
- Serrano Mariezkurrena 2014, p. 32
- see e.g. the character of José Borjes, Piero Nicola, Carlo Alianello, scrittore cattolico, esploratore delle contraddizioni dell’uomo (seconda e ultima parte), [in:] Riscossia Cristiana service 04.01.14, available here;
- Iker González-Allende, La novela rosa de ambientación vasca e ideología franquista durante la Guerra Civil española, [in:] Revista Internacional de Estudios Vascos 50/1 (2005), p. 80
- there are a few works de-constructing Carlist mythologisation threads in the culture of Francoism. This anthropologic approach is championed by Francisco Javier Caspistegui, see his Spain’s Vendee: Carlist identity in Navarre as a mobilising model, [in:] Chris Ealham, Michael Richards (eds.), The Splinering of Spain, Cambridge 2005, ISBN 9780521821780, pp. 177-195, Del „Dios, Patria, Rey” al „Socialismo, Federalismo, Autogestión”: dos momentos del carlismo a través de Montejurra (1963 y 1974), [in:] III Congreso General de Historia de Navarra, Pamplona 1997, pp. 309-329, (with Gemma Pierola Narvarte) Entre la ideología y lo cotidiano: la familia en el carlismo y el tradicionalismo (1940-1975), [in:] Vasconia: cuadernos de historia-geografía 28 (1999), pp. 45-56, Los matices de la modernización durante el franquismo, [in:] Abdón Mateos López, Angel Herrerín López (eds.), La España del presente: de la dictadura a la democracia, Madrid 2006, ISBN 8461108795, pp. 251-270, La construcción de un proyecto cultural tradicionalista-carlista en los inicios del franquismo, [in:] Alvaro Ferrary Ojeda, Antonio Cañellas (eds.), El régimen de Franco: unas perspectivas de análisis, Madrid 2012, ISBN 9788431328535, pp. 93-148, Montejurra, la construcción de un símbolo, [in:] Historia contemporánea 47 (2013), pp. 527-557 and other
- Ópalos de fuego (1940), Santina (1940), Las nietas del Cid (1941), El castillo de Fierro-Negro (1943), Isabel Reyes (1945), Las que saben amar (1945), Nómadas del destino (1945), Dogal de oro (1947), Tristeza de amor (1948), Rosas de fuego (1949), La razón de vivir (1950) and Tierra en los ojos (1950)
- some of them non-fiction prose: La Paloma que venció a la Serpiente (1943), Inés Tenorio (1947), Sendero de luz (1947), Almas distantes (1949), Alma en otoño (1949), Andanzas de un cura (1949), A la hora de la Salve (1950), Descubrimiento y anecdotario de la trapa (1951), Como hermanos (1951), Héroes de romance (cosas de requetés) (1952), 25 hombres en fila (1952), Media hora trágica (1953)
- apart from being a college teacher she was also the moving spirit of Radio Stella, Manuel Santa Cruz [Alberto Ruiz de Galarreta], Rafael Gambra. un hombre cabal, [in:] Anales de la Fundación Francisco Elías de Tejada 2004, p. 176
- another adventure story - a typical one - was Ganich de Macaye - gentilhomme basque by Henry Panneel (1946), the unique one written abroad
- Josep Josep Maria Mundet Gifre, El carlisme en l'obra de Josep Pla, [in:] Josep Maria Solé i Sabaté, Literatura, cultura i carlisme, Barcelona 1995, ISBN 9788478097920, p. 315
- first original Catalan edition. The Spanish translation was published earlier, in 1945
- Mundet Gifre 1995, p. 319
- see the poetic volumes Del dietario de un joven loco (1915), Sonetos provincianos (1915), Romance de pobres almas (1916), Pasa el tercio: himno a la Legión (1926)
- in his youth he was considered "una de las figuras más brillantes de la Juventud intelectual jaimista española", El Correo Español 04.11.15 , available here; generally he excelled as a periodista and editor
- a Catholic priest, who released few volumes - Oraciones del barro, Otra cosa, Poemas niños, Cúpula y abanico and others in the early 1970s
- Federico Carlos Sáinz de Robles, Historia y antología de la poesía española (en lengua castellana) del siglo XII al XX, Madrid 1955, p. 1571
- known also as Mártires de la Tradición, Víctor Javier Ibáñez, Una resistencia olvidada: Tradicionalistas mártires del terrorismo, s.l. 2017, p. 157
- see infovaticana service, available here
- references to melancholy are present both in comments from the 1960s, see G. R. Bonastre, Rafael Montesinos, poeta de la nostalgía, [in:] Revista de la Universidad del Litoral 43 (1960), pp. 95-107, and in contemporary blogs, compare entrenandopalabras blog, available here
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, pp. 35-46
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, p. 35
- e.g. La bala que mató al general by Ascensión Badiola (2011), set during the First Carlist War. One of its protagonists becomes a member of the firing squad, and as such he has to execute enemy prisoners; one of them turns out to be his own father. It was perhaps not by case that the son was a Carlist and the father was a Cristino, not the other way round
