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- (Q. "blessed") An island-paradise in the Great Lake at the centre of primeval Middle-earth. It was the original home of the Valar, and thus the precursor to Valinor. It was at the place where the light of the Two Lamps mingled.
- (Q. 'outside Aman') The northern coastlands of Aman on the shores of the Great Sea. The region was outside Valinor, from which it was separated by the mountain-fence of the Pelóri. Araman was desolate, mountainous and frozen (arguably, tundra). To the north-east lay the Helcaraxë which (in the First Age) joined it with Middle-earth, and this was the way Melkor, and later the Noldor took after their Exile.
- In this area was Hanstovánen, the location where the Noldor stopped on their journey and heard Mandos's Prophecy of the North, pronouncing Doom on the Noldor for the Kinslaying and rebellion, and warning that if they proceeded they would not recover the Silmarils; moreover that they all will be slain or tormented by grief. This is where Finarfin and many of his people turned back and returned to Tirion, where Finarfin continued to rule the Noldor who remained in Aman.
- The easternmost city on Tol Eressëa and the Haven of the Eldar. When ships sailed west from Middle-earth to seek the Blessed Realm (Undying Lands), Avallónë was generally the first part of the Blessed Realm that they sighted.
- The harbour-city was founded either by the Teleri during their long stay there, before they left the island for Alqualondë, or more probably by the Elves returning from Middle-earth after the War of Wrath. In any case, it became the chief dwelling of the Noldor and Sindar, as they were not allowed or unwilling to resettle in Valinor (i.e. on the mainland of the Blessed Realm).
- The city became the symbol of the Blessed Realm to Men, as before on cloudless days one could see the tower of Avallónë from the Meneltarma in Númenor. After the fall of Númenor and the changing of the world, Avallónë became the port of arrival for ships taking the Straight Road. It is said that the Master Stone of the palantíri was placed in Avallónë, and that Elendil often looked that way desiring to see the Lost West.
- Tolkien was apparently evoking the island of Avalon in the legend of King Arthur, although the form Avallónë literally means "near Valinor" in Quenya; compare this with Atalantë, the name of Númenor evoking Atlantis. Moreover, in Tolkien's writings originally Avallon was a later name for the island of Tol Eressëa, not for the haven.
- The dark strip of land between the Pelóri Mountains and the Great Sea, lying to the south of the Bay of Eldamar. It was the home of Ungoliant before she went to Middle-earth with Melkor during the events of The Silmarillion.
- Avathar, being eaten away by the sea, was narrower than Araman, a similar region lying to the north of the Bay of Eldamar. But Avathar was a darker land; indeed it is accounted that there "the shadows were deepest and thickest in the world". This is the source of its name, which means 'Shadows' in ancient Quenya.
- Bay of Eldamar
- The Bay of Eldamar, also called the Bay of Elvenhome, is the greatest bay in Aman, the continent west of Middle-earth, and was the westernmost part of the ocean Belegaer. The bay is more or less in the centre of Aman's eastern coast, where it is overlooked by the towering Pelóri mountains, in particular Taniquetil. On its seaward (eastern) side the bay was surrounded by the Shadowy Seas.
- A single large island, Tol Eressëa is located in the bay. The part of the bay between Tol Eressëa and the mainland of Aman is the Shadowmere.
- The bay is named after Eldamar, the land whose shores it washed. Eldamar, which means "Elvenhome" in Quenya, is the main residence of Elves in Aman. The mainland part of Eldamar includes the cities of Tirion and Alqualondë; Alqualondë's harbour provided direct access to the bay. Tol Eressëa is also part of Eldamar; thus the island's coastal settlements, such as Avallónë, were on the bay.
- When the first two tribes of Elves – the Vanyar and Noldor – came to Aman from Middle-earth, they landed in this bay. Later when the Teleri came, Ossë begged Ulmo to set Tol Eressëa in the Bay of Eldamar, and Ulmo (or with Uin the great Right Whale) did this. But when the Noldor longed to see their kin again, Manwë commanded Ossë to teach the Teleri the art of ship-making, and grudgingly he did so. The Teleri loved to sail their swan-ships around the Bay of Eldamar.
