This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Archdiocese of Brindisi-Ostium
|Area||1,253 km2 (484 sq mi)|
- Catholics (including non-members)
|(as of 2015)|
|Cathedral||Cattedrale della Visitazione e S. Giovanni Battista|
|Co-cathedral||Concattedrale di S. Maria Assunta|
|Secular priests||126 (diocesan)|
34 (Religious Orders0
|Bishops emeritus||Rocco Talucci|
The Italian Catholic Archdiocese of Brindisi-Ostium (Latin: Archidioecesis Brundusina-Ostunensis) in Apulia, has carried its present name since 1986. It is a suffragan of the archdiocese of Lecce.
The historical archdiocese of Brindisi was promoted from a diocese in the tenth century. The territory of the diocese of Ostuni was added to it in 1821. The archdiocese lost its status as metropolitan see in 1980.
There is no historical proof for early beginnings of Christianity in Brindisi, except the account given by Arnobius, who died c. 330, of the fall of Simon Magus, who withdrew to Brindisi and cast himself from a high rock into the sea.
According to a local legend, the first Bishop of Brindisi was Leucius of Brindisi, about 165, who later underwent martyrdom. Leucius is called a confessor or, by Pope Gregory I, a martyr. He is said to have been from Alexandria in Egypt, to have come to Brindisi already a bishop, with his archdeacon, and to have baptised some 27,000 people. The earliest account of his life says he died under the Emperor Theodosius; Theodosius I ruled from 379–395, and Theodosius II from 408–450. Other versions put his death under Commodus, between 180 and 192, and yet others place his martyrdom under Valerianus, 253–259. That he was made a bishop from the east rather than one connected with Rome suggests that his story was worked on when Brindisi was subject to Constantinople, between the 8th and 10th centuries.
The Diocese of Brindisi at first embraced the territory comprised within the present diocese of Oria. In the tenth century, after Brindisi had been destroyed by the Saracens, the bishops took up their abode at Oria, on account of its greater security.
In 1572–1591, during the tenure of the Spanish Bishop Bernardino de Figueroa movements were made to separate Oria as seat of a new diocese. The town was erected into an episcopal see on 8 May 1591 by Pope Gregory XIV, after the death of the Spaniard, Archbishop Bernardino de Figueroa. After an interval of four and a half years first bishop of Oria was appointed, Vincenzo del Tufo, in 1596.
In the reorganization of the dioceses of the Kingdom of Naples in 1818 Brindisi was combined with the Diocese of Ostuni, formerly its suffragan.
Brindisi has been an archiepiscopal see since the tenth century. The ancient cathedral was located outside the city, but in 1140 Roger II, King of Sicily and Naples, built the present cathedral in the centre of the city.
A diocesan synod was an irregularly held, but important, meeting of the bishop of a diocese and his clergy. Its purpose was (1) to proclaim generally the various decrees already issued by the bishop; (2) to discuss and ratify measures on which the bishop chose to consult with his clergy; (3) to publish statutes and decrees of the diocesan synod, of the provincial synod, and of the Holy See.
In 1608, Bishop Juan de Falces (1605-1636) presided over a diocesan synod. He held another, his third, on 10 September 1615. A fourth took place on 16 October 1616. A fifth diocesan synod was held on 9 April 1617, and a sixth on 22 April 1618. His seventh synod was held on 8 September 1618, his eighth on 2 May 1621, and his ninth on 10 April 1622.
Bishops of Brindisi
- Leucius ( ? )
- Julianus (attested c.492–496)
- Pretiosus (6th cent. ?)
- Andrea (died 979)
- Gregorius ? (attested 1074, 1080 ?)
- Archbishops of Brindisi e Oria
- Godinus (1085–1098)
- Baldwin (attested 1100)
- Nicholas (1101–1105)
- Guilelmus (1105–1118)
- Bajalardus (Bailardo) (1118–1143)
- Lupus (1144–1172)
- Wilelmus (1173–1181)
- Petrus (1183–1196)
- Girardus (1196–c.1216)
1200 to 1500
- Peregrinus (1216–1224)
- Petrus de Bisignano (1225–1239?)
