A base on balls (BB), also known as a walk, occurs in baseball when a batter receives four pitches that the umpire calls balls, and is in turn awarded first base without the possibility of being called out. The base on balls is defined in Section 2.00 of baseball's Official Rules, and further detail is given in 6.08(a). It is, however, considered a faux pas for a professional player to actually walk to first base; the batter-runner and any advancing runners normally jog on such a play.
The term "base on balls" distinguishes a walk from the other manners in which a batter can be awarded first base without liability to be put out (e.g., hit by pitch (HBP), catcher's interference). Though a base on balls, catcher's interference, or a batter hit by a pitched ball all result in the batter (and possibly runners on base) being awarded a base, the term "walk" usually refers only to a base on balls, and not the other methods of reaching base without the bat touching the ball. An important difference is that for a hit batter or catcher's interference, the ball is dead and no one may advance unless forced; the ball is live after a walk (see below for details).
A batter who draws a base on balls is commonly said to have been "walked" by the pitcher. When the batter is walked, runners advance one base without liability to be put out only if forced to vacate their base to allow the batter to take first base. If a batter draws a walk with the bases loaded, all preceding runners are forced to advance, including the runner on third base who is forced to home plate to score a run; when a run is forced on a walk, the batter is credited with an RBI per rule 10.04.
Receiving a base on balls does not count as a hit or an at bat for a batter but does count as a time on base and a plate appearance. Therefore, a base on balls does not affect a player's batting average, but it can increase his on-base percentage.
A hit by pitch is not counted statistically as a walk, though the effect is mostly the same, with the batter receiving a free pass to first base. One exception is that on a HBP (hit-by-pitch), the ball is dead. On a HBP, any runners attempting to steal on the play must return to their original base unless forced to the next base anyway. When a walk occurs, the ball is still live: any runner not forced to advance may nevertheless attempt to advance at his own risk, which might occur on a steal play, passed ball, or wild pitch. Also, because a ball is live when a base on balls occurs, runners on base forced to advance one base may attempt to advance beyond one base, at their own risk. The batter-runner himself may attempt to advance beyond first base, at his own risk. Rule 6.08 addresses this matter as well. An attempt to advance an additional base beyond the base awarded might occur when ball four is a passed ball or a wild pitch.
In early baseball, there was no concept of a "ball." It was created by the NABBP in 1863, originally as a sort of unsportsmanlike-conduct penalty: "Should the pitcher repeatedly fail to deliver to the striker fair balls, for the apparent purpose of delaying the game, or for any other cause, the umpire, after warning him, shall call one ball, and if the pitcher persists in such action, two and three balls; when three balls shall have been called, the striker shall be entitled to the first base; and should any base be occupied at that time, each player occupying them shall be entitled to one base without being put out." Note that this rule in effect gave the pitcher 9 balls, since each penalty ball could only be called on a third offense. In 1869 the rule was modified so that only those baserunners forced to advance could advance. From 1871 through 1886, the batter was entitled to call "high" or "low," i.e. above or below the waist; a pitch which failed to conform was "unfair." Certain pitches were defined as automatic balls in 1872: any ball delivered over the batter's head, that hit the ground in front of home plate, was delivered to the opposite side from the batter, or came within one foot of him. In 1880, the National League changed the rules so that eight "unfair balls" instead of nine were required for a walk. In 1884, the National League changed the rules so that six balls were required for a walk. In 1886, the American Association changed the rules so that six balls instead of seven were required for a walk; however, the National League changed the rules so that seven balls were required for a walk instead of six. In 1887, the National League and American Association agreed to abide by some uniform rule changes, including, for the first time, a strike zone which defined balls and strikes by rule rather than the umpire's discretion, and decreased the number of balls required for a walk to five. In 1889, the National League and the American Association decreased the number of balls required for a walk to four.
In 2017, Major League Baseball approved a rule change allowing for a batter to be walked intentionally by having the defending bench signal to the Umpire. The move was met with some controversy.
Intentional base on balls
A subset of the base on balls, an intentional base on balls (IBB) or intentional walk is when the pitcher deliberately pitches the ball away from the batter in order to issue a base on balls. As with any other walk, an intentional walk entitles the batter to first base without liability to be put out, and entitles any runners to advance if forced. Intentional walks are a strategic defensive maneuver, commonly done to bypass one hitter for one the defensive team believes is less likely to initiate a run-scoring play (e.g., a home run, sacrifice fly, or RBI base hit). Teams also commonly use intentional walks to set up a double play or force out situation for the next batter.
Intentional walks do carry risks, however. They carry an obvious, inherent risk: they give the offensive team another runner on base, without any effort on their part, who could potentially score a run. They may carry additional risks.
An intentional walk is signaled by the catcher standing and extending one arm to the side away from the batter. The pitcher then pitches the ball to that side several feet outside from home plate, usually outside the reach of the batter. A ball pitched in this manner is called an intentional ball and counts as a ball in the pitcher's pitch count. In order to count as an intentional ball, the ball must be legally pitched, i.e., the pitcher's foot must be on the pitcher's rubber, the catcher must be in the catcher's box, and the batter must be in the batter's box appearing ready to take a pitch at the time the ball is thrown. An intentional walk may be signaled at any time during the batter's turn at the plate; in these cases only enough additional intentional balls need to be thrown to bring the total to four. Only walks issued by the catcher signaling as described above are recorded as intentional walks (see below); walks issued without the catcher signaling – even if the pitches are intentionally thrown outside of the strike zone – are not recorded as intentional.
Another risk taken by the defensive team in issuing a base on balls is that since intentional balls must be pitched in a legal manner, they can legally become wild pitches or passed balls. Likewise, a baserunner can attempt to steal a base, or the batter can choose to swing at an intentional ball; however, these rarely occur since taking these risks is rarely more beneficial to the offensive team than allowing the walk. In the Major Leagues, the most recent example of a swing at an intentional ball resulting in a hit occurred during a June 22, 2006 game between the Florida Marlins and the Baltimore Orioles. In the top of the 10th inning, with a runner on second base, Baltimore pitcher Todd Williams was signaled to intentionally walk the Marlins' Miguel Cabrera. Noticing that the intentional ball came in too close to the plate, Cabrera swung at the ball, resulting in a base hit, and a run scored for Florida.
Intentional walks also carry other nuanced risks. They might give the subsequent batter the strategic advantage of anticipating that the pitcher will avoid walking him. This subsequent batter might then more aggressively anticipate a pitch in the strike zone. If this batter guesses correctly, he could achieve more success than he otherwise would. Moreover, a subsequent batter might perceive an immediately preceding intentional walk as a slight to his abilities; if such a batter performs better when he feels underestimated by his opposition, an intentional walk could provide a spark.
Though intentional walks are recorded as such in the records of the official scorer, they are combined with standard, non-intentional walks when calculating a player's on-base percentage, and have only received a separate column in a player's statistics since 1955.
Batters, on occasion, have been given intentional walks with the bases loaded (effectively giving the offensive team a risk-free run), although this occurs very infrequently. This is generally done in the 9th inning when the pitching team is ahead by more than one run, and the batter is highly skilled. The free run does not matter to either team, as the pitching team remains ahead, and in theory the pitcher feels more comfortable in his ability to get the following batter out instead.
A common nickname for the intentional walk is four-finger salute, since most managers call for an intentional walk by holding up four fingers. As of 2017, the manager may simply request to the plate umpire to let the batter go to first instead of having the pitcher waste four outside pitches.
Major League Baseball leaders
|Rank||Player||Year||Base on balls|
Jimmie Foxx, Andre Thornton, Jeff Bagwell and Bryce Harper have each been walked six times during a major league regular season game. Among pitchers, Tommy Byrne and Bruno Haas both gave up 16 bases on balls in a game.
- Baseball statistics
- List of Major League Baseball career bases on balls leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career total bases leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career on-base percentage leaders
- List of Major League Baseball career OPS leaders
- 3000 strikeout club
- List of Major League Baseball career strikeout leaders
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- Office of the Comm'r of Baseball (2000). 2001 Official Rules of Major League Baseball. Triumph Books. pp. 93–94 (Rule 6.08(a)-(c)) (describing (a) bases on balls, (b) hit-by-pitched-ball, and (c) interference). ISBN 1-57243-397-3.
- "Official Rules". Major League Baseball.
- In 1887, Major League Baseball counted bases on balls as hits. The result was skyrocketed batting averages, including some near .500, and the experiment was abandoned the following season. Current record books do not count walks in 1887 as hits.
- Office of the Comm'r of Baseball (2000). 2001 Official Rules of Major League Baseball. Triumph Books. pp. 93–94 (Rule 6.08). ISBN 1-57243-397-3.
- Henry Chadwick commented, "Another and far better amendment, which was adopted at this convention, was that of calling balls on the pitcher when he failed to pitch fairly for the bat. Previously the striker alone was punished for unfair play, for “strikes” could be called on him for refusing to strike at fair balls; but the pitcher could send in unfair balls with impunity. The introduction of called balls, however, equalized matters, and the rule now works very advantageously indeed in promoting skilful play."
- If the pitch actually struck the batter, it was still just an automatic ball; awarding first base on a HBP was first instituted in 1884 in the American Association and 1887 in the National League.
- 2001 Official Major League Baseball Fact Book. St. Louis, Missouri: The Sporting News. 2001. pp. 276–280. 0-89204-646-5.
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- "Marlins' Cabrera spoils intentional walk in win". espn.com. 2006-06-22. Archived from the original on 2007-04-19. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
- Holtzman, Jerome (May 2000). Free Pass—Players who were intentionally walked with bases loaded – Brief Article. Baseball Digest. Retrieved on 2009-05-13.
- "Career Leaders &Records for Intentional Bases on Balls - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com.
- "Batting Game Finder: From 1908 to 2018, (requiring BB>=6), sorted by greatest BB". Baseball Reference. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
- "Pitching Game Finder: From 1908 to 2018, (requiring BB>=14), sorted by greatest BB". Baseball Reference. Retrieved August 21, 2018.