- Cottage of Lost Play
- The home of Lindo and Vairë in Kortirion, in Tol Eressëa. It is a place of joy and mirth in which Elves live of old and also there gather some of the exiled Elves that choose to return to Valinor and other Dark Elves that come for the first time to Aman. Also, here came such of the Men that trod Olórë Mallë, the Path of Dreams (these usually belonged to the fathers of the Fathers of Men). The Cottage of Lost Play is where Eriol is received and it is there that he learns of the Elves and their world, of the Valar and of the stories of old.
- Tolkien originally conceived of the Cottage of Lost Play as the opening scene of his whole legendarium; it is the name of the first chapter in The Book of Lost Tales.
- The land where the Quendi or Elves awoke. It means in Quenya 'water (nén) of awakening (cuivië)' and it is said to have been on the shore of a large gulf in the inland Sea of Helcar in the far east of Middle-earth. The Awakening of the Elves took place in ancient times, during the Years of the Trees. Cuiviénen has been destroyed (perhaps by natural forces) since then.
- The first Sundering of the Elves took place when the Eldar departed from Cuiviénen to Valinor, leaving behind the Avari. It is unknown how long the Avari remained in Cuiviénen during the First Age, but it is certain that the Sea of Helcar ceased to exist after the War of Wrath, for "to Cuiviénen there is no returning".
- Dark Land
- A continent south of Middle-earth. Little is known about this continent. It was formed during the Siege of Utumno, when the originally larger continent of Middle-earth was broken up into the last remnants of the Northland and Midland (which became Middle-earth proper) and the Southland (which became the Dark Land). The southern part of the Dark Land was as cold as the far north of Middle-earth due to its proximity to the Chasm of Ilmen.
- It is called the Dark Land due to the fact that Ungoliant, a giant spider who ate light and excreted darkness went to live there soon after the beginning of the First Age, thus making the land too dark ever to be lightened. One of two things could have happened to Ungoliant in the Dark Land: either she succumbed to lack of prey and ate herself, or was killed by Eärendil on one of his many voyages.
- In the Second Age the Dark Land was visited by Númenórean sailors and was known as the Nether Darkness.
- The Dark Land is analogous to the mythical Terra Australis.
- Door of Night
- Morgoth was cast after his defeat in the War of Wrath. Its origins are unclear: according to some accounts, it was made by the Valar as a passage for the Sun, which would return into the World through the Gates of Morning in the east. According to others, though, it was made expressly as a gateway through which to expel Morgoth. The Door of Night was guarded by Eärendil, bearing his Silmaril aloft in his shining ship Vingilot which he used to journey through the "oceans of heaven (...) into the starless voids". A guarded portal in the distant West of the World, through which
- Eastern Sea
- The ocean on the remote east of the continent of Middle-earth. Middle-earth's vast regions of Rhûn and Harad had shores on the Eastern Sea.
- Other continents or large islands lay on the far sides of the Eastern Sea (i.e. those farthest from Middle-earth): the Land of the Sun in the east, and the Dark Land to the south.
- In some accounts, Hildórien, the land in eastern Middle-earth where the race of Men awoke, had shores on the Eastern Sea.
- Originally, in the primeval configuration of the world, the Eastern Sea had not been connected to Belegaer, the ocean on the western side of Middle-earth. However the titanic Battle of the Powers caused the inland Sea of Ringil in the south of Middle-earth to expand, splitting the continent at this location, and thus joining Belegaer with the Eastern Sea via a new expanse of oceanic sea.
- This passage was used by Númenórean sailors in the Second Age to enter and explore the Eastern Sea. The Númenóreans in their calendar reckoned the 24-hour day as beginning when the sun rose out of the Eastern Sea.
- In the world of Middle-earth, the Eastern Sea represents a mythical view of the Indian Ocean, which itself was formerly known as the Eastern Sea.
- Enchanted Isles
- The Enchanted Isles are the bewitched archipelago in the Shadowy Seas. The Isles and their Seas were located in the far west of Belegaer, the ocean to the west of Middle-earth. The Isles lay in a rough arc off the central east coast of Aman, where they mark the seaward limits of the Bay of Eldamar.