- Petrus Paparone (1239–1254?)
- Peregrinus (1254–1288?)
- Adenulfus (1288–1295)
- Andreas Pandone (1296–1304)
- Radulfus (1304–1306) Administrator
- Bartholomaeus (1306–1319)
- Bertrandus, O.P. (1319–1333)
- Guilelmus Isardi, O.Min. (1333-1344)
- Guilelmus de Rosières, O.S.B. (1344–1346)
- Galhard de Carceribus (1346–1348)
- Joannes de Porta (1348–1352)
- Pinus, O.P. (1352–1378?)
- Gurellus (1379– ) Avignon Obedience
- Marinus del Judice (c.1379–1382) Roman Obedience
- Riccardus de Rogeriis (1382–c.1409) Roman Obedience
- Victor (1409–1411) Roman Obedience
- Paulus (Romanus) (1411– ? )
- Pandullus (1412–1414) Pisan Obedience
- Aragonus de Malaspina (1415–1418) Pisan Obedience
- Paulus (1418–1423)
- Petrus Gattula (1423– )
- Pietro de Gattula (1423-1437)
- Goffredo Carusio (1453-1471)
- Francesco de Arenis (1477-1483)
- Roberto Piscicelli (1484-1513)
1500 to 1800
- Domingo Idiocáiz (1513-1518)
- Gian Pietro Carafa (1518-1524)
- Girolamo Aleandro (1524–1541)
- Francesco Aleandro (1541-1560)
- Sede vacante (1560–1564)
- Giovanni Carlo Bovio (1564–1572)
- Bernardino de Figueroa (1571–1591)
- Andrés de Ayardis (1591-1595)
- Juan Pedrosa, O.S.B. (1598-1604)
- Juan Santisteban de Falces, O.S.Hier. (1605-1636)
- Francesco Surgenti (Sorgente), C.R. (1638-1640)
- Dionysius Odriscol, O.F.M. Obs. (1640-1650)
- Lorenzo Reynoso (1652-1656)
- Sede vacante (1656–1659)
- Francesco de Estrada (1659-1671)
- Alfonso Álvarez Barba Ossorio, O. Carm. (1673–1676)
- Manuel de la Torre (1677-1679)
- Giovanni de Torrecilla y Cárdenas (1681-1688)
- Francesco Ramírez, O.P. (1689-1697)
- Agustín Antonio de Arellano, O.S.A. (1698-1699)
- Bernabé de Castro, O.S.A. (1700-1707)
- Sede vacante (1707–1715)
- Pablo de Vilana Perlas (1715-1723)
- Andrea Maddalena (1724–1743)
- Antonino Sersale (1743-1750)
- Giovanni Angelo Ciocchi del Monte (1751-1759)
- Domenico Rovegno (1759-1763)
- Giuseppe de Rossi (1764-1778)
- Giovanni Battista Rivellini (1778-1795)Rivellini:
- Annibale Di Leo (1798-1814)
- Sede vacante (1814–1818)
- Antonio Barretta, Theat. (1818–1819)
- Giuseppe Maria Tedeschi, O.P. (1819-1825)
- Pietro Consiglio (1826–1839)
- Didacus (Diego) Planeta (1841–1850)
- Giuseppe Rotondo (1850-1855)
- Raffaele Ferrigno (1856-1875)
- Luigi Maria Aguilar, B. (1875-1892)
- Salvatore Palmieri, C.Pp.S. (1893-1905)
- Luigi Morando, C.S.S. (1906-1909)
- Tommaso Valerio Valeri, O.F.M. (1910-1942)
- Francesco de Filippis (1942-1953)
- Nicola Margiotta (1953-1975)
- Settimio Todisco (1975-2000)
- Rocco Talucci (2000-2012)
- Domenico Caliandro 2012–present
Notes and references
- "Archdiocese of Brindisi-Ostuni" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved October 7, 2016
- "Archdiocese of Brindisi-Ostuni" GCatholic.org. Gabriel Chow. Retrieved October 7, 2016
- Catholic Hierarchy page
- Lanzoni, pp. 305-309.