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, p. 37
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, p. 40. The novel is sort of adventure story set in the First Carlist War, thought it might be also read as a historical or psychological novel, Valentí Puig, La importancia de Carlos Pujol, [in:] Fabula: revista Literaria 32 (2012), p. 63
- Rújula 2005, p. 63
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, pp. 39-40
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, p. 40
- though it already serves as such in the cinema, with numerous horror or fantasy stories set in the Civil War milieu
- featuring personalities like Valle-Inclán and Conrad, it dwells about a mission to turn the Marianas into a Carlist fiefdom
- Amézaga Iribarren, Arantzazu entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entzikopedia, available here
- El capitán carlista entry, [in:] Anikeentrelibros service, available here
- e.g. on its very cover page the book, set in the First Carlist War, features Cruz de Borgoña. In fact, the symbol was accepted by the Carlists as their standard much later
- an Italian. The book tells the story of a French painter Isidore Magues, who travels across the Vascongadas in midst of the First Carlist War
- Josep Miralles Climent, Heterodoxos de la causa, Madrid 2001, ISBN 8483742438; the novel is set in a fictitious village of Libero, apparently contains some autobiographical threads and features historical personalities, from Valle-Inclan to Sixto Enrique de Borbon
- focused on Jeroni Galcerán, a Carlist militant from the Third Carlist War; he is presented as a personality in pursuit of his own fame
- the book was awarded 60,000 euros of 2016 Premio Lull
- Carles Barba, El último carlista, [in:] La Vanguardia 24.03.16, available here
- "there are some moments that seem to be so pro-El Groc that one has to wonder if Amela is going to go on the streets with the Carlist flag tied to a bayonet", an opinion of an anonymous reader posted at GoodReads service, available here
- see brief summary at Amazon service, available here
- see brief summary at GoogleBooks service, available here
- see AscensionBadiols service, available here
- unlike during previous literary eras, especially Modernism, when the claimants attracted some attention. Usually the most venomous ridicule was reserved for them, especially for Carlos V and for Carlos VII. The former is „el monstruo” which sheeds blood to fulfill his ambitions. The latter is a grotesque person from a zarzuela, a clown, a hypocrite, or simply a fool, both being despotic power-hungry fanatics. Even their physis seems repulsive; though photographs from the Third Carlist War show Don Carlos as a fairly handsome, tall, bearded man, Unamuno presents him as an overweight hombrachón, which he indeed became in the late 19th century. Also other historical personalities were usually presented in the worst possible way. In Modernist and Realist literature Ramón Cabrera is not a tiger but a fat cat, Cura Santa Cruz is a small man who disguises his fragility with demonstrations of cruelty, general Lizzarága is an incompent devot, general Ellí�� is a doctrinaire who leads own troops into ambush, Rosa Samaniego is a psychopatic sadist and Alfonso Carlos is a shaky señorito. .
- most of his writing were published by Pamiela, a militantly left-wing Navarrese publishing house
- Antonio Muro Jurío, Pablo Antoñana y la historia: Noticias de la Segunda Guerra Carlista, [in:] Huarte de San Juan 16 (2010), p. 251
- see review at Lecturalia service, available here
- Ezpeleta Aguilar 2013, p. 41
- calculations of José Manuel Pérez Carrera, referred after Manuel Morales, 70 novelas al año en España sobre la Guerra Civil, [in:] El Pais 19.10.18, available here
- this is the case e.g. of the celebrated El corazón helado by Almudena Grandes (2007), though the author herself is known for personal antipathy towards the Carlists, dubbed "fascistas"”, see interview with Almudena Grandes, El País 13.2.16
- the novel is set in Madrid during early 1939 and has nothing to do with Carlism, yet the Carlists are a few times evoked
- "moros y requetés" are twice listed among victorious Nationalist troops entering Mágina, a fictitious town identified by scholars as Úbeda; in fact, no Carlist unit entered the city in March 1939, Julio Aróstegui, Combatientes Requetés en la Guerra Civil española, 1936-1939, Madrid 2013, ISBN 9788499709758, p. 939