- The Isles and the Shadowy Seas were created as part of the Hiding of Valinor to guard the seaward approaches to Eldamar and Valinor, the realms of immortals. Even if mariners could overcome the perils of the Shadowy Seas, the Enchanted Isles themselves presented additional dangers. The first of these was the dark rocky reefs around each of the Isles. The rocks were often hidden by mists, and sometimes ships crashed into the rocks accidentally. However some mariners were lured onto the reefs by the siren-like sighing of the waves that washed the rocks. And some mariners did not need luring, but, having come to loathe the sea, were driven to find solid ground. Those who "ever set foot on the islands were there entrapped, and slept until the Change of the World."
- In Tolkien's early writings, the islands were called the Magic Isles, and were also associated with the Twilit Isles and the Harbourless Isles.
- In the earliest writings, the island nearest to Tol Eressëa has a structure called the Tower of Pearl. The whole tower glimmered, and thus was a sort of lighthouse. It is inhabited by a mysterious being called the Sleeper.
- Fen of Serech
- The Fen of Serech was a marshy area on the north of Beleriand near the source of the mighty River Sirion. The Fen played an important role in many ancient battles both as a strategic barrier and a defensive tool. Most notably, it provided Turgon with an escape route back to Gondolin in the Nírnaeth Arnoediad. While Húrin and Huor made a stand on the edge of the marsh, Turgon was able to lose the enemy within the Fen and proceed south, thus ensuring that Gondolin would not yet be discovered.
- The stronghold of Fëanor and his sons in the north of Valinor, built after the banishment of Fëanor from Tirion. A great number of the Noldor, including their king Finwë, went with Fëanor into exile.
- It was also home to the treasury of Fëanor where he kept the Silmarils, and the place where Melkor slew Finwë and took the Silmarils, the three of which were never together in the hands of the elves again. It was a great fortress and armoury. It was one of the few places in Valinor that housed military equipment.
- The Great Gulf divided Beleriand and the other northern parts of Middle-earth from the unknown south during the First Age.
- The Great Gulf was created after the destruction of the Two Lamps by Melkor and in the following war, when the Valar widened the great sea Belegaer. The Gulf started at the southern end of Beleriand, and from there flowed east all the way to where later was south Gondor, where a narrow strip of land separated it from the Sea of Helcar. North of the Great Gulf lay the lands of Beleriand and Eriador, south of it lay those lands which later would be known as Far Harad.
- Great Lake
- The Great Lake lay at the centre of primeval Middle-earth. The region of the lake received the light of both of the Two Lamps of the Valar, and thus contained the richest plant and animal life in the Spring of Arda. The original dwellings of the Valar were on Almaren, an island in the lake.
- It seems the Great Lake disappeared in the titanic tumults that destroyed the Two Lamps and the Valar's dwellings on Almaren.
- Also called the Helcaracsë or the Grinding Ice, this was the vast perilous icy strait between the continents of Aman and Middle-earth. Its exact nature is unclear, but it seems to have been broken and shifting pack ice covering the northernmost parts of the Great Sea Belegaer.
- Helcaraxë is first recorded as having been crossed by Melkor and Ungoliant after the darkening of the Two Trees, then later by Fingolfin and his people. Fingolfin's people suffered great loss on their epic journey, which took months or possibly years. One of the victims was Elenwë, wife of Turgon. One of the survivors was Galadriel, who lived in Middle-Earth until the War of the Ring.
- The land where the race of Men awoke. Its name (Hildor+ien) means 'Land of the Followers', a reference to the name Hildor (Followers) given to Men by Elves. It is said to have been in the far east of Middle-earth. In some accounts, Hildórien had shores on the Eastern Sea. Tolkien mentioned in a footnote that "Men awoke in Mesopotamia", this may hint at the possibility that Hildorien corresponded to the area of Mesopotamia or the region equated to it on his sketch-maps of Arda.
- According to legends of the Edain, Morgoth visited Men in Hildórien and converted them away from Eru Ilúvatar, and Men were made mortal in divine punishment. However this was merely a trait bestowed upon Men by Eru and not out of punishment. To escape the evil of Morgoth and his followers, the Atanatári were the first to flee Hildórien, travelling west to arrive eventually in Beleriand.
- Iron Mountains
- Also called the Ered Engrin, these were a range of immense mountains in the far north of Middle-earth. Morgoth's fortress of Angband was located under Thangorodrim, a part of the Iron Mountains that overlooked the great plain of Ard-galen towards Dorthonion and central Beleriand in the south. Much of the range was destroyed in the War of Wrath.
