In mathematics, specifically in measure theory, a Borel measure on a topological space is a measure that is defined on all open sets (and thus on all Borel sets). Some authors require additional restrictions on the measure, as described below.
Let be a locally compact Hausdorff space, and let be the smallest σ-algebra that contains the open sets of ; this is known as the σ-algebra of Borel sets. A Borel measure is any measure defined on the σ-algebra of Borel sets. A few authors require in addition that is locally finite, meaning that for every compact set . If a Borel measure is both inner regular and outer regular, it is called a regular Borel measure. If is both inner regular, outer regular, and locally finite, it is called a Radon measure.
On the real line
The real line with its usual topology is a locally compact Hausdorff space, hence we can define a Borel measure on it. In this case, is the smallest σ-algebra that contains the open intervals of . While there are many Borel measures μ, the choice of Borel measure that assigns for every half-open interval is sometimes called "the" Borel measure on . This measure turns out to be the restriction to the Borel σ-algebra of the Lebesgue measure , which is a complete measure and is defined on the Lebesgue σ-algebra. The Lebesgue σ-algebra is actually the completion of the Borel σ-algebra, which means that it is the smallest σ-algebra that contains all the Borel sets and has a complete measure on it. Also, the Borel measure and the Lebesgue measure coincide on the Borel sets (i.e., for every Borel measurable set, where is the Borel measure described above).
If X and Y are second-countable, Hausdorff topological spaces, then the set of Borel subsets of their product coincides with the product of the sets of Borel subsets of X and Y. That is, the Borel functor
The Lebesgue–Stieltjes integral is the ordinary Lebesgue integral with respect to a measure known as the Lebesgue–Stieltjes measure, which may be associated to any function of bounded variation on the real line. The Lebesgue–Stieltjes measure is a regular Borel measure, and conversely every regular Borel measure on the real line is of this kind.
An important special case is where μ is a probability measure or, even more specifically, the Dirac delta function. In operational calculus, the Laplace transform of a measure is often treated as though the measure came from a distribution function f. In that case, to avoid potential confusion, one often writes
where the lower limit of 0− is shorthand notation for
This limit emphasizes that any point mass located at 0 is entirely captured by the Laplace transform. Although with the Lebesgue integral, it is not necessary to take such a limit, it does appear more naturally in connection with the Laplace–Stieltjes transform.
Hausdorff dimension and Frostman's lemma
Given a Borel measure μ on a metric space X such that μ(X) > 0 and μ(B(x, r)) ≤ rs holds for some constant s > 0 and for every ball B(x, r) in X, then the Hausdorff dimension dimHaus(X) ≥ s. A partial converse is provided by Frostman's lemma:
Lemma: Let A be a Borel subset of Rn, and let s > 0. Then the following are equivalent:
- Hs(A) > 0, where Hs denotes the s-dimensional Hausdorff measure.
- There is an (unsigned) Borel measure μ satisfying μ(A) > 0, and such that
- holds for all x ∈ Rn and r > 0.
The Cramér–Wold theorem in measure theory states that a Borel probability measure on is uniquely determined by the totality of its one-dimensional projections. It is used as a method for proving joint convergence results. The theorem is named after Harald Cramér and Herman Ole Andreas Wold.
- D. H. Fremlin, 2000. Measure Theory Archived 2010-11-01 at the Wayback Machine. Torres Fremlin.
- Alan J. Weir (1974). General integration and measure. Cambridge University Press. pp. 158–184. ISBN 0-521-29715-X.
- Vladimir I. Bogachev. Measure Theory, Volume 1. Springer Science & Business Media, Jan 15, 2007
- Halmos, Paul R. (1974), Measure Theory, Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-90088-9
- Feller 1971, §XIII.1
- Rogers, C. A. (1998). Hausdorff measures. Cambridge Mathematical Library (Third ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. xxx+195. ISBN 0-521-62491-6.
- K. Stromberg, 1994. Probability Theory for Analysts. Chapman and Hall.
- Gaussian measure, a finite-dimensional Borel measure
- Feller, William (1971), An introduction to probability theory and its applications. Vol. II., Second edition, New York: John Wiley & Sons, MR 0270403.
- J. D. Pryce (1973). Basic methods of functional analysis. Hutchinson University Library. Hutchinson. p. 217. ISBN 0-09-113411-0.
- Ransford, Thomas (1995). Potential theory in the complex plane. London Mathematical Society Student Texts. 28. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 209–218. ISBN 0-521-46654-7. Zbl 0828.31001.
- Teschl, Gerald, Topics in Real and Functional Analysis, (lecture notes) CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Wiener's lemma related