This article needs additional citations for verification. (July 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Largest city||Reggio Calabria|
|• President||Jole Santelli (FI)|
|• Total||15,080 km2 (5,820 sq mi)|
|• Density||130/km2 (340/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IT-78|
|GDP (nominal)||€33.7 billion (2017)|
|GDP per capita||€17,200 (2017)|
very high · 20th of 21
Calabria (UK: //, US: /- - -/-,, Italian: [kaˈlaːbrja]; Calabrian: Calàbbria; Calabrian Greek: Calavría; Greek: Καλαβρία; Arbëreshë Albanian: Kalavrì), known in antiquity as Bruttium (US: / -/,), is a region in Southern Italy.
The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro. The Regional Council of Calabria is based at the Palazzo Campanella in the city of Reggio Calabria. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and to the east by the Ionian Sea. The Strait of Messina separates it from the island of Sicily. The region covers 15,080 km2 (5,822 sq mi) and has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria is calabrese in Italian and Calabrian in English.
Starting in the third century BC, the name Calabria was originally given to the Adriatic coast of the Salento peninsula in modern Apulia. In the late first century BC this name came to extend to the entirety of the Salento, when the Roman emperor Augustus divided Italy into regions. The whole region of Apulia received the name Regio II Apulia et Calabria. By this time modern Calabria was still known as Bruttium, after the Bruttians who inhabited the region. Later in the seventh century AD, the Byzantine Empire created the Duchy of Calabria from the Salento and the Ionian part of Bruttium. Even though the Calabrian part of the duchy was conquered by the Longobards during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, the Byzantines continued to use the name Calabria for their remaining territory in Bruttium.
The modern name Italy derives from Italia, which was first used as a name for the southern part of modern Calabria. Over time the Greeks started to use it for the rest of the southern Italian peninsula as well. After the Roman conquest of the region, the name was used for the entire Italian peninsula and eventually the Alpine region too.
The region is generally known as the “toe” of the “boot” of Italy and is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for 248 km (154 mi), with a maximum width of 110 km (68 mi). Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's territory. It is surrounded by the Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas. It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only 3.2 km (2 mi).
Three mountain ranges are present: Pollino, La Sila and Aspromonte. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own flora and fauna. The Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are heavily wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation. These mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety and are included in the Pollino National Park. The Pollino National Park also has the distinction of being the largest national park in Italy and covers about 1,925.65 square kilometres.
La Sila, which has been referred to as the "Great Wood of Italy", is a vast mountainous plateau about 1,200 metres (3,900 feet) above sea level and stretches for nearly 2,000 square kilometres (770 square miles) along the central part of Calabria. The highest point is Botte Donato, which reaches 1,928 metres (6,325 feet). The area boasts numerous lakes and dense coniferous forests. La Sila also has some of the tallest trees in Italy which are called the "Giants of the Sila" and can reach up to 40 metres (130 feet) in height. The Sila National Park is also known to have the purest air in Europe.
The Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres (6,545 feet), and is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea.
In general, most of the lower terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries, and exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus. The lowest slopes are rich in vineyards and citrus fruit orchards. The Diamante citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards, olives and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are often dense forests of oak, pine, beech and fir trees.
Calabria's climate is influenced by the sea and mountains. The Mediterranean climate is typical of the coastal areas with considerable differences in temperature and rainfall between the seasons, with an average low of 8 °C (46 °F) during the winter months and an average high of 30 °C (86 °F) during the summer months. Mountain areas have a typical mountainous climate with frequent snow during winter. Erratic behavior of the Tyrrhenian Sea can bring heavy rainfall on the western slopes of the region, while hot air from Africa makes the east coast of Calabria dry and warm. The mountains that run along the region also influence the climate and temperature of the region. The east coast is much warmer and has wider temperature ranges than the west coast. The geography of the region causes more rain to fall along the west coast than that of the east coast, which occurs mainly during winter and autumn and less during the summer months.
Below are the two extremes of climate present in Calabria, both the warm mediterranean subtype on the coastline and the highland climate of Monte Scuro.
|Climate data for Reggio Calabria (1971–2000 normals)|
|Record high °C (°F)||24.6
|Average high °C (°F)||15.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.8
|Average low °C (°F)||8.2
|Record low °C (°F)||1.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||69.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||9.3||9.1||7.5||6.6||2.8||1.5||1.3||1.9||4.4||7.0||8.7||8.3||68.4|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico (1971–2000 data)|
|Climate data for Monte Scuro (1971–2000 normals); 1671 m asl|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.0
|Average high °C (°F)||3.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−1.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−12.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||86.2
|Average precipitation days||10||10||10||9||6||3||3||4||6||9||9||11||90|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico |
When describing the geology of Calabria, it is commonly considered as part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending from the southern part of the Basilicata Region to the northeast of Sicily, and including the Peloritano Mountains (although some authors extend this domain from Naples in the north to Palermo in the southwest). The Calabrian area shows basement (crystalline and metamorphic rocks) of Paleozoic and younger ages, covered by (mostly Upper) Neogene sediments. Studies have revealed that these rocks comprise the upper Unit of a pile of thrust sheets which dominate the Apennines and the Sicilian Maghrebides.
The Neogene evolution of the Central Mediterranean system is dominated by the migration of the Calabrian Arc to the southeast, overriding the African Plate and its promontories (Argand, 1922; Boccaletti and Guazzone, 1972). The main tectonic elements of the Calabrian Arc are the Southern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt, the "Calabria-Peloritani", or simply Calabrian block and the Sicilian Maghrebides fold-and-thrust belt. The foreland area is formed by the Apulia Platform, which is part of the Adriatic Plate, and the Ragusa or Iblean Platform, which is an extension of the African Plate. These platforms are separated by the Ionian Basin. The Tyrrhenian oceanized basin is regarded as the back-arc basin. This subduction system therefore shows the southern plates of African affinity subducting below the northern plates of European affinity.