- see Land of the Sun
- Land of the Sun
- Also called the Sun-Lands, this is an empty land where the Sun rises at dawn. It lay to the east of Middle-earth, on the far side of the Eastern Sea. Nothing is known of its geography except that there was a curve-shaped mountain range called the Wall of the Sun that corresponds to the Pelóri Mountains of Aman to the far west. The highest peak of the Wall of the Sun is Kalormë, which is an eastern counterpart to Taniquetil. The Gates of Morning, through which the Sun enters Arda are situated here.
- In the Ambarkanta, this region is called the Dark land of the Sun.
- The term should not be confused with "Sunlands", the Hobbit name for Harad (as seen in The Two Towers), nor with "Sunlending", the Rohirrim name for Anórien.
- In the game Middle-earth Role Playing by Iron Crown Enterprises, a broken Quenya name for the land—Romenor (Easternesse)—was invented.
- Maglor's Gap
- A low-lying region between the Blue Mountains and Himring just south of Lothlann. This space was the largest gap in the northernmost mountains of Beleriand.
- The Orocarni was a mountain range in the far east of Middle-earth. The Orocarni roughly followed the line of the Red Mountains which had been made by the Valar before Arda was marred and the symmetry was lost in the wars against Melkor. On the western slopes of the Orocarni grew a massive forest known as the Wild Wood, and near a great waterfall of a river that flowed into the Inland Sea of Helcar the bay of Cuiviénen lay, where the Elves woke. At their northern edge the Orocarni connected with the Ered Engrin, forming a situation much as the Ered Luin in the far west.
- The locations of the four Dwarf clans who lived in the East are unknown. Dwarves typically live under mountains; they might or might not have resided in the Orocarni. The distance between their mansions in the East and the Misty Mountains, specifically Gundabad, was said to be as great or greater than that of Gundabad's distance from the Blue Mountains in the West.
- Olórë Mallë
- The Olórë Mallë (Quenya "Path of Dreams") was a magical path created by the Vala Lórien that linked the Undying Lands of Aman and the mortal realms of Middle-earth. Only Elves could consciously use it to journey to Middle-earth and back home, as Men could only use it in their dreams to journey to the Cottage of Lost Play on Tol Eressëa, hence the name "Path of Dreams." It had many overhanging hedges and plenty of glow worms, and its soft and smooth nature meant that it was impossible to become tired while walking on it.
- It is not known whether or not the Olórë Mallë was destroyed after Arda was made round. See also the Straight Road.
- Pelóri Mountains
- The great mountain range of Aman. The range, which runs virtually the whole length of Aman near its east coast, separates Aman's large inland plains of Valinor from the shorelands on the Great Sea: Eldamar and the wastelands of Araman and Avathar.
- Pelóri means 'the fencing or defensive heights'; the mountains were raised by the Valar to protect their new dwellings when they moved to Aman from their original dwellings in Almaren. The range was also called the Mountains of Aman and the Mountains of Defence.
- Taniquetil is the highest of these mountains and is home to the throne of Manwë. It was said to be the highest mountain in the world; perhaps at least as tall as Mount Everest. Taniquetil stands in the middle of the range. The highest mountain in the southern parts of the range is Hyarmentir.
- The only known pass through the Pelóri is the Calacirya, which links Valinor and Eldamar. Located on the north side of Taniquetil, the pass is guarded by the city of Tirion.
- The Halls of Mandos are apparently in the northern foothills of this mountain range.
- Following Melkor's destruction of the Two Trees of Valinor and assault on Tilion, the Valar embarked on the Hiding of Valinor. Among other titanic works, they raised the Pelóri even higher "to sheer and dreadful heights, east, north and south. Their outer sides were dark and smooth, without foothold or ledge, and they fell in great precipices with faces hard as glass, and rose up to towers crowned with white ice."
- Sea of Helcar
- The Sea of Helcar (also Helkar) was a great inland sea which existed in Middle-earth in the First Age. Prior to the sea's existence, the Valar had created the Two Lamps; Illuin (the northern Lamp) had been situated atop the mountain-pillar Helcar. Due to Melkor's deceit the Two Lamps and their pillars were destroyed, and inland seas formed in their places. The northern sea was named the Sea of Helcar after the tower on which Illuin had stood.