- Urraca Pastor is also mocked in Inquietud en el Paraíso, a novel by Óscar Esquivias (2005)
- Carlism is mentioned just once in Raquel Macciuci y María Teresa Pochat (eds.), Entre la memoria propia y la ajena. Tendencias y debates en la narrativa española actual, La Plata 2010. It is entirely missing in Mar Langa Pizarro, La novela histórica española en la transicióñ y en la democracia, [in:] Anales de Literatura Española 17 (2004), pp. 107-120
- Pedro Pablo Serrano López, Sorna, lamento y laberinto en Herrumbrosas lanzas de Juan Benet [PhD thesis Universidad Autónoma de Madrid]. Madrid 2010, p. 138
- Premio de la Crítica and Premio Azkue
- Javier Ichaso, the mutilated requete combatant from Un millón de muertos, started to write a novel on the Civil War; it was guided by the principle that only love ensures progress. He also concluded that the Civil War "no fue una guerra de «buenos» y «malos», sino de malos en ambas partes". According to some scholars, Javier became alter ego of Gironella himself, Sara Polverini, Letteratura e memoria bellica nella Spagna del XX secolo: José María Gironella e Juan Benet, Firenze 2013, ISBN 9788866554844, p. 21
- padre Eulogio de Pesebre features in a number of his other writings and is perhaps (at the moment) the last in a huge gallery of Carlist literary monsters. Just to name fictitious personalities (among the historical ones Cabrera and Cura Santa Cruz are the first to be named) from the great literature it features a cowardly señorito Carlos Ohando, shaky, unstable and treacherous El Cocho, manipulative José María, fanatic priest don Pascual, mentally immature abogadito Celestino, murderous exalted conspirator Fray Patricio, bestial and primitive l’Ibo, jealous dandy Captain Blunt, barbaric and sick of ambition Caballuco, deceitful and greedy Sanjuanena family, glutton and guzzler Praschcu, cynical player José Fago, hypocritic Carlos Navarro, cowardly Salvador Monsalud, cold-blooded murderer who executes Liberal POWs teniente Nelet, a psychopatic sidekick of Samaniego Jergón, a drunkard priest obsessed with vengeance Padre Contento, vain priest-manipulator Tirso Resmilla, fanatic millionaire Francisco Carraspique, exalted ultramontane doña Petronilla and sentimental, pretentious and bewildered María Elorza
- Mercedes Acillona López, Ramiro Pinilla: el mundo entero se llama Arrigunaga, Bilbao 2015, ISBN 9788415759737, p. 104
- Alberto Irigoyen narra las experiencias de un emigrante navarro en "El requeté que gritó Gora Euskadi", [in:] Euskalkutura 06.06.06, available here. The protagonist, Ignacio, is a Navarrese Basque village boy rather indifferent to Carlism; he is persuaded by his cousin to join Carlist troops on assumption that requeté would not be sent on dangerous and distant combat missions, and that volunteering is a way to gain prestige and respect at a relatively low cost
- "La caracterización de los personajes de esta obra es, con frecuencia, maniquea y estereotipada. A quienes vivieron en tiempos de la Guerra Civil el autor los separa en grupos contrapuestos: vencedores y vencidos", Amaia Serrano Mariezkurrena, La memoria histórica inspiradora de la ficción en Antzararen Bidea (El camino de la oca) de Jokin Muñoz, [working paper delivered at a Conference Siglos XX y XXI. Memoria del I Congreso Internacional de Literatura y Cultura Españolas Contemporaneas, La Plata 2008], no pagination
- Serrano Mariezkurrena 2014, p. 34, see also Amaia Serrano Mariezkurrena, Por los senderos de la memoria: El camino de la oca, de Jokin Muñoz, [in:] Cuadernos de Alzate 45 (2011), pp. 109-132
- "acto de asociación consciente, basadas menos en la genética que en la solidaridad, la compasión y la identificación", Sebastian Faber, La literatura como acto afiliativo. La nueva novela de la Guerra Civil (2000-2007), [in:] Palmar Alvarez-Blanco, Toni Corda (eds.), Contornos de la narrativa española actual (2000-2010). Un dialogo entre creadores y criticos, Madrid 2011, ISBN 9788484895510, p. 103
- Javier, a terrateniente señorito from a Carlist family, following execution of his father enlists to the Requeté Montserrat tercio to give himself in to hatred and revenge. He is heavily wounded during the battle of Brunete, where he falls in love with a highly aristocratic nurse, married and 10 years his senior. The ensuing scandalous love affair ends when she dies; Javier is left embittered and disillusioned
- the novel is based on a true story of Ignacio Larramendi. Its protagonist is a teenage boy who travels across the war mayhem trying to find his older requeté brother. The author is a former ETA member.