The geology of Calabria has been studied for more than a century. For details concerning the older literature, i.e. from before 1973, the reader is referred to the review of Ogniben (1973). Ippolito (1959) presented a complete bibliography of the literature on the Calabrian geology as published up until that moment. Books, reviews and important "mile¬stones" concerning the geology of the Calabrian Arc are the following: Cortese (1895), Limanowski (1913), Quitzow (1935), Caire et al. (1960), Caire (1961), Grandjacquet et al. (1961), Ogniben (1969, 1973 ), Caire (1970, 1975, 1978 ), Burton (1971), Amodio-Morelli et al. (1976), Dubois (1976), Grandjacquet and Mascle (1978), Moussat (1983), van Dijk (1992), and van Dijk et al. (2000). The earlier works were mainly dedicated to the evolution of the basement rocks of the area. The Neogene sedimentary successions were merely regarded as "post-orogenic" infill of "neo-tectonic" tensional features. In the course of time, however, a shift can be observed in the temporal significance of these terms, from post-Eocene to post-Early Miocene to post-middle Pleistocene.
The region is seismically active and is generally ascribed to the re-establishment of an equilibrium after the latest (mid-Pleistocene) deformation phase. Some authors believe that the subduction process is still ongoing, which is a matter of debate (van Dijk & Scheepers, 1995).
Calabria has one of the oldest records of human presence in Italy, which date back to around 700,000 BC when a type of Homo erectus evolved leaving traces around coastal areas. During the Paleolithic period Stone Age humans created the "Bos Primigenius", a figure of a bull on a cliff which dates back around 12,000 years in the Romito Cave in the town of Papasidero. When the Neolithic period came the first villages were founded around 3,500 BC.
Around 1500 BC a tribe called the Oenotri ("vine-cultivators"), settled in the region. According to Greek mythology they were Greeks who were led to the region by their king, Oenotrus. The Greeks used the term 'italoi', which according to some ancient Greek writers was derived from a legendary king of the Oenotri, Italus and according to others from the bull. Originally the Greeks used 'italoi' to indicate Calabrians and later it became synonymous with the rest of the peninsula. Calabria therefore was the first region to be called Italia (Italy).
During the eighth and seventh centuries BC, Greek settlers founded many colonies (settlements) on the coast of southern Italy (Magna Grecia). In Calabria they founded Chone (Pallagorio), Cosentia (Cosenza), Clampetia (Amantea), Scyllaeum (Scilla), Sybaris (Sibari), Hipponion (Vibo Valentia), Locri Epizefiri (Locri), Kaulon (Monasterace), Krimisa (Cirò Marina), Kroton (Crotone), Laüs (comune of Santa Maria del Cedro), Medma (Rosarno), Metauros (Gioia Tauro), Petelia (Strongoli), Rhégion (Reggio Calabria), Scylletium (Borgia), Temesa (Campora San Giovanni), Terina (Nocera Terinese), Pandosia (Acri) and Thurii, (Thurio, comune of Corigliano Calabro).
Rhegion was the birthplace of one of the famed nine lyric poets, Ibycus. Metauros was the birthplace of another of the nine lyric poets, Stesichorus, who was the first lyric poet of the western world. Kroton spawned many victors during the ancient Olympics and other Panhellenic Games. Amongst the most famous were Milo of Croton, who won six wrestling events in six Olympics in a row, along with seven events in the Pythian Games, nine events in the Nemean Games and ten events in the Isthmian Games and also Astylos of Croton, who won six running events in three Olympics in a row. Through Alcmaeon of Croton (a philosopher and medical theorist) and Pythagoras (a mathematician and philosopher), who moved to Kroton in 530 BC, the city became a renowned center of philosophy, science and medicine. The Greeks of Sybaris created "Intellectual Property."  Sybaris benefited from "vinoducts" which were a series of pipes that carried wine to the homes of its citizens. The Sybarite founded at least 20 other colonies, including Poseidonia (Paestum in Latin, on the Tyrrhenian coast of Lucania), Laüs (on the border with Lucania) and Scidrus (on the Lucanian coast in the Gulf of Taranto). Locri was renowned for being the town where Zaleucus created the first Western Greek law, the "Locrian Code"  and the birthplace of ancient epigrammist and poet Nossis.
The Itali were the first established people of Calabria. Later came the Bruttii from Lucania. These occupied Calabria and called it Bruttium. The Bruttii were very advanced culturally. The Greek cities of Calabria came under the pressure from these Lucanians, an Oscan people who lived in the present day region of Basilicata. They conquered the north of Calabria and pushed further south, taking over part of the interior, probably after they defeated the Thurians near Laus in 390 BC. A few decades later Calabria came under pressure from the Bruttii. They were Lucanian slaves and other fugitives who were seeking refuge on the steep mountains of Calabria. Their name was Lucanian and meant rebels. They took advantage of the weakening of the Greek cites caused by wars between them. They took over Hipponium, Terina and Thurii. They helped the Lucanians to fight Alexander of Epirus (334–32 BC), who had come to the aid of Tarentum (in Apulia), which was also pressured by the Lucanians. After this, Agathocles of Syracuse ravaged the coast of Calabria with his fleet, took Hipponium and forced the Bruttii into unfavourable peace terms. However, they soon seized Hipponium again. After Agathloces' death in 289 BC the Lucanians and Bruttii pushed into the territory of Thurii and ravaged it. The city sent envoys to Rome to ask for help in 285 BC and 282 BC. On the second occasion, the Romans sent forces to garrison the city. This was part of the episode which sparked the Pyrrhic war.
During the Pyrrhic War (280–275 BC) the Lucanians and Bruttii sided with Pyrrhus and provided contingents which fought with his army. When Pyrrhus landed in Italy the people of Rhegion were worried about their safety and asked Rome for protection. The Romans sent soldiers from Campania to garrison the city. Coveting the wealth of the city, the soldiers killed its prominent men, sent away the rest and seized their property. The Romans could not do much about it because they were engaged in the war. A few years after the end of the war, in 271 BC, the Romans retook the city, arrested the soldiers and took them to Rome, where they were executed. After Pyrrhus was defeated, to avoid Roman revenge, the Bruttii submitted willingly and gave up half of the Sila, a mountainous plateau which was valuable for its pitch and timber. The timber here was sold all over Italy and the resin of the area was of the highest quality.