- The awakening of the Elves was in Cuiviénen, the land on an eastern gulf of the Sea of Helcar. During their Great Journey the Elves passed to the north of the Sea of Helcar and through Wilderland on their way to Beleriand. After the War of Wrath at the end of the First Age, the Sea of Helcar was drained through the Great Gulf and disappeared.
- Christopher Tolkien and others have speculated that the Sea of Rhûn might "...be identified with the Sea of Helkar, vastly shrunken" (The War of the Jewels, pg. 174). In The Peoples of Middle-earth there are references to the Sea of Rhûn existing in the First Age, but no indication as to whether it should be equated with the Sea of Helcar or not.
- The Sea of Helcar should not be confused with the Helcaraxë.
- Sea of Ringil
- The Sea of Ringil was a great inland sea which existed in the south of Middle-earth during the First Age. Prior to the sea's existence, the Valar had created the Two Lamps; Ormal (the southern Lamp) had been situated atop the mountain-pillar Ringil. Due to Melkor's deceit the Two Lamps and their pillars were destroyed, and inland seas formed in their places. The southern sea was named the Sea of Ringil after the tower on which Ormal had stood.
- Eventually, during the Battle of the Powers in which Utumno was destroyed by the Valar, the titanic forces of the age-long battle itself caused the Sea of Ringil to extend to the northeast and southwest, forming a new and larger sea which cut right across southern Middle-earth, linking Belegaer to the Eastern Sea (the latter separating Middle-earth and the Lands of the Sun). In this process, the southernmost portion of Middle-earth was sundered from the mainland and became Hyarmenor or the Dark/South Land.
- Ormal's pillar shared its name (and general shape) with Fingolfin's sword, but there was no narrative connection.
- The Shadowmere is the ever-calm stretch of sea between the mainland of the Undying Lands and the island of Tol Eressëa. It is the western part of the Bay of Eldamar, which was turn the westernmost part of Belegaer, the ocean to the west of Middle-earth. The "lamplit towers of Tirion are mirrored on the Shadowmere." Not to be confused with the Shadowy Seas or the Mirrormere.
- Shadowy Seas
- The Shadowy Seas, which contained the archipelago of the Enchanted Isles, were a western part of Belegaer, the ocean on the west of Middle-earth. The Seas and the Isles were notoriously treacherous; indeed they had been created as part of the Hiding of Valinor to guard all seaward approaches to Eldamar and Valinor, the realms of the immortals. The Seas are thus a perilous portal between two worlds: the mortal world and the world of immortals.
- Mariners who attempted the Shadowy Seas soon found themselves lost and increasingly demented by the bewildering shadows. Then there were the overmastering eddies and currents, and sudden storms and winds. The Enchanted Isles had further perils.
- In the stories told in Middle-earth, the only mortals to successfully cross the Shadowy Seas were Eärendil and his companions near the end of the First Age. In S.A. 3319 the armada of Ar-Pharazôn of Númenor also passed the Shadowy Seas, but the result was cataclysmic.
- In Roverandom the titular protagonist briefly penetrates the Shadowy Seas to obtain a glimpse of Eldamar.
- Not to be confused with the Shadowmere.
- Straight Road
- The route that leaves the Earth's curvature and moves through sky and space to reach the land of Aman. It is so-called because it follows the old path across Belegaer from before the Akallabêth when the Flat World was made Round. It is only kept open to Elves, who are allowed to sail to it on their ships by a special grace of the Valar. A ship departing on the Straight Road, when observed from the shore, would slowly become smaller to sight until it disappeared in a point, and not drop behind the horizon. The Straight Road contains some kind of ethereal sea the ships of the Eldar can sail over through space to Valinor.
- It is noted in earlier writings by Tolkien that some mortals besides those carried on Elven ships like Frodo Baggins and Bilbo Baggins can also find this route in a Bermuda Triangle-like instance (like Ælfwine/Eriol from The Book of Lost Tales). The last paragraph of Akallabêth, as published in The Silmarillion, still contains indirect references to the 'Straight Road' and rumours concerning mariners and men lost upon the sea who entered the path, which he never altered or removed. Furthermore, according to unfinished notes for The Lost Road, Tolkien might have thought of the location of the Straight Road as possibly somewhere near the Azores in modern times.