- Bullarum diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum Romanorum pontificum Taurinensis editio (in Latin). Tomus nonus (9). Turin: Sebastiano Franco. 1865. pp. 417–419.
- Carmelo Turrisi (1978). La diocesi di Oria nell'Ottocento. Aspetti socio-religiosi di una diocesi del Sud (1798-1888) (in Italian). Gregorian Biblical BookShop. p. 108. ISBN 978-88-7652-185-0.
- Benedictus XIV (1842). "Lib. I. caput secundum. De Synodi Dioecesanae utilitate". Benedicti XIV ... De Synodo dioecesana libri tredecim (in Latin). Tomus primus. Mechlin: Hanicq. pp. 42–49. John Paul II, Constitutio Apostolica de Synodis Dioecesanis Agendis (March 19, 1997): Acta Apostolicae Sedis 89 (1997), pp. 706-727.
- Guerrieri, p. 116, column 2.
- J. D. Mansi, L. Petit, J.B. Martin (edd.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XXXVIter (Arnhem-Leipzig: Hubert Welter 1924), pp. 41, 49.
- Mansi-Petit-Martin, pp. 53. 57, 73, 85, 91.
- A bishop Marcus of Calabria of the Province of Calabria was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325, the only bishop from Italy at the assembly. That he was from Brindisi is only a supposition. J.D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus II (Florence: A. Zatta 1769), p. 696. Lanzoni, p. 309.
- Aproculus never existed. His name appears in the "Life of Saint Pelinus", a forgery of the 11th century. Lanzoni, p. 309: "favoloso, composto intorno all' xi secolo da un falsario che si spaccia per un cristiano del iv secolo. Forse quei tre nomi [Aproculus, Pelinus, Cyprius] sono inventati...."
- Julianus is mentioned in a letter of Pope Gelasius I. Lanzoni, p. 309, no. 2.
- Lanzoni, p. 310, no. 4.
- Andrea was a Greek bishop, sent by the Patriarch of Constantinople. He lived in Oria, since Brindisi had been destroyed. He was murdered by the Saracens in 979. Gams p. 862 column 1. Guerrieri, pp. 98-99.
- Ughelli (p. 30) provides a date of 1040, and says that he was a Greek and that the diptychs give him a reign of 32 years.
- Eustasius was the first to bear the title of archbishop. He signed a document in 1060 in the ninth year of his pontificate. He is said, by Guerreri (p. 101 column 1), to have taken part in the dedication of the abbey church of Montecassino on 1 October 1071. The evidence does not support this view: Leo Marsicanus (Ostiensis), Chronicon Casinense, Book III, chapter 29, in: J. P. Migne (ed.), Patrologiae Latinae CLXXIII (Paris 1854), p. 751. Cappelletti, p. 300. Guerrieri, p. 100-101.
- Guerrieri, p. 101 column 2, based solely on the report of Albanese, the historian of Orte. Gams, p. 862 column 1. Gregorius is not mentioned by Ughelli, p. 30.
- Bishop Godinus was present along with 69 other bishops at Pope Urban II's synod of Melfi in September 1089. Guerrieri, p. 101 column 1.
- Guerrieri, p. 103. Guerrieri claims that Archbishop Guilelmus was present at the Council of Guastalla in October 1106. Compare: Uta-Renate Blumenthal (1978). The Early Councils of Pope Paschal II, 1100-1110. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-88844-043-3., who points out the extreme paucity of evidence as to those in attendance, and mentions no one from the Kingdom of Naples. Guerrieri was misled by the document, the famous cassatio which was actually signed by Archbishop Guilelmus on 23 April 1112 at Lateran council of Paschal II: J.D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XX (Venice: A. Zatta 1775), p. 1212 (which is misplaced).
- Archbishop(-elect) Bajalardus of Brindisi was present at the consecration of Pope Gelasius II on Sunday 10 March 1118 at Gaeta. His consecration and pallium had to wait, since the Pope fled to Pisa and then to France, where he died. Bajalardus was finally consecrated in February 1122 by Pope Calixtus II, who also made him a Cardinal Deacon of the Roman church. He took part in the transfer of the remains of S. Peregrinus at Trani in 1143. Pandulfus Pisanus, "Vita Gelasii II", in: L. A. Muratori, ed. (1723). Rerum Italicarum scriptores (in Latin). Tomus tertius. Mediolani: ex typographia societatis palatinae. p. 389. Ughelli, pp. 32-33. Guerrieri, pp. 103-104. Klaus Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer 1963) pp. 74-75. Rudolf Hüls, Kardinäle, Klerus, und Kirchen Roms, 1049–1130 (Tübingen: Max Niemeyer 1963), p. 245.
- A Frenchman, Lupus was consecrated by Pope Lucius II on 2 June 1144. In 1156, Lupus and the people of Brindisi followed Robert, Count of Lecce, in the war against the Greeks, in opposition to William I of Sicily, son of King Roger, for which they were severely punished. Guerrieri, p. 104.
- Bishop Guilelmus was the author of a life of St. Leucius. He took part in the Third Lateran Council of Pope Alexander III in March 1179. J.D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XXII (Venice: A. Zatta 1778), p. 461. Ughelli, p. 33. Guerrieri, p. 104.
- Petrus received a letter of confirmation from Pope Lucius III dated 2 January 1182, written at Velletri; the correct year must be 1183, since Lucius was not yet elected on 2 January 1181, and on 2 January 1182 he was at the Lateran in Rome. He consecrated the cathedral on 1 May 1191. Ughelli, p. 33. Guerrieri, pp. 104-105.
- Girardus was already bishop-elect on 18 October 1196. He was still bishop-elect on 17 December 1199. Eubel. Hierarchia catholica I, p. 149 with note 1.
- Ughelli, p. 33. Eubel I, p. 149.
- Bishop Adenulfus was transferred to the diocese of Conza on 1 October 1295. He was later Archbishop of Benevento. Eubel I, pp. 149, 203.
- Bishop Andreas was transferred to the diocese of Capua on 5 June 1304. Eubel I, pp. 149, 165.
- Radulfus (or Landulfus) was Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem (1295–1306), and Major Penitentiary. He did not reside in Brindisi. Eubel I, p. 149, 275.
- Bartholomaeus had been Dean of the cathedral Chapter of Capua, and was a papal chaplain. He was appointed Archbishop of Brindisi by Pope Clement V on 22 January 1306. Eubel I, p. 149.
- Guilelmus had been Bishop of Alba Pompeia (1321-1333). He was transferred to the diocese of Brindisi on 6 December 1333 by Pope John XXII. He was transferred to the diocese of Benevento on 3 March 1344. He died in 1346. Eubel I, pp. 80, 133, 149.
- Guilelmus was a doctor of Canon Law, and had been Archbishop of Trani (1343–1344). He was transferred to Brindisi by Pope Clement VI on 28 February 1344. He was transferred to the diocese of Monte Cassino on 7 April 1346. On 17 April 1353, Pope Innocent VI transferred him to Tarbes (France). He died in 1361. Eubel I, pp. 149, 166, 474.
- Galhard was born at Carcès (diocese of Cahors), and had been Provost of the collegiate church of Tituliensis (diocese of Kalocsa-Bacs, Hungary). He had been Bishop of Csanad (Hungary) (1344–1345), and then Bishop of Veszprém (1345–1346). He was transferred to the diocese of Brindisi by Pope Innocent VI on 19 July 1346. He died in Nîmes in 1348. Eubel I, pp. 149, 179, 523.
- Eubel I, p. 149, with note 12.
- Victor was an appointee of the deposed pope, Gregory XII. Victor's appointment was not recognized outside Gregory's Court, and certainly not in the Kingdom of Naples. Eubel I, p. 149 with note 12.