During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) the Bruttii allied with Hannibal, who sent Hanno, one of his commanders, to Calabria. Hanno marched towards Capua (in Campania) with Bruttian soldiers to take them to Hannibal's headquarters there twice, but he was defeated on both occasions. When his campaign in Italy came to a dead end, Hannibal took refuge in Calabria, whose steep mountains provided protection against the Roman legions. He set up his headquarters in Kroton and stayed there for four years until he was recalled to Carthage. The Romans fought a battle with him near Kroton, but its details are unknown. Many Calabrian cities surrendered. Calabria was put under a military commander. Nearly a decade after the war, the Romans set up colonies in Calabria: at Tempsa and Kroton (Croto in Latin) in 194 BC, Copiae in the territory of Thurii (Thurium in Latin) in 193 BC, and Vibo Valentia in the territory of Hipponion in 192 BC. The Romans called Calabria Bruttium. Later, during the reign of Augustus it became part of the third region of Italy, the 'Regio III Lucania et Brettium.
After sacking Rome in 410, Alaric I (King of the Visigoths) went to Calabria with the intention of sailing to Africa. He contracted malaria and died in Cosentia (Cosenza), probably of fever. Legend has it that he along with the treasure of Rome were buried under the bed of the River Busento. With the fall of the western part of the Roman Empire in 476, Italy was taken over by the Germanic chieftain Odoacer and later became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in 489. The Ostrogothic kings ruled officially as Magistri Militum of the Byzantine Emperors and all government and administrative positions were held by the Romans while all primary laws were legislated by the Byzantine Emperor. Therefore, during the sixth century, under the Ostrogoths' rule, Romans could still be at the center of government and cultural life, such as the Roman Cassiodorus who, like Boethius and Symmachus, emerged as one of the most prominent men of his time. He was an administrator, politician, scholar and historian who was born in Scylletium (near Catanzaro). He spent most of his career trying to bridge the divides of East and West, Greek and Latin cultures, Romans and Goths, and official Christianity and Arian Christianity, which was the form of Christianity of the Ostrogoths and which had earlier been banned. He set up his Vivarium (monastery) in Scylletium. He oversaw the collation of three editions of the Bible in Latin. Seeing the practicality of uniting all the books of the Bible in one volume, he was the first who produced Latin Bibles in single volumes. The most well-known of them was the Codex Grandior which was the ancestor of all modern western Bibles.
Cassiodorus was at the heart of the administration of the Ostrogothic kingdom. Theodoric made him quaestor sacri palatii (quaestor of the sacred palace, the senior legal authority) in 507, governor of Lucania and Bruttium, consul in 514 and magister officiorum (master of offices, one of the most senior administrative officials) in 523. He was praetorian prefect (chief minister) under the successors of Theodoric: under Athalaric (Theodoric's grandson, reigned 526–34) in 533 and, between 535 and 537, under Theodahad (Theodoric's nephew, reigned 534–36) and Witiges (Theodoric's grandson-in-law, reigned, 536–40). The major works of Cassiodorus, besides the mentioned bibles, were the Historia Gothorum, a history of the Goths, the Variae and account of his administrative career and the Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum, an introduction to the study of the sacred scriptures and the liberal arts which was very influential in the Middle Ages.
Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperor Justinian I, retook Italy from the Ostrogoths between 535 and 556. They soon lost much of Italy to the Lombards between 568 and 590, but retained the south for around 500 years until 1059–1071, where they thrived and where the Greek language was the official and vernacular language. In Calabria and towns such as Stilo and Rossano achieved great religious status. From the 7th Century many monasteries were built in the Amendolea and Stilaro Valleys and Stilo was the destination of hermits and Basilian monks. Many Byzantine churches are still seen in the region. The 10th-century church in Rossano is considered one of the best preserved Byzantine churches in Italy. It was built by St. Nilus the Younger as a retreat for the monks who lived in the tufa grottos underneath. The present name of Calabria comes from the duchy of Calabria.
Around the year 800, Saracens began invading the shores of Calabria, attempting to wrest control of the area from the Byzantines. This group of Arabs had already been successful in Sicily and knew that Calabria was another key spot. The people of Calabria retreated into the mountains for safety. Although the Arabs never really got a stronghold on the whole of Calabria, they did control some villages while enhancing trade relations with the eastern world. In 918, Saracens captured Reggio (which was renamed Rivà) and sold the majority of its population in the slave markets of Sicily and North Africa. It is during this time of Arab invasions that many staples of today's Calabrian cuisine came into fashion: citrus fruits and eggplants for example. Exotic spices such as cloves and nutmeg were also introduced.
In the 1060s the Normans from their duchy in France, under the leadership of Robert Guiscard's brother, Roger I of Sicily, established a presence in this borderland, and organized a government modeled on the Eastern Roman Empire and was run by the local magnates of Calabria. Of note is that the Normans established their presence here, in southern Italy (namely Calabria), 6 years prior to their conquest of England, (see The Battle of Hastings). The purpose of this strategic presence in Calabria was to lay the foundations for the Crusades 30 years later, and for the creation of two Kingdoms: the Kingship of Jerusalem, and the Kingdom of Sicily. Ships would sail from Calabria to the Holy Land. This made Calabria one of the richest regions in Europe as princes from the noble families of England, France and other regions, constructed secondary residences and palaces here, on their way to the Holy Land. Guiscard's son Bohemond, who was born in San Marco Argentano, would be one of the leaders in the first crusade. Of particular note is the Via Francigena, an ancient pilgrim route that goes from Canterbury to Rome and southern Italy, reaching Calabria, Basilicata and Apulia, where the crusaders lived, prayed and trained, respectively.
At the beginning of the tenth century (circa 903), Calabria was occupied by the Muslim Saracens, who founded an emirate and took the Arab name of قطنصار – QaTanSáar. An Arab presence is evidenced by findings at an eighth-century necropolis which had items with Arabic inscriptions.
In 1098, Roger I of Sicily was named the equivalent of an apostolic legate by Pope Urban II and later his son Roger II of Sicily became the first King of Sicily and formed what would become the Kingdom of Sicily which lasted nearly 700 years. Under the Normans Southern Italy was united as one region and started a feudal system of land ownership in which the Normans were made lords of the land while peasants performed all the work on the land.
In 1194 the Swabians took control under Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. He created a kingdom that blended cultures, philosophy and customs and would build several castles while fortifying existing ones which the Normans previously constructed. After the death of Frederick II in 1250, Calabria was controlled by the French once more, the Angevins, under the rule of Charles d’Anjou after being granted the crown by Pope Clement IV. Under Charles d’Anjou the Kingdom of Sicily was changed to the Kingdom of Naples in 1282 after he lost Sicily due to the rebellion of the Sicilian Vespers. During the 14th century, would emerge Barlaam of Seminara who would be Petrarch's Greek teacher and his disciple Leonzio Pilato, who would translate Homer's works for Giovanni Boccaccio.
Early modern period
In 1442 the Aragonese took control under Alfonso V of Aragon who became ruler under the Crown of Aragon. In 1501 Calabria came under the control of Ferdinand II of Aragon who is famed for sponsoring the first voyage of Christopher Columbus in 1492. Calabria suffered greatly under Aragonese rule with heavy taxes, feuding landlords, starvation and sickness. After a brief period in the early 1700s under the Austrian Habsburgs, Calabria came into the control of the Bourbons in 1735. It was during the 16th century that Calabria would contribute to modern world history with the creation of the Gregorian calendar by the Calabrian doctor and astronomer Luigi Lilio.
In 1563 philosopher and natural scientist Bernardino Telesio wrote "On the Nature of Things according to their Own Principles" and pioneered early modern empiricism. He would also influence the works of Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Giordano Bruno, Tommaso Campanella and Thomas Hobbes. In 1602 philosopher and poet Tommaso Campanella wrote his most famous work, "The City of the Sun" and would later defend Galileo Galilei during his first trial with his work "A Defense of Galileo", which was written in 1616 and published in 1622. In 1613 philosopher and economist Antonio Serra wrote "A Short Treatise on the Wealth and Poverty of Nations" and was a pioneer in the Mercantilist tradition.
At the end of the 18th century the French took control and in 1808 Napoleon Bonaparte gave the Kingdom of Naples to his brother-in-law Joachim Murat. Murat controlled the kingdom until the return of the Bourbons in 1815. The population of Calabria in 1844 was 1,074,558.
Calabria experienced a series of peasant revolts as part of the European Revolutions of 1848. This set the stage for the eventual unification with the rest of Italy in 1861, when the Kingdom of Naples was brought into the union by Giuseppe Garibaldi. The unification was orchestrated by Great Britain in an attempt to nationalize the production of sulfur from the two volcanoes located in Naples and Sicily respectively. The Aspromonte was the scene of a famous battle of the unification of Italy. During the late 19th or early 20th century, pianist and composer Alfonso Rendano invented the "Third Pedal", which augmented the interpretative resources of the piano.
The ancient Greek colonies from Naples and to the south, had been completely Latinized, but from the fifth century AD onward Greeks had once again emigrated there when pressed out of their homeland by invasions. This Greek Diaspora allowed the ancient Greek dialects to continue in Southern Italy, much in the same way that the Italian Diaspora allowed long-lost dialects from Italy to thrive in countries where Italians emigrated to. Greek texts were also valued in monasteries and places of learning. However it was Charlemagne in the 8th century, who made Latin the 'official' language of study and communication for Europe. For the sake of uniformity, he supplanted much of the Greek spoken, read or taught in Europe. It was through language (Latin) and education (Latin texts) that Charlemagne united Europe.
During the 13th century a French chronicler who traveled through Calabria stated that "the peasants of Calabria spoke nothing but Greek" given he had traveled to areas where Greek was still available. But the educated classes spoke Italian. Indeed, formal Italian has been taught in schools throughout Italy for nearly two centuries, causing the ancient languages and dialects to continually disappear, much to the chagrin of the cultural community. These lost dialects continue to thrive to this day in North America and Australia, places where Italians emigrated to, on account of the Diaspora.
Calabria enjoys a diversified economy comparable to western nations in various categories, as shown in these statistics: the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Calabria is subdivided as follows: service industry (28.94%), financial activities and real estate (21.09%), trade, tourism, transportation and communication (19.39%), taxation (11.49%), manufacturing (8.77%), construction (6.19%) and agriculture (4.13%). It is one of the least (resort) developed regions in Italy. Its economy is hampered by corruption, tax evasion and organized crime which is mainly run by the 'Ndrangheta (the local Mafia syndicate); the latter has deep connections with some of the local authorities.
Food and textile industries are the most developed and vibrant. Within the industrial sector, manufacturing contributes to a gross value added of 7.2%. In the manufacturing sector the main branches are foodstuff, beverage and tobacco with a contribution to the sector very close to the national average. Over the recent decades some petrochemical, engineering and chemical industries have emerged, within the areas of Crotone, Vibo Valentia and Reggio Calabria.
Calabria attracts year-round tourism, offering both summer and winter activities, in addition to its cultural, historical, artistic heritage, it has an abundance of protected natural habitats and 'green' zones. The 485 miles (781 kilometres) of its coast make Calabria a tourist destination during the summer. The low industrial development and the lack of major cities in much of its territory have allowed the maintenance of indigenous marine life.
The most sought-after seaside destinations are: Tropea, Pizzo Calabro, Capo Vaticano, Reggio Calabria, Soverato, Scilla, Scalea, Sellia Marina, Montepaone, Montauro, Copanello (comune of Staletti), Tonnara di Palmi, Diamante, Paola, Fiumefreddo Bruzio, Amantea, Praia a Mare, Belvedere Marittimo, Roseto Capo Spulico, Corigliano Calabro, Cirò Marina, Amendolara, Roccella Ionica, Bagnara Calabra, Nicotera, Cariati, Zambrone, Isola di Capo Rizzuto, Caminia (comune of Staletti), Siderno, Parghelia, Ricadi and San Nicola Arcella.
In addition to the coastal tourist destinations, the interior of Calabria is rich in history, traditions, art and culture. Cosenza is among the most important cultural cities of Calabria, with a rich historical and artistic patrimony. Medieval castles, towers, churches, monasteries and other French castles and structures from the Norman to the Aragonese periods are common elements in both the interior and coastline of Calabria.
The mountains offer skiing and other winter activities: Sila, Pollino and Aspromonte are three national parks that offer facilities for winter sports, especially in the towns of Camigliatello (comune of Spezzano della Sila), Lorica (comune of San Giovanni in Fiore), Gambarie and Monte Sant'Elia (comune of Palmi).
The olive tree, representing 29.6% of UAA and represents approximately 70% of tree crops. The region is the second-highest for olive oil production  with Carolea, Ogliarola, and Saracena olive cultivars as the main regional varieties.
The Bergamot orange is intensively cultivated, since the 18th century, exclusively in coastal area nearby to Reggio, where it found its optimal geological and weather conditions: essence oil from Calabrian Bergamot reach the best quality in the world. Calabria is also the largest producer of Porcini Mushrooms in Italy.
The unemployment rate stood at 21.6% in 2017 and was the highest in Italy and one of the highest inside the European Union.
Infrastructure and transport
The main Calabrian ports are in Reggio and in Gioia Tauro. The Reggio port is equipped with five loading docks of a length of 1,530 metres (5,020 feet). The Gioia Tauro port has seven loading docks with an extension of 4,646 metres (15,243 feet); it is the largest in Italy and the seventh largest container port in Europe, with a 2007 throughput of 3.7 million TEUs from more than 3,000 ships.
The region is served by three heavily used roads: two national highways along the coasts (SS18 Napoli-Reggio and SS106 Reggio-Taranto) and the A2 motorway, which links Salerno and Reggio, passing by Cosenza along the old inland route.
In Calabria there are two main airports: one is situated in Reggio, a few kilometres from city centre, built in 1939 is chronologically the first airport in Calabria; another is located in Lamezia Terme municipality area, currently being the first airport in Calabria concerning the number of passengers per year.
|Source: ISTAT 2001|
The following is a list of Calabrian municipalities with a population of over 20,000:
- Reggio Calabria – 186,013
- Catanzaro – 93,265
- Corigliano-Rossano – 77,220
- Lamezia Terme – 71,123
- Cosenza – 69,827
- Crotone – 61,529
- Rende – 35,352
- Vibo Valentia – 33,857
- Castrovillari – 22,518
- Acri – 21,263
- Montalto Uffugo – 20,553
Government and politics
Calabria is divided into five provinces:
|Province of Cosenza||734,260|
|Province of Reggio Calabria||565,813|
|Province of Catanzaro||368,318|
|Province of Crotone||174,076|
|Province of Vibo Valentia||166,760|
Tourism in Calabria has increased over the years. The main tourist attractions are the coastline and the mountains. The coastline alternates between rugged cliffs and sandy beaches, and is sparsely interrupted by development when compared to other European seaside destinations. The sea around Calabria is clear, and there is a good level of tourist accommodation. The poet Gabriele D'Annunzio called the coast facing Sicily near Reggio Calabria "... the most beautiful kilometer in Italy" (il più bel chilometro d'Italia). The primary mountain tourist draws are Aspromonte and La Sila, with its national park and lakes. Some other prominent destinations include:
- Reggio Calabria is on the strait between the mainland and Sicily, the largest and oldest city in Calabria dating from the 8th century BC, known for its panoramic seaside with botanical gardens between the art nouveau buildings and the beaches, and its 3,000 years of history with its Aragonese Castle and the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia where the Riace bronzes (Bronzi di Riace) are located.
- Cosenza, birthplace of scientist and philosopher Bernardino Telesio and seat of the Cosentian Academy, known for its cultural institutions, the old quarter, a Hohenstaufen Castle, an open-air museum and an 11th-century Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral. On 12 October 2011, the Cathedral of Cosenza received UNESCO World Heritage status for being "Heritage Witness to a Culture of Peace". This is the first award given by UNESCO to the region of Calabria.
- Scilla, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, "pearl" of the "Violet Coast", has a delightful panorama and is the site of some of Homer's tales.
- Tropea, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, is home to a dramatic seaside beach, and the Santa Maria dell'Isola sanctuary. It is also renowned for its sweet red onions (mainly produced in Ricadi).
- Capo Vaticano, on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a wide bathing place near Tropea.
- Gerace, near Locri, is a medieval city with a Norman Castle and Norman Cathedral.
- Squillace, a seaside resort and important archaeological site. Nearby is the birthplace of Cassiodorus.
- Stilo, the birthplace of philosopher Tommaso Campanella, with its Norman Castle and Byzantine church, the Cattolica.
- Pizzo Calabro, on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, known for its ice cream called "Tartufo". Interesting places in Pizzo are Piazza Repubblica and the Aragonese castle where Murat was shot.
- Paola, a town situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, renowned for being the birthplace of St. Francis of Paola, patron saint of Calabria and Italian sailors, and for the old Franciscan sanctuary built during the last hundred years of the Middle Ages by the will of St. Francis.
- Sibari, on the Ionian coast, a village situated near the archaeological site of the ancient city of Sybaris, a Greek colony of the 8th century BC.
- Lamezia Terme, the main transportation hub of the region with its international airport which links it to many destinations in Europe plus Canada and Israel and the train station. Several are the historical sights of the city, like the Norman-Swabian castle, the Jewish historical quarter and the Casa del Libro Antico (House of the Ancient Book) where books from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as well as old globes and ancient maps reproduction are well preserved and available to be seen by the public.
- Catanzaro, an important silk center since the time of the Byzantines, is located at the centre of the narrowest point of Italy, from where the Ionian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea are both visible, but not from Catanzaro. Of note are the well-known one-arch bridge (Viaduct Morandi-Bisantis, one of the tallest in Europe), the Cathedral (rebuilt after World War II bombing), the castle, the promenade on the Ionian sea, the park of biodiversity and the archaeological park.
- Soverato on the Ionian Sea, also known as the "Pearl" of the Ionian Sea. Especially renowned for its beaches, boardwalk and nightlife.
- Badolato near Soverato is a well-preserved medieval hilltop village with 13 churches. It was selected as one of the 1000 marvels of Italy to mark the anniversary of the unification of Italy. It is popular with wealthy foreigners who have renovated the old houses.
- Nicotera on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a small medieval town with an ancient Ruffo's castle.
- Ancient temples of the Roman gods on the sun-kissed hills of Catanzaro still stand as others are swept beneath the earth. Many excavations are going on along the east coast, digging up what seems to be an ancient burial ground.
- Samo, a village on the foot of the Aspromonte, is well known for its spring water and ruins of the old village destroyed in the 1908 Messina earthquake.
- Mammola, art center, tourist and gastronomic, has an ancient history. The old town, with its small houses attached to each other, the ancient churches and noble palaces. Of particular interest is the Museum Park Santa Barbara, a place of art and cultural events of many international artists and the Shrine of St. Nicodemo of the 10th century, in the highlands of Limina. Its gastronomy with the "Stocco" typical of Mammola, cooked in various ways, other typical products are smoked ricotta and goat cheese, salami pepper and wild fennel, bread "pizza" (corn bread) and wheat bread baked in a wood oven.
- Praia a Mare on the Tyrrhenian Sea, is a well-known tourist city, thanks to the Isola di Dino and the seaside beach.
- Spilinga is known for its spicy pork pâté, 'Nduja.
Although the official national language of Calabria has been Standard Italian since before unification in 1861, as a consequence of its deep and colourful history, Calabrian dialects have developed that have been spoken in the region for centuries. The Calabrian language is a direct derivative of the Latin language, and is closer to the words spoken in Latin than the standard Italian. Most linguists divide the various dialects into two different language groups. In the northern one-third of the region, the Calabrian dialects are considered part of the Neapolitan language (or Southern Italian) and are grouped as Northern Calabrian or Cosentino. In the southern two-thirds of the region, the Calabrian dialects are often grouped as Central and Southern Calabrian. In many respects, the Calabrian dialect is considered very similar to the Puglian/Salentine dialects spoken in Salento, the region situated on the "heel" of Italy. However, in isolated pockets, as well as some quarters of Reggio Calabria a variety of Occitan can also be found in certain communities and French has had an influence on many Calabrian words and phrases. In addition, since Calabria was once ruled by the Spanish, some Calabrian dialects exhibit Spanish derivatives. Another important linguistic minority is present in the nine towns of Bovesìa, in the province of Reggio Calabria. It is a derivative of ancient Greek with influences of Calabrian dialect, belonging to the ancient Bizantine dominations.
The majority of Calabrians are Roman Catholic. There are also communities of Evangelicals in the region. Calabria has also been called "The Land of Saints" as the region was the birthplace of many saints spanning nearly 2,000 years. The most famous saint in Calabria and also the patron saint of the region is St. Francis of Paola. Calabria also has another patron saint called Saint Bruno of Cologne who was the founder of the Carthusian Order. Saint Bruno would build the charterhouse of Serra San Bruno, a town which bears his name, in 1095 and later die there in 1101.
Even though it is currently a very small community, there has been a long history of the presence of Jews in Calabria. The Jews have had a presence in the region for at least 1600 years and possibly as much as 2300 years. Calabrian Jews have had notably influence on many areas of Jewish life and culture. Although virtually identical to the Jews of Sicily, the Jews of Calabria are considered a distinct Jewish population due to historical and geographic considerations. There is a small community of Italian Anusim who have resumed the Jewish faith.
It is important to highlight the presence of Calabrians in Renaissance humanism and in the Renaissance. Indeed, the Hellenistics in this period frequently came from Calabria maybe because of the Greek influence. The rediscovery of Ancient Greek was very difficult because this language had been almost forgotten. In this period the presence of Calabrian humanists or refugees from Constantinople was fundamental. The study of Ancient Greek, in this period, was mainly a work of two monks of the monastery of Seminara: Barlaam, bishop of Gerace, and his disciple, Leonzio Pilato. Leonzio Pilato, in particular, was a Calabrian born near Reggio Calabria. He was an important teacher of Ancient Greek and translator, and he helped Giovanni Boccaccio in the translations of Homer's works.
The cuisine is a typical southern Italian Mediterranean cuisine with a balance between meat-based dishes (pork, lamb, goat), vegetables (especially eggplant), and fish. Pasta (as in Central Italy and the rest of Southern Italy) is also very important in Calabria. In contrast to most other Italian regions, Calabrians have traditionally placed an emphasis on the preservation of their food and packing vegetables and meats in olive oil. Also making sausages and cold cuts (Sopressata, 'Nduja, Capocollo), along the coast curing fish – especially swordfish, sardines (sardelle rosamarina) and cod (Baccalà). Local desserts are typically fried, honey-sweetened pastries Cudduraci, Nacatole, Scalille or scalidde or baked biscotti-type treats (such as nzudda).
Some local specialties include Caciocavallo Cheese, Cipolla rossa di Tropea (red onion), Frìttuli and Curcùci (fried pork), Liquorice (liquirizia), Lagane e Cicciari (a pasta dish with chickpeas), Pecorino Crotonese (Cheese of Sheep), and Pignolata.
In ancient times Calabria was referred to as Enotria (from Ancient Greek Οἰνωτρία, Oenotria, "land of wine"). According to ancient Greek tradition, Οἴνωτρος (Oenotrus), the youngest of the sons of Lycaon, was the eponym of Oenotria. Some vineyards have origins dating back to the ancient Greek colonists. The best known DOC wines are Cirò (Province of Crotone) and Donnici (Province of Cosenza). 3% of the total annual production qualifies as DOC. Important grape varieties are the red Gaglioppo and white Greco. Many producers are resurrecting local, ancient grape varieties which have been around for as long as 3000 years.
- Lamezia Terme International Airport
- Reggio Calabria Airport
- Crotone Airport (Used only during the Summer Season)
- Port of Gioia Tauro (the busiest container port in Italy and seventh-busiest in mainland Europe)
- Port of Reggio Calabria
- Port of Vibo Valentia
- Port of Villa San Giovanni
- Port of Corigliano Calabro
- Port of Crotone
Calabria has the two highest bridges in Italy
There are 3 public universities in the region of Calabria
- University of Calabria (Cosenza)
- Magna Graecia University (Catanzaro)
- Mediterranea University of Reggio Calabria
There is also the private University for Foreigners "Dante Alighieri" in Reggio Calabria.
- 1783 Calabrian earthquakes
- 1905 Calabria earthquake
- 1908 Messina earthquake
- Arbëreshë people
- Duke of Calabria
- Griko people
- Strait of Messina Bridge
- "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 31% to 626% of the EU average in 2017" (Press release). ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- "Calabria". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- "Calabria". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- "Calabria". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- "Bruttium". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- Lewis and Short Latin Dictionary, entry "Calabria" Archived 4 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine.
- Carpenter, T. H.; Lynch, K. M.; Robinson, E. G. D., eds. (2014). The Italic People of Ancient Apulia: New Evidence from Pottery for Workshops, Markets, and Customs. New York City, New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 9781139992701.
- Colafemmina, Cesare (2012). The Jews in Calabria. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. p. 1. ISBN 9789004234123.
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus (1937). "1.35". Roman Antiquities. Harvard University Press.
- Strabo (1924). "6.1.4". In Jones, H. L. (ed.). Geography. 3. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-99201-6.
- Pallottino, Missimo (2014). A History of Earliest Italy. New York City, New York: Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 9781317696827.
- NASA – Clouds and Sunlight. Nasa.gov (30 December 2009). Retrieved on 28 July 2013.
- "Journeys". Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
- "The Calabria National Park, sila Grande and Sila Piccola". www.madeinsouthitalytoday.com.
- "attivita_montagna – Costa Tiziana". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- "The giants of the sila".
- "The Giants of the Sila: memories and history of a biogenetic reserve – I Giganti della Sila". Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- "The Forest of Giants". www.ItalyTraveller.com.
- Rai. "Water, woodland, silence: the Sila Park" – via YouTube.
- "Calabria climate: when to go to Calabria – Italy: travel, recipes, family and health". 17 March 2016.
- "Reggio Calabria (RC) 21 m. s.l.m. (a.s.l.)" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
- "Climate Normals for Monte Scurto (Italian IP required)" (PDF). Servizio Meteorologico. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
- van Dijk, J.P., Bello, M., Brancaleoni, G.P., Cantarella, G., Costa, V., Frixa, A., Golfetto, F., Merlini, S., Riva, M., Toricelli, S., Toscano, C., and Zerilli, A. (2000, a); A new structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc. Tectonophysics, 324, 267–320.
- Argand, E. (1922); La tectonique de l'Asie. Comptes Rendus 3rd Int. Geol. Congr., Liège (Be), 1922, 1, 171–372.
- Boccaletti, M., and Guazzone, G. (1972, b); Evoluzione paleogeografica e geodinamica del Mediterraneo: i bacini marginali. Mem. Soc. geol. It., 13, 162–169.
- Ogniben, Leo (1973); Schema geologico della Calabria in base ai dati odierni. Geol. Romana, 12, 243–585.
- Ippolito, Felice (1959); Bibliografia geologica d'Italia, Vol. 4, Calabria. C.N.R., Roma
- Cortese, E. (1895); Descrizione geologica della Calabria. Mem. Descrit. Carta Geol. It., 9, 310 pp., Roma.
- Limanowski, Miesislas (1913); Die grosse kalabrische Decke. Bull. Int. Acad. Sc. Cracovie, Cl. Sc. Math. Nat., S.A., (6A), 370–385.
- Quitzov, H.W. (1935); Der Deckenbau des Kalabrischen Massivs und seine Randgebiete. Abh. d. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Gottingen, Mat. Phys. Kl., 3e Folge, H. 13, 63–197.
- Caire, André, Glangeaud, L., and Grandjaquet, C. (1960); Les grand traits structureaux et l'évolution de territoire calabro-sicilien (Italie méridionale). Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., ser. 7, v. 2, 915–938.
- Caire, André (1961); Remarques sur l'evolution tectonique de la Sicile. Bull. Soc. Geol. Fr., 7 (3), 545–558.
- Grandjacquet, C., Glangeaud, L., Dubois, R., and Caire, A. (1961); Hypothèse sur la structure profonde de la Calabre (Italie). Rev. Geogr. Phys. Geol. Dyn., 4 (3), 131–147.
- Ogniben, L. (1969, a); Schema introduttivo alla geologia del confine calabro-lucano. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 8, 453–763.
- Caire, André (1970, a); Sicily in its Mediterranean setting. 145–170.
- Caire, André (1975, a); Italy in its Mediterranean setting. In: Squyres, C.H. (Ed). Geology of Italy, Earth Sci. Soc. Lib. Arab. Rep., 11–74, Tripoli.
- Caire, André (1978); The Central Mediterranean mountain chains in the Alpine orogenic environment.
- Burton, A.N. (1971); Carta Geologica della Calabria alla scala di 1:25.000, Relazione generale. Cassa per il Mezzogiorno, Servizio Bonifiche, Roma (It.), I.G.M. Firenze, 120 pp., 1971, 120 pp.
- Amodio-Morelli, L., Bonardi, G., Colonna, V., Dietrich, D., Giunta, G., Ippolito, F., Liguori, V., Lorenzoni, S., Paglionico, A., Perrone, V., Piccaretta, G., Russo, M., Scandone, P., Zanettin Lorenzoni, E., and Zuppetta, A. (1976); L'Arco calabro-peloritano nell'orogene appenninico-maghrebide. Mem. Soc. Geol. Ital., 17, 1–60.
- Dubois, Roland (1976); La suture calabro-apenninique Cretacee-Eocene et l'ouverture Tyrrhenienne neogene: etude petrographique et structurale de la Calabre centrale. These, Univ. de Paris, 1976, 567 pp.
- Grandjacquet, C., and Mascle, G. (1978); The structure of the Ionian sea, Sicily and Calabria-Lucania. In: Nairn, A.E.M., H. Kanes and F.G. Stehli (Eds). The ocean basins and margins, Plenum Press, 5, 257–329, New York.
- Moussat, E. (1983, Int. Rept.); Evolution de la mer Tyrrhenienne centrale et ses marges septentrionales en relation avec la néotectonique dans l'Arc calabrais. These 3e cycle, Univ. Pierre et M. Curie, Paris (Fr.), 122 pp.
- van Dijk, J.P. (1992, d); Late Neogene fore-arc basin evolution in the Calabrian Arc (Central Mediterranean). Tectonic sequence stratigraphy and dynamic geohistory. With special reference to the geology of Central Calabria. Geologica Ultrajectina, 92, 288 pp. ISBN 90-71577-46-5
- van Dijk, J.P., and Scheepers, P.J.J. (1995); Neogene rotations in the Calabrian Arc. Implications for a Pliocene-Recent geodynamic scenario for the Central Mediterranean. Earth Sci. Rev., 39, 207–246. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222475994_Neotectonic_rotations_in_the_Calabrian_Arc_implications_for_a_Pliocene-Recent_geodynamic_scenario_for_the_Central_Mediterranean
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- CARSON, L. PIERCE. "Eating like a Calabrese — New cookbook offers culinary gems from Italy's 'toe'".
- Vista, Vino Con (12 April 2011). "Vino Con Vista – The Blog: Calabria For Tourists – 5 Things You Must See and Do".
- generator, metatags. "History of Calabria – Bleeding Espresso".
- "Storia della Calabria – Calabrian History". www.g-site.com.
- generator, metatags. "History of Calabria – Bleeding Espresso".
- Antonio Luce (25 January 2011). "italian travel team Calabria – Italy Travel Guide" – via YouTube.
- Inc., Dante Alighieri Society of Massachusetts. "Dante Alighieri Society of Massachusetts: A Concise History of Italy".
- "Cirò: Calabria's Ancient Wine from the Toe of Southern Italy's Boot – Into Wine". 9 October 2008.
- Coulter, Cornelia C. (1 January 1942). "Review of Calabria: The First Italy". Classical Philology. 37 (2): 223–225. doi:10.1086/362608. JSTOR 264353.
- "Olympic Games – Winter Summer Past and Future Olympics". 20 December 2018.
- "Intellectual Property (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)". plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Calabria | ArtisanVineyards.com". artisanvineyards.com. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "WineCountry.it – region and wines of Calabria Italy". Archived from the original on 31 March 2004. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Matthews, Jeff. "Who were the Sybarites?". Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "Locri". www.amalficoast.com.
- Simcox, Edith Jemima (4 November 2010). Primitive Civilizations: Or, Outlines of the History of Ownership in Archaic Communities. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-02184-5.
- Polybius, The Histories, 1.7–10
- Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Histories, 20.5–6
- Livy, The History of Rome, 30.19
- Livy, The History of Rome, 34.45, 53; 35.40
- Bernardini, Paolo; Camporeale, Giovannangelo (1 January 2004). The Etruscans Outside Etruria. Getty Publications. ISBN 978-0-89236-767-2.
- Erik Durschmied, From Armageddon to the Fall of Rome, Ch. 17
- Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity: AD 150–750.
- TheGreatMysteries (3 April 2011). "Testament The Bible And History episode 6 Power And Glory part one (1 of 2)" – via YouTube.
- "The Scriptorium and Library at the Vivarium : HistoryofInformation.com". www.historyofinformation.com.
- "Cassiodorus, Chapter 6: Vivarium". faculty.georgetown.edu.
- Cassiodorus, Variae, 9.24–54, 38–39
- metatags generator. "Bleeding Espresso". bleedingespresso.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- The Italian Cities and the Arabs before 1095, Hilmar C. Krueger, A History of the Crusades: The First Hundred Years, Vol. I, ed. Kenneth Meyer Setton, Marshall W. Baldwin, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955), 50–51.
- "Catanzaro Italy: Catanzaro guide, city of Catanzaro, Calabria Italy". Initalytoday.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "The Gregorian Calendar". www.timeanddate.com.
- "Gregorian Calendar Adopted".
- Matthews, Jeff. "Luigi Lillo, the Gregorian Calendat & the Carafa Castle". Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- Boenke, Michaela. "Bernardino Telesio". stanford.library.sydney.edu.au.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 6 March 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Homepage". Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- org.cambridge.ebooks.online.book.Author@26275d6b; org.cambridge.ebooks.online.book.Author@4e735990 (1 January 2011). A 'Short Treatise' on the Wealth and Poverty of Nations (1613). doi:10.7135/UPO9781843317708. ISBN 978-1-84331-770-8.
- The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge, Vol.IV, (1848) London, Charles Knight, p.17
- "Golden Day 107: Cosenza with LuLu Bianco of Calabrisella Mia". 28 April 2014.
- Donadio, Rachel (7 October 2012). "In Italy, Calabria is drained by corruption". New York Times. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
- "Portraits of the Regions". DG REGIO of the European Commission. March 2004. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2010.
- "Biologico, l'Italia resta prima in Europa – AgroNotizie – Economia e politica". agronotizie.imagelinenetwork.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0007e/a0007e01.pdf[permanent dead link]
- Italian olives Retrieved 3 July 2018
- Bolani, Domenico Spano (1857). Storia di Reggio di Calabria da'tempi primitivi sino all'anno di Cristo 1797. Stamp. del Fibreno. p. 297.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 September 2015. Retrieved 5 March 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Calabria itineraries from the Tyrrhenian to the Ionian". www.madeinsouthitalytoday.com.
- "Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region". Eurostat.
- "World Port Rankings 2005". American Association of Port Authorities. May 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- Van Marle, Gavin (31 January 2008). "Europe Terminals stretched to limit". Lloyds List Daily Commercial News. pp. 8–9.
- "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". demo.istat.it. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Sister and Friendship Cities". Burwood Council. 17 August 2012. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Patto d'amicizia tra la Calabria ed il West Virginia" (PDF).
- "Guide to Reggio Calabria". Delicious Italy. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Regions - Calabria". Insiders Abroad. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Youritaly.com | Cosenza City | Calabria". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Cosenza – Calabria: Your holiday in Italy". en.italy-holiday.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Secret Jews Evangelical Christians".
- "Orthodox Europe :: Italy". orthodoxengland.org.uk.
- "Orthodox Christianity in Southern Italy. Part 1". OrthoChristian.Com.
- "A JOURNAL OF ORTHODOX FAITH AND CULTURE – Road to Emmaus" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
- "CALABRIA: ITALY'S HOLY MOUNTAINS". 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- "Center for the Study of Jewry in Calabria and Sicily". Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
- "Pausanias, Description of Greece, Arcadia, 8.3.5, at Theoi Project". theoi.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- The-Wine-Library Archived 5 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine Short Description of wine in Calabria
- List of world's busiest container ports
- "Sfalassa Bridge". HighestBridges.com. 28 March 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- Dal Lago, Enrico, and Rick Halpern, eds. The American South and the Italian Mezzogiorno: Essays in Comparative History (2002) ISBN 0-333-73971-X
- Dunston, Lara, and Terry Carter. Travellers Calabria (Travellers – Thomas Cook) (2009), guidebook
- Moe, Nelson. The View from Vesuvius: Italian Culture and the Southern Question (2002)
- Schneider, Jane. Italy's 'Southern Question': Orientalism in One Country (1998)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to |
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Calabria.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Calabria.|
- Official Region homepage
- Calabria's History, Culture, Language and Genealogy
- Youth Association of Locri*
- History and visit to art cities of Calabria
- Calabria Region and History Guide