- The Straight Road has a similar function to, and possibly replaced, the Olórë Mallë.
- The tallest mountain in Arda. It towers at the centre of the Pelóri, the great mountain-range on the east coast of the Undying Lands. On its peak rests Ilmarin, the palaces of Manwë and Varda, the King and Queen of the Valar. The name means "high white peak", although the Vanyar, who live on the Mountain, call it Oiolossë which means "snow ever-white". By the Sindar it is called Amon Uilos. The mountain holds the same place in Arda as Mount Olympus holds in Greek mythology
- Taniquetil's sheer north face is one of the sides of the great pass of Calacirya, where the city of Tirion is located. The mountain's north-east side arises sheer from the sea in the Bay of Eldamar.
- Tolkien's painting of Taniquetil, also entitled 'Halls of Manwë', appears on the cover of J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator.
- The Taniquetil Montes on Titan, the great moon of Saturn, are named after Tolkien's Taniquetil.
- This was a group of three volcanic mountains in the Iron Mountains in the far north of Middle-earth during the First Age. The highest peaks of Middle-earth, they were raised by Morgoth, who delved his fortress of Angband beneath them, and far back into the Iron Mountains. Thangorodrim ("The Mountains of Oppression" or, literally, "oppression mountain group", pronounced [θaŋɡɔˈrɔdrim]) was said to have been the piles of slag from Morgoth's furnaces and rubble from the delving of Angband, but at the same time the mountains were solid enough to form sheer precipices; Maedhros was nailed to a cliff of Thangorodrim, and Húrin imprisoned on a high terrace. The tops of Thangorodrim perpetually smoked, and sometimes spewed forth lava. The three peaks of Thangorodrim functioned as furnaces for Morgoth's great smithies deep in Angband. For a time the Eagles lived on Thangorodrim, but at some time during the First Age they moved to the Crissaegrim near Gondolin. At the base of the south face of the middle peak was the Great Gate of Angband, a deep canyon leading into the mountain, lined with towers and forts. There were also a number of secret gates scattered around the sides of the mountain group, from which Morgoth's hosts could issue forth and surprise their foes.
- Along with Beleriand and other significant parts of north-west Middle-earth, Thangorodrim was destroyed in the War of the Valar at the end of the First Age. The destruction of Thangorodrim in particular occurred when Ancalagon the Black crashed upon it as he died.
- Also known as Udûn (Sindarin: "hell"), this was the first fortress of Melkor, the primeval Dark Lord, in the far north of Middle-earth. The name Utumno contains the Quenya element tum or tumbo ("deep valley under or among hills"). Utumno was delved by Melkor after his return following his first expulsion from Arda. The Valar had by this time created the Two Lamps, and Utumno was built around Valian 'Year' 3400 under the Ered Engrin (the Iron Mountains north of Beleriand), where the light of the Two Lamps was very dim.
- Tolkien was not entirely consistent about the location of Utumno, but it was always placed in northern Middle-earth, in or behind the Ered Engrin. One of Tolkien's sketch maps from the Ambarkanta shows Utumno (with the earlier spelling "Utumna") north of the Ered Engrin, toward the western end of the mountain chain.:249 Early and late texts (reflected in The Silmarillion) distinguish between Melkor's first fortress Utumno and his later fortress Angband, the latter built beneath the western Ered Engrin, thereby creating the peaks of Thangorodrim above its entrance. But Tolkien's unfinished index for The Lord of the Rings describes Udûn in terms similar to Angband, reflecting a period in the development of the mythology that describes only a single fortress.:259–260
- Utumno was the base of Melkor's operations for 1149 Valian 'Years'. From there he assaulted the Two Lamps and began corrupting Arda. It was also here that the first captured Elves were taken, and breeding of the Orcs began. Giant spiders and other creatures also gathered or were bred there. Among Melkor's servants were the Balrogs; in the Third Age, Gandalf would address the Balrog of Moria as "Flame of Udûn!", using the Sindarin variant of the name of the fortress.
- Utumno was laid waste during the Battle of the Powers in the Valian 'Year' 1099 of the Years of the Trees. The Valar began this war against Melkor for the sake of the Elves. Utumno was besieged and destroyed, although not all sections were totally destroyed. Melkor was chained and dragged as a captive to Valinor.
- Walls of Night
- The extraordinary walls that surrