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The numbering plan area (NPA) is divided into two disconnected geographical regions. A small section is west-central Georgia, in the region around Columbus. This is bordered by area code 334 to the west in Alabama, area code 478 to the east, area code 229 to the south, and metro Atlanta's 404, 678, 770, and 470. It does not border the landline area of 404, only the cellphone area.
The major section of 706 wraps around from Rome in northwest Georgia, east through the mountains past Dahlonega, meeting its narrowest point at Toccoa, then broadening south to Athens and Augusta. It touches Alabama's area code 256/938 and 334 on the far west, Tennessee's area code 423 on the northwest, North Carolina's area code 828 and Upstate South Carolina's area code 864 to the north-northeast, and midlands area codes 803 and 839 to the east, and middle Georgia's 478 and metro Atlanta as above.
when the North American Numbering Plan was created in 1947, the entire state of Georgia was assigned area code 404. On July 1, 1954, the southern portion of the state, from Macon southward, was split off with area code 912. Area code 404 was limited to the northern half of the state, from the Tennessee and North Carolina state lines as far south as Columbus and Augusta. This configuration remained in place for 38 years.
In 1992, almost all of the old 404 territory outside the Atlanta area was split off as area code 706. Originally, 706 consisted of a horseshoe-shaped region that completely wrapped around the inner ring of Atlanta. It also included a number of southern exurbs of Atlanta. However, the residents of these areas felt chagrin at no longer being associated with 404. Shortly after 706 commenced service, BellSouth returned several of these areas to 404. The boundary was redrawn in such a way that Columbus and the surrounding area was cut off from the rest of the 706 territory, making 706 one of the few area codes that is not contiguous. However, 404 had been close to exhaustion even after the creation of 706, and the return of the southern exurbs forced the Georgia Public Service Commission to switch most of Atlanta's suburbs over to 770 sooner than it had planned.
In June 2005, the GPSC announced that 706 had nearly exhausted its capacity for new telephone exchange prefixes. On June 24, 2005, the NANPA assigned area code 762 for this purpose. However, the Columbus area was not large enough for its own area code, but was too large to stay in 706. For this reason, it was decided to make 762 an overlay, with permissive dialing allowed on September 3. On April 1, 2007, ten-digit dialing became mandatory in the 706/762 territory.
Despite the rapid growth in 706/762's main section (particularly the northern portion), it is nowhere near exhausting. Under current projections, it is expected to remain in its unusual, non-contiguous state until after 2049. 
The 706/762 overlay serves the following counties: Banks, Burke (part with area code 478), Chattooga, Catoosa, Chattahoochee, Clarke, Columbia, Dade, Dawson, Elbert, Fannin, Franklin, Floyd Gilmer, Glascock, Gordon, Greene, Habersham, Hancock, Harris, Hart, Heard, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson (part with area code 478), Jenkins, Lincoln, Lumpkin, Madison, McDuffie, Meriwether, Morgan, Murray, Muscogee, Oconee, Oglethorpe, Putnam, Rabun, Richmond, Stephens, Talbot, Taliaferro, Towns, Troup, Union, Upson (part with area code 478), Walker, Warren, White, Whitfield, and Wilkes
- NANPA area code map of Georgia
- List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 706 Area Code
- List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 762 Area Code
|West: 256/938, 334||area code 706/762 nearly completely surrounds 470, 678 and 770||East: 864|
|South: 229, 478|
|Alabama area codes: 205/659, 251, 256/938, 334|
|Tennessee area codes: 423, 615/629, 731, 865, 901, 931|
|North Carolina area codes: 252, 336/743, 704/980, 828, 910, 919/984|
|South Carolina area codes: 803/839, 843/854, 864|