- Paulus was appointed by Gregory XII to succeed Victor on 1 March 1411. He was papal chamberlain, and he remained in the papal Court, at least until Gregory's resignation to the Council of Constance on 4 July 1415 dissolved his Court. Paulus was granted the diocese of Brindisi by Martin V in 1418, when a vacancy occurred.
- Pandullus was an appointee of John XXIII, following the deposition of Gregory XII and Benedict XIII by the Council of Pisa on 5 June 1409.
- Aragonus was an appointee of John XXIII. He was transferred to the diocese of Otranto by Pope Martin V on 23 February 1418. He died in 1424. Eubel I, pp. 149, 280.
- Petrus had previously been Bishop of S. Agatha (1400–1423). He was transferred to the diocese of Brindisi by Martin V on 17 May 1423. Eubel I, pp. 76, 149.
- Guerreri, p. 113 column 2. Gams, p. 852.
- Aleander was a humanist, and papal nuncio in Germany in connection with Luther's Reformation, and later Cardinal. Guerreri, pp. 113-114.
- Francesco was the nephew of Cardinal Aleandro. Guerreri, p. 114.
- Bovio was a native of Bologna, who translated the works of Gregory of Nyssa, and was at the Council of Trent.
- Figueroa was former choirmaster of the Royal Chapel of Granada.
- Ayardis Guerrieri, p. 116 column 1.
- Pedrosa died in January 1604. Guerrieri, p. 116 column 1. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 122 with note 2.
- Falces; Guerrieri, p. 116-117. Gauchat IV, p. 122 with note 3.
- On 9 January 1640 Surgenti was appointed, Archbishop (Personal Title) of Monopoli. Gauchat, p. 122 with note 4.
- Odriscol: Gauchat IV, p. 123 with note 5.
- Reynoso: Gauchat IV, p. 123 with note 6.
- Barba was a native of Leon (Spain), and held a chair in theology at the University of Salamanca. had previously been Bishop of Lanciano (1669-1675). He was nominated Archbishop of Brindisi by the King of Spain on 2 October 1676, and was transferred by Pope Clement X on 29 May 1673 He was transferred to the diocese of Salerno on 22 June 1676. He died in October 1688. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica V, pp. 128, with note 3; 235 with note 3; 340 with note 3.
- Ramirez was transferred to the diocese of Agrigento (Girgenti)), and allowed to retain the personal title of Archbishop.
- Guerrieri, p. 121.
- A native of Barcelona and Doctor in utroque iure from the University of Barcelona, Perlas became a Canon of the cathedral Chapter of Urgel. He was presented to the diocese of Brindisi by Charles VI, and was preconised (approved) by Pope Clement XI on 16 December 1715. He built the diocesan seminary building. In 1723 Perlas was transferred to the diocese of Salerno. Guerrieri, p. 121.
- Maddalena restored the cathedral after it had been damaged by the earthquake of 1743. Umberto Benigni. "Brindisi." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. Retrieved: 2016-10-17.
- Sersale was appointed, Archbishop of Taranto. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 132 with note 2.
- Ciocchi del Monte: Ritzler-Sefrin VI, p. 132 with note 3.
- Rovegno: Ritzler-Sefrin VI, p. 132 with note 4.
- Rossi: Ritzler-Sefrin VI, p. 132 with note 5.
- Ritzler-Sefrin VI, p. 133 with note 6.
- Di Leo: Ritzler-Sefrin VI, p. 133 with note 7.
- Guerrieri, p. 125.
- Barretta was a member of the family of the dukes of Simmari. He was preconised (approved) by Pope Pius VII on 26 June 1818, and consecrated a bishop on 28 June. He took formal possession of the diocese on 19 July by proxy. He never appeared personally, since he was stricken by paralysis, and he resigned the diocese in June 1819. He died on 7 October 1835. Guerrieri, p. 125. Gams, p. 863.
- He was nominated by the King of the Two Sicilies on 28 September 1819, and preconised (approved) by Pope Pius VII on 7 December 1819. He was consecrated a bishop in Rome on 19 December 1819, and took possession of the diocese by proxy on 6 January 1820. He arrived in Brindisi on 15 February. He died on 18 March 1825. Guerrieri, pp. 125-126. Gams, p. 863.
