He was born on March 31, 1863 in Bethlehem, New York.
He married in 1883 and had two sons.
He was a member of the New York State Senate (27th D.) from 1919 to 1930, sitting in the 142nd, 143rd, 144th, 145th, 146th, 147th, 148th, 149th, 150th, 151st, 152nd and 153rd New York State Legislatures. He championed a 1926 law mandating life imprisonment for four-time felony offenders, the Baumes law.
At the New York state election, 1930, he ran on the Republican ticket for Lieutenant Governor of New York with Albert Ottinger but they were defeated by Democrats Franklin D. Roosevelt and Herbert H. Lehman. Afterwards he resumed the practice of law.
- "Caleb Baumes, 74, Law Maker, Dies. As Chairman of State Crime Commission He Wrote Bills Revising Criminal Code". The New York Times. September 26, 1937. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
Former State Senator Caleb H. Baumes, father of the 'Baumes laws' enacted in 1926, making a life term mandatory for fourth-time criminal offenders, died of a heart attack today on board a New York Central train near Hudson. He was 74 years old. The former Senator was on his way home from the national convention of Odd Fellows at Milwaukee.
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