- e.g. during a session organized by Fundación Ignacio Larramendi, compare here
- especially from the Basque nationalists, see Pascual Tamburri, Falsificar el carlismo para combatir lo mejor de sus ideales, [in:] La Tribuna del País Vasco 03.03.17, available here
- in the Catalan town of Manresa there is a theatrical grouping named Els Carlins; its origins are indeed related to Carlism and a so-called Teatre dels Carlins, in the early 20th century animated by Joventud Carlista Manresana, but currently it has nothing to do with the movement, compare Els Carlins service, available here
- the Carlist theme was not unusual in many other Larrainzar's works; for brief overview see Angel-Raimundo Fernández González, Historia literaria de Navarra el siglo XX. Poesía y teatro, Pamplona 1989, pp. 563-538
- En Pos. Ensayo poético, Ainhoa Arozamena Ayala, Cristina Aznar Munárri, Jaime del Burgo Torres entry, [in:] Auñamendi Eusko Entziklopedia claim it was published 1927, which is probably a typo and should read 1937, see Jaime del Burgo, Catalogo bio-bibliografico, Pamplona 1954, p. 275
- the sub-title is a commentary to del Burgo losing his eyesight in the last years of his life. Del Burgo fathered also an adventure story La Cruz del fuego (2000), a well-documented intrigue from the times of Henry I of Navarre
- see the account of Francisco Inza Goñi published in Navarra 1936 - de la Esperanza al terror, Tafalla 2003, ISBN 9788493095796, p. 483, widely quoted also in cyberspace
- In memoriam Efraín Canella Gutiérrez (1930-2015), [in:] Comunión Tradicionalista service, available here
- Poesía Carlista, [in:] Noticias y actualidades de Ferrer-Dalmau service, available here
- Fernández González 1989, p. 109
- titled Horas vividas (1997), A fuerza de corazón, a fuerza de razón (2002) and Poemario de la luz (2006).
- Jorge del Arco, Versos de ocasión, [in:] AndaluciaInformación service, available here
- the volume is subtitled Versos hechos en honor de los reyes proscritos y sus paladines
- his only volume published so far is Sonetos variopintos (2001); these and other of his writings are available online here
- Jacek Bartyzel, Poeta karlizmu nie żyje, [in:] Myśl Konserwatywna service 02.03.16, available here
- see e.g. Bruno Isla Heredia, Libro de la semana: “Profeta el cielo”, de José Pancorvo, [in:] Casa de la Literatura Peruana service, available here
- Lima: in memoriam José Antonio Pancorvo Beingolea, [in:] Comunión Tradicionalista service 29.02.16, available here
- Rafael Botella García-Lastra, Juan Manuel Rozas Valdés, El carlismo en la novela, [in:] Miguel Ayuso (ed.), A los 175 años del carlismo, Madrid 2011, ISBN 9788493678777, pp. 401–434
- Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Las Guerras Carlistas en la literatura, [in:] Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Las Guerras Carlistas. Catálogo de la espoxisición celebrada del 6 de mayo al 13 de junio de 2004 en el Museo de la Ciudad de Madrid, Madrid 2004, pp. 124–143
- Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, La Primera Guerra Carlista en la Poesía, [in:] Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, Las Guerras Carlistas, Madrid 1993, ISBN 9788487863158, pp. 291–419
- Ermanno Caldera, Liberalismo y anticarlismo en la dramaturgia romántica, [in:] Crítica Hispanica 16/1 (1994), pp. 103–117
- Biruté Ciplijauskaité, Configuraciones literarias del Carlismo, [in:] Stanley G. Payne (ed.), Identidad y nacionalismo en la España contemporánea, el Carlismo, 1833-1975, Madison/Madrid 1996, ISBN 8487863469, pp. 55–65
- Biruté Ciplijauskaité, The "Noventayochistas" and the carlist wars, [in:] Hispanic review 3 (1976), pp. 265–279
- Javier Cubero de Vicente, Del Romanticismu al Rexonalismu: escritores carlistes na lliteratura asturiana, Ovieu 2014, ISBN 9788480535854
- Armando J. Escobedo, Proyección literaria del Carlismo religioso en la novelistica espanõla [PhD thesis University of Florida], Tampa 1983
- Fermín Ezpeleta Aguilar, Las guerras carlistas en la literatura juvenil, [in:] Tejuelo 16 (2013), p. 35-46
- Jean-Claude Rabaté et al., Imagenes del carlismo en las artes, Estella 2009, ISBN 9788423532278
- Alberto Ramos Santana, Marieta Cantos Casenave, La sátira anticarlista en el Cádiz romántico, [in:] Ermanno Caldera (ed.), Romanticismo: actas del V Congreso, Roma 1995, ISBN 8871197518, pp. 69–72
- Pedro Rújula, Una guerra literaria, [in:] Jordi Canal (ed.), Rompecabezas carlistas, insert to La Aventura de la Historia 77 (2005), pp. 59–63
- Josep Maria Solé i Sabaté, Literatura, cultura i carlisme, Barcelona 1995, ISBN 9788478097920
- Julio Rodríguez-Puértolas, Historia de la literatura fascista española, vol. 2, Madrid 2008, ISBN 9788446029304