- Guerrieri, p. 126. Gams, p. 863.
- Guerrieri, pp. 126-127. Gams, p. 863.
- CV of Archbishop Caliandro: Arcidiocesi di Brindisi-Ostuno, "Arcivescovo: Biografia, S.E. Mons. Domenico Caliandro"; retrieved 28 June 2019. (in Italian)
Reference for bishops
- Gams, Pius Bonifatius (1873). Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo (in Latin). Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 862–863.
- Eubel, Conradus, ed. (1913). Hierarchia catholica (in Latin). Tomus 1 (second ed.). Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana.
- Eubel, Conradus, ed. (1914). Hierarchia catholica (in Latin). Tomus 2 (second ed.). Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana.
- Gulik, Guilelmus (1923). Eubel, Conradus (ed.). Hierarchia catholica (in Latin). Tomus 3 (second ed.). Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana.
- Gauchat, Patritius (Patrice) (1935). Hierarchia catholica (in Latin). Tomus IV (1592-1667). Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- Ritzler, Remigius; Sefrin, Pirminus (1952). Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V (1667-1730). Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- Ritzler, Remigius; Sefrin, Pirminus (1958). Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi (in Latin). Tomus VI (1730-1799). Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06.
- Ritzler, Remigius; Sefrin, Pirminus (1968). Hierarchia Catholica medii et recentioris aevi sive summorum pontificum, S. R. E. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series... A pontificatu Pii PP. VII (1800) usque ad pontificatum Gregorii PP. XVI (1846) (in Latin). Volume VII. Monasterii: Libr. Regensburgiana.
- Remigius Ritzler; Pirminus Sefrin (1978). Hierarchia catholica Medii et recentioris aevi... A Pontificatu PII PP. IX (1846) usque ad Pontificatum Leonis PP. XIII (1903) (in Latin). Volume VIII. Il Messaggero di S. Antonio.
- Pięta, Zenon (2002). Hierarchia catholica medii et recentioris aevi... A pontificatu Pii PP. X (1903) usque ad pontificatum Benedictii PP. XV (1922) (in Latin). Volume IX. Padua: Messagero di San Antonio. ISBN 978-88-250-1000-8.
- Cappelletti, Giuseppe (1870). Le chiese d'Italia dalla loro origine sino ai nostri giorni (in Italian). Tomo vigesimo primo (21). Venezia: G. Antonelli. pp. 113–122.
- Coco, F. A. (1914). Titoli dignitari e nobiliari della sede arcivescovile di Brindisi. Studio storico critico. Lecce: Giurdignano, 1914. (in Italian)
- Guerrieri, Vito (1848), "Brindisi", in: Vincenzo D'Avino (1848). Cenni storici sulle chiese arcivescovili, vescovili, e prelatizie (nulluis) del Regno delle Due Sicilie (in Italian). Napoli: dalle stampe di Ranucci. pp. 98–127.
- Kamp, Norbert (1975). Kirche und Monarchie im staufischen Königreich Sizilien. I. Prosopographische Grundlegung: 2. Apulien und Kalabrien. München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag. (in German)
- Kehr, Paul Fridolin (1962). Italia pontificia. Vol. IX: Samnium — Apulia — Lucania. Berlin: Weidmann. (in Latin)
- Leverano, Girolamo Marci di (1855). Descrizione, origini, e successi della provincia d'Otranto (in Italian). Napoli: stamperia dell' Iride. pp. 383–403.
- Lanzoni, Francesco (1927). Le diocesi d'Italia dalle origini al principio del secolo VII (an. 604). Faenza: F. Lega, pp. 305–310, 312, 317. (in Italian)
- Ughelli, Ferdinando; Coleti, Niccolò (1721). Italia sacra sive De episcopis Italiæ, et insularum adjacentium (in Latin). Tomus nonus (9). Venice: apud Sebastianum Coleti. pp. 3–46.