|Special Advisor to the President on Regulatory Reform|
January 20, 2017 – August 18, 2017
Carl Celian Icahn
February 16, 1936
New York City, New York, U.S.
Liba Trejbal (m. 1979–1999)
Gail Golden (m. 1999)
|Children||2 (including Brett Icahn)|
|Alma mater||Princeton University|
New York University
|Known for||Founding and Managing Icahn Enterprises|
Leadership of Federal-Mogul
1980s "corporate raiding"
Advising U.S. President Donald Trump on financial regulation
|Net worth||US$14.7 billion (February 2020)|
Carl Celian Icahn (//; born February 16, 1936) is an American businessman and philanthropist. He is the founder and controlling shareholder of Icahn Enterprises, a diversified conglomerate holding company based in New York City, formerly known as American Real Estate Partners. He is also Chairman of Federal-Mogul, an American developer, manufacturer and supplier of powertrain components and vehicle safety products.
In the 1980s, Icahn developed a reputation as a "corporate raider" after profiting from the hostile takeover and asset stripping of the American airline TWA. According to Forbes magazine, Icahn had a net worth of $16.7 billion in 2020, making him the 26th-wealthiest person on the Forbes 400, and the 5th-wealthiest hedge fund manager.
Early life and education
Icahn was raised in a Jewish family in the Far Rockaway, Queens neighborhood of New York City, where he attended Far Rockaway High School. His father, Michael Icahn, an atheist, was a cantor, and later a substitute teacher. His mother, Bella (née Schnall) also worked as a schoolteacher. Icahn graduated from Princeton University with an A.B. in philosophy in 1957 after completing a senior thesis titled "The Problem of Formulating an Adequate Explication of the Empiricist Criterion of Meaning." He then entered New York University School of Medicine, but he dropped out after two years to join the army reserves.
Early career 1961–2005
Icahn began his career on Wall Street as a stockbroker in 1961. In 1968, with $150,000 of his own money and a $400,000 investment from his uncle, M. Elliot Schnall, which allowed him to buy a seat on the New York Stock Exchange, he formed Icahn & Co., a securities firm that focused on risk arbitrage and options trading. In 1978, he began taking controlling positions in individual companies. Icahn developed a reputation as a "corporate raider" after his hostile takeover of Trans World Airlines in 1985. Icahn systematically sold TWA's assets to repay the money he borrowed to purchase the company, which was described as "asset stripping." In 1988, Icahn took TWA private, gaining a personal profit of $469 million, and leaving TWA with a debt of $540 million. In 1991, he sold TWA's London routes to American Airlines for $445 million. He formed lowestfares.com to sell TWA tickets and acquired portions of Global Leisure Travel from Ramy El-Batrawi to merge into it.
In July 2001, Icahn's Riverdale, LLC lent Genesisintermedia $100 million in exchange for an option to purchase 2 million shares of the company.
In 2004, after Mylan Laboratories had announced a deal to acquire King Pharmaceuticals, Icahn purchased a large block of stock and threatened a proxy fight over the acquisition. Mylan later gave up its efforts to acquire King.
Takeover offers and pharmaceutical holdings: 2005–2010
In 2005, XO Holding announced its intention to sell the wired part of its business for $700 million to its majority shareholder and chairman Icahn; the money would be used to pay back its debts and to buy back its preferred stock for about $600 million from Icahn. Icahn would have then owned the wired business outright, and still own his 60% stake in XO. In spite of Icahn's majority ownership and the board of directors declaring the deal to be in the best interest of shareholders, R2 and other minority shareholders defeated the attempt through the Delaware Court in 2008, which awarded penalties for damages to the business caused by Icahn's self-dealing and/or conflict of interest.
In January 2007, he purchased a 9.2% stake in Telik, a biotech company engaged in cancer research. He also made an investment of 6.1 million shares of WCI Communities (acquired by Lennar Corporation). He also owned about 33.5 million shares of Motorola, but in May was refused a seat on its board of directors. On February 9, 2007, Lear Corporation's board of directors accepted a $2.3 billion takeover offer from Icahn. That month he also invested $50 million in Motricity, a North Carolina-based provider of mobile content delivery technology. In 2007, Icahn and his affiliates also owned majority positions in ACF Industries, American Railcar Industries, Philip Services, and NYSE-listed Icahn Enterprises. By September he also owned 8.5% of the business software company BEA Systems. He increased his holdings to 13% in October, two months before Oracle Corporation announced it was purchasing BEA Systems. Beginning in 2007, Icahn gradually increased his stake in biotechnology company Biogen.
Icahn sold his casino interests in Nevada in February 2008, including the Stratosphere, Arizona Charlie's Boulder, Arizona Charlie's Decatur, and Aquarius Casino Resort which were operated through American Entertainment Properties, a subsidiary of Icahn Enterprises. The sale price of $1.3 billion was roughly $1 billion more than he paid for the properties. In March 2008, Icahn sued Motorola as part of his effort to gain four seats on Motorola's board and force a sale of its mobile business. In May 2008, Icahn purchased a large block of shares in Yahoo, and shortly thereafter threatened to start a proxy fight to remove Yahoo's board of directors in response to their rejection of Microsoft's takeover bid. Instead, he forced an agreement to expand Yahoo's board to eleven members, including Icahn and two others of his choice. In June 2008, Icahn launched The Icahn Report, which hosts United Shareholders of America where individual investors can sign up and campaign for shareholder rights. In September/October 2008 Icahn was involved in the rejected attempted purchase of Imclone by Bristol-Myers Squibb and in the eventual sale of Imclone to Eli Lilly and Company in an all-cash deal valued at $6.5 billion. In December that year he filed suit against Realogy over a proposed debt swap.
In April 2009, Icahn engaged in a proxy battle for Amylin. In September, he offered to buy the shares of XO he did not already own for 55 cents each. He later raised his offer to 80 cents, which ultimately expired. In October, he resigned from the board of directors at Yahoo!, and by the following February had reduced his equity stake from a one-time high of 75 million shares to 12 million shares.
Icahn was a director of Blockbuster until January 2010 and the chairman of Imclone, Icahn Enterprises, XO Communications, WestPoint Home, Cadus, and American Railcar Industries. He is a beneficial owner of Adventrx Pharmaceuticals, and Vector Group. Icahn also tried to take over Marvel Comics. Icahn, through a subsidiary of his Icahn Enterprises LP, acquired the Fontainebleau property in Las Vegas for about $150 million in February 2010. In March he was one of a group of lenders who purchased Tropicana Casino & Resort Atlantic City, bringing the company out of bankruptcy for $200 million. Also in March he conducted a failed takeover bid for Lionsgate Films. In May he announced ownership of about 12% of Hain Celestial Group, Inc., and the purchase of an 8.54% stake in Lawson Software.
Proxy battles and technology positions: 2010–2015
In May 2010, Icahn held a 6.9% stake in Mentor Graphics, increasing to 14 percent in July. Mentor's retaliation with a poison-pill provision failed to deter Icahn who, in February of the next year, made an offer to buy the company for about $1.86 billion in cash.
In January 2011, Icahn once more made a bid to purchase the remaining shares of the XO Holder common stock. By February he had accumulated a 9.08% stake in The Clorox Company (CLX). On March 15, 2011, Mentor's board issued a strong warning to its shareholders against a proxy action by Icahn.
In February 2013, Forbes listed Icahn as one of the 40 highest-earning hedge fund managers. By April he had accumulated a 9.2% stake in Nuance Communications, Inc. On August 2, 2013, Icahn sued computer giant Dell and its board in an attempt to derail a $24.4 billion buyout bid by the CEO, Michael Dell, in favor of his own rumored forthcoming bid. In October 2013, Icahn held 4.7 million shares of Apple, having been an outspoken proponent. The same month, Icahn acquired around 61 million shares in Talisman Energy prompting shares in the ailing Canadian oil producer to surge. Also that month he sold about 50% of his shares in Netflix for a profit in excess of $800 million in less than one year. In November he acquired a 12.5% interest in Hologic, a medical device and diagnostics manufacturer.
In January, 2014, Icahn paid another half billion dollars for Apple Inc. shares he considered "very cheap." Also in January, Icahn proposed to eBay to spin off PayPal, an e-commerce business. This started a proxy fight which was settled by April. In October 2014, Icahn took a stake in Canadian energy company Talisman Energy. The company's stock price went down by 71% and he sold his shares two months later.
Lyft, PayPal, and other pursuits: 2015–present
On May 15, 2015, Icahn made a $100 million investment in the ride-sharing service Lyft. In November 2015, Icahn hired CBRE Group Inc. to market the unfinished resort Fontainebleau Las Vegas to potential buyers. That month he swapped his stake in eBay for the same number of PayPal Holdings shares. At that time Icahn held a 7.13% stake in Xerox, making him the second-largest investor after The Vanguard Group. In December 2015 Icahn made a qualifying offer to purchase the auto-parts and maintenance chain Pep Boys for $15.50 a share. He also raised his stake in the Houston-based energy company Cheniere Energy to 13.8%, making him its largest shareholder. Icahn sold the unfinished Las Vegas casino, Fountainebleau, for $600 million in August 2017.
In January 2016, Icahn held a 4.66% stake in Gannett Co. Inc., and also held shares in Cheniere Energy and Freeport-McMoRan, both of which declined in value. Icahn sold his Apple shares in April 2016, citing concerns about Apple's relationship with China. In August of that year he purchased 10 percent ownership of Herbalife; his holdings in the company were about 19 million shares by October. Also in October, Icahn closed the Trump Taj Mahal Casino in Atlantic City, citing a $350 million loss over several years as well as failure to reach a deal with striking union workers. Nearly 3,000 workers lost their jobs. That year he also increased his holdings in the car rental company The Hertz Corporation, after the company's stock price had declined significantly.
On May 26, 2020, Icahn, 84, sold his entire 55.3 million shares of Hertz Global for 72 cents a share, according to a regulatory filing. His holding represented about 39 percent of the company’s stock. Hertz Global Holdings Inc., the rental-car company, had filed for bankruptcy the previous week. This roughly six-year bet lost Icahn almost $1.6 billion. 
Public policy and economic views
Icahn endorsed Donald Trump for the 2016 U.S. presidential election. He also announced the formation of a super PAC pledging $150 million to push for corporate tax reform, in particular of inversions, which occur when corporations leave the U.S. to take advantage of lower tax rates elsewhere.
On December 21, 2016, it was announced that Icahn would serve as Special Advisor to the President on Regulatory Reform under President Donald Trump. CNBC reported that Icahn would aid Trump in an "individual capacity" rather than as a federal employee, and that he would not have "specific duties" and therefore would not have to relinquish his business interests while serving as an advisor to Trump. Icahn stepped down from this role on August 18, 2017 citing a desire not to interfere with the work of Neomi Rao as Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. In February 2018, Icahn avoided a $6 million loss by selling down his holdings in a steel-price sensitive stock just days before the Trump administration announced a new 25% tariff to be imposed on steel imports.
When the President had Icahn interview Scott Pruitt during consideration of his nomination as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Icahn specifically asked Pruitt about his position on the EPA's Renewable Fuel Standard. Icahn has also spoken directly to President Trump and to Gary Cohn about his proposed changes to the ethanol rule. CVR Energy, in which Icahn has 82% ownership, would save $205.9 million a year if Icahn's proposal is adopted. The Sugar Land, Texas oil refinery benefited when President Trump made an exception to his regulation freeze to expand the tax advantage of master limited partnerships. CVR Energy's stock doubled after President Trump's election, increasing $455 million in value.
In 1979, Icahn married Liba Trejbal, a ballerina from the former Czechoslovakia. They separated in 1993 and divorced in 1999 after years of litigation during which Liba sought to invalidate a prenuptial agreement, claiming duress as she was pregnant when she signed it. Liba originally fought Icahn's offer of roughly $1.5 million a year because he was worth billions at the time and eventually settled for an undisclosed amount. They have two children, Brett Icahn and Michelle Celia Icahn Nevin. His nephew is Rick Schnall.
Icahn Stadium on Randall's Island in New York City is named after him, as is the Carl C. Icahn Center for Science and Icahn Scholar Program at Choate Rosemary Hall, a prep school in Connecticut. This organization pays for tuition, room and board, books, and supplies for 10 students every year for four years (freshman–senior), an endowment valued at about $400,000 per annum.
Icahn made a substantial contribution to his alma mater, Princeton University, to fund a genomics laboratory which bears his name, the Carl C. Icahn Laboratory at the University's Institute for Integrated Genomics. He also made large contributions to Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, of which he is a trustee, which in return not only named a building the Icahn Medical Institute designed by Davis Brody Bond, but also, in 2013, renamed the Mount Sinai School of Medicine as the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. The genomics institute led by Eric Schadt was also renamed and is now the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology.
His foundation, the Children's Rescue Fund, built Icahn House in The Bronx, a 65-unit complex for homeless families consisting of single pregnant women and single women with children, and operates Icahn House East and Icahn House West, both of which are homeless shelters located in New York City.
Awards and honours
Icahn has received a number of awards, including the Starlight Foundation's Founders Award and its 1990 Man of the Year Award. He was also named Guardian Angel 2001 Man of the Year.
In 2004, he was honored by the Center for Educational Innovation – Public Education Association for his work with charter schools.
In 2006, he was honored with the 100 Women in Hedge Funds Effecting Change Award for his outstanding contributions to improving education.
Thoroughbred horse racing
In 1985, Icahn established Foxfield Thoroughbreds, a horse breeding operation. At that year's Newstead Farm Trust sale run by Fasig-Tipton, he paid $4 million for Larida, a 6-year-old mare and a record $7 million for the 4-year-old bay mare Miss Oceana who was in foal to champion sire, Northern Dancer.
In 1992, Foxfield ended its racing operation and became a commercial breeder. Having bred more than 140 stakes horses.
- Wattles, Jackie (August 18, 2017). "Billionaire Carl Icahn steps down as adviser to President Trump". CNN. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- Kiviat, Barbara (February 15, 2007). "10 Questions for Carl Icahn". Time.
- Grant, Elaine X. (October 2005). "TWA – Death Of A Legend". St. Louis Magazine. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008.
- "Carl Icahn". Forbes. Retrieved January 26, 2019.
- "Donald Trump Enlists Carl Icahn as His Special Adviser on Regulations". Fortune. December 21, 2016. Retrieved August 18, 2017.
- "Carl Icahn Issues Statement – Carl Icahn". carlicahn.com. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- "Trump adviser resigned ahead of negative magazine story".
- Patrick Radden Keefe. "Carl Icahn's Failed Raid on Washington; Was President Trump's richest adviser focused on helping the country—or his own bottom line?". Newyorker.com (August 28, 2017). Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- "The world's 50 Richest Jews: 11���20". Jpost. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- Berrin, Danielle (March 19, 2010). "Jewish billionaire Carl Icahn wants to buy all of Lionsgate". JewishJournal. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
- About Me, carlicahn.com. Retrieved October 8, 2009.
- Auletta, Ken (March 12, 2006). "The Raid - How Carl Icahn came up short". The New Yorker.
- "About Me". Archived from the original on February 13, 2014.
- "BUSINESS: Icahn could tower over Stratosphere". Reviewjournal.com. June 27, 1997. Retrieved July 28, 2011. Cite journal requires
- Icahn, Carl Celian (1957). "The Problem of Formulating an Adequate Explication of the Empiricist Criterion of Meaning". Cite journal requires
- "Carl C. Icahn Biography". Bio. October 9, 2014. Archived from the original on November 3, 2015. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "#53 Carl Icahn". Forbes.
- "Carl Icahn: Better Investor Than Buffett?". www.kiplinger.com.
- Sale of portions of Global Leisure to Carl Icahn November 3, 1999
- "Icahn Drops Bid For Usx Investor Group May Deal Directly With Steelmaker's Shareholders". Orlando Sentinel. Chicago. Chicago Tribune. January 9, 1987. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- Carl Icahn's acquisition loan commitment July 2, 2001
- Reuters, From (October 15, 2004). "Icahn Urges Vote Against Mylan Deal". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- "Mylan pulls $4 bln. bid for Bristol's King Pharmaceuticals". Nashville Post. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
- Madway, Gabriel (December 21, 2009). "Icahn stake raises chance of Take-Two buyout". Reuters.
- Bailey, David (February 9, 2007). "Lear accepts sweetened Icahn bid, Pzena not swayed". Reuters.
- "Lear Announces Expiration of Solicitation Period for Alternative Acquisition Proposal" (Press release). Lear Corporation. March 27, 2007.
- "Icahn further raises BEA stake to 13.22 percent", Reuters, 3 October 2007.
- "Oracle to Buy BEA Systems for $8.5 Billion". The Washington Post. PC World. January 17, 2008. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- Wallack, Todd (August 28, 2007). "Biogen Idec appears to be in Icahn's sights". The Boston Globe.
- Kouwe, Zachery (June 3, 2009). "Icahn Places Two Allies on the Biogen Idec Board". The New York Times.
- "Icahn sues Motorola for access to documents". Reuters.com. March 25, 2008.
- Michael Liedtke (May 15, 2008). "Icahn to Yahoo board: Sell or leave". Associated Press.
- "Investor Icahn gets 3 board seats in Yahoo deal". ABC News. July 22, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- "Eli Lilly to buy ImClone for more than $6B". Associated Press. October 30, 2008.
- Prasad, Sakthi (December 3, 2008). "Icahn sues Realogy over debt deal". Reuters. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
- Staton, Tracy (April 20, 2009). "Amylin: Icahn aims for sale to Lilly". FiercePharma.
- Eric Savitz. "Yahoo: Icahn Quits Board, Having Accomplished…Not Much". Barrons.
- "Carl Icahn Selling Yahoo Shares - John Paczkowski - News - AllThingsD". AllThingsD.
- Raviv, Dan (April 2002). "Comic Wars: About the Book". Broadway Books (Random House).
- Lynch, Jack (August 30, 2011). "Icahn Finally Ends His Battle With Lions Gate". The New York Times.(subscription required)
- Hodson, Jennifer (January 22, 2011). "Hain Has Appeal for Icahn". The Wall Street Journal.(subscription required)
- Finkle, Jim (May 24, 2010). "Icahn acquires stake in Lawson Software". Reuters.
- Tibken, Shara (February 23, 2011). "Icahn Makes $1.91 Billion Bid for Mentor Graphics". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- "Icahn makes a $10.2B bid for Clorox: It's more than bleach". USA Today. July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- "UPDATE 3-Icahn takes 9 pct stake in Clorox, shares soar". Reuters. February 11, 2011.
- "Mentor Graphics, Carl Icahn, EDA, Vendor | Mentor urges shareholders to nix Icahn proxy". Eetimes.com. Retrieved July 28, 2011.
- "Netflix shares soar after Icahn reports 10 percent stake". yahoo.com. October 31, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- Boorstin, Julia (October 31, 2012). "Icahn Netflix Play Sends Stock Soaring". CNBC.
- "Icahn says he'll move on if bid to control Oshkosh Corp. fails". www.jsonline.com. Retrieved February 19, 2020.
- Vardi, Nathan (February 26, 2013), "The 40 Highest-Earning Hedge Fund Managers & Traders 2013", Forbes
- Krause, Reinhardt (April 2, 2013). "Carl Icahn Seen Pushing Nuance To Divest, Restructure". Investor's Business Daily.
- Gupta, Poornima; Chan, Edwin (August 1, 2013). "Icahn sues Dell in latest attempt to foil buyout". Reuters.
- "Carl Icahn Discloses 'Large' Stake in Apple in Tweet". Bloomberg.
- Kim, Susanna (August 14, 2013). "Apple (AAPL) Stock Surges After Billionaire Carl Icahn's Tweets". ABC News.
- Reuters (November 15, 2013). "Carl Icahn Owned 3.9 Million Shares Of Apple As Of September 30". Business Insider.
- Driver, Anna (October 8, 2013). "Talisman Energy shares surge as Carl Icahn acquires stake". Reuters.
- "As Apple shares fall, Icahn buys another $500 million". Reuters. January 28, 2014.
- "eBay Inc. and Carl Icahn Settle Proxy Fight" (Press release). EbayInc.com. April 10, 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- Crowe, Portia. "Carl Icahn's commodities bets are backfiring". Business Insider. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- Sai Sachin R and Sarah McBride (May 15, 2015). "Carl Icahn invests $100 million in ride-sharing service Lyft". Reuters. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- Karman, Craig (November 11, 2015). "Carl Icahn Looking to Sell the Fontainebleau Las Vegas". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "Icahn exits eBay stake, opts for PayPal after spinoff". CNBC. November 16, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
- "Carl Icahn picks 7.13% in Xerox, says it's undervalued". Venture Capital Post. November 25, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Kevin Orland (December 7, 2015). "Pep Boys Rises After Icahn Takes Stake With Eye Toward Deals". Bloomberg Business. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Jacob Pramuk (December 7, 2015). "Carl Icahn raises Cheniere stake to 13.8% from 12.7%: DJ". CNBC. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- Sharf, Samantha. "Carl Icahn Unloads Unfinished Las Vegas Casino For $600 Million--More Than Four Times What He Paid". Forbes. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- "Carl Icahn discloses 4.66% stake in Gannett". Market Watch. January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 16, 2016.
- Hern, Alex; agencies (April 28, 2016). "Billionaire investor Carl Icahn sells entire stake in Apple". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- "CARL C ET AL ICAHN Insider Trading Overview". www.insidermole.com. Retrieved October 20, 2016.
- Gara, Antoine (October 10, 2016). "Billionaire Carl Icahn Closes The Trump Taj Mahal Casino After Union Standoff". Forbes.com. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- Jeffery, Adam (October 10, 2016). "Trump Taj Mahal closes after 26 years; 5th casino casualty". cnbc.com. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- "Icahn Doubles Down on Hertz as Missed Earnings Punish Stock". Bloomberg Technology, David Welch and Claire Boston November 9, 2016
- Carmen Reinicke (Aug 29, 2019). 'Big Short' investor Michael Burry is calling passive investment a 'bubble.' He's not the only finance luminary sounding the alarm. Business Insider, accessed 31 August 2019
- Maggie Haberman (October 21, 2015). "Carl Icahn, Supporter of Donald Trump, Plans $150 Million 'Super PAC'". New York Times. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- Ana Swanson (September 29, 2015). "Donald Trump's first Cabinet pick is just as controversial as he is, and a lot richer". Washington Post.
- "Trump's Man Steve Mnuchin; Wall Street, Hollywood and Now Treasury?".
- "Senate Confirms President Trump's Treasury Secretary Pick Steven Mnuchin".
- "The White House". The White House. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
- Pramuk, Jacob (December 21, 2016). "Trump names Icahn as special advisor on regulation, vows to shred Obama rules". CNBC. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- "Carl Icahn Issues Statement". August 18, 2017.
- Rushe, Dominic (March 2, 2018). "Ex-Trump adviser sold $31m in shares days before president announced steel tariffs". The Guardian. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- Eric Lipton (March 27, 2017). "Icahn Raises Ethics Flags With Dual Roles as Investor and Trump Adviser". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
- Auletta, Ken (March 20, 2006). "Annals of Communications: The Raid". The New Yorker
- Slater, Robert (1999). The Titans of Takeover. Washington: Beard Books. p. 83.
- "Icahn: The Once And Future Dealmaker" Archived September 28, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Business Week, 11 June 2000.
- Brede, Scott (May 3, 1999). "A Wall Street Icon's Divorce War". The Connecticut Law Tribune.
- Smith, Gayle Rosenwald (March 15, 1999). "Couples Take Divorce Out Of The Courtroom And Reinvent The Way It's Settled", Philly.com
- McDonald, Lawrence G. (October 12, 2010). A Colossal Failure of Common Sense: The Inside Story of the Collapse of Lehman Brothers. Crown Business. p. 26. ISBN 9780307588340.
- "Princeton - News - Icahn Family Foundation Gives $20 Million for New Genomics Laboratory". pr.princeton.edu. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- Hartocollis, Anemona (November 14, 2012). "$200 Million Gift, and a New Name, for Mt. Sinai Medical School". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- "Icahn pledges $200 mln to Mount Sinai medical complex". Reuters. November 15, 2012. Retrieved June 25, 2020.
- "Carl Icahn Will Give Away Over $20 Billion. But When? And Where Will the Money Go?". Inside Philanthropy. April 6, 2015.
- "Carl Icahn, horse whisperer to Trump on regs, fierce critic of Wall Street's conflicts". Retrieved February 20, 2017.
- "carl icahn Archives - Horse Racing News | Paulick Report". www.paulickreport.com. Retrieved February 20, 2017.
- Stevens, Mark; Stevens, Carol Bloom (1993). King Icahn: the biography of a renegade capitalist. New York, New York: Dutton. ISBN 978-0525936138.
- Bruck, Connie. The Predators' Ball (1988); Chapter 8 ("Icahn-TWA: From Greenmailer to Manager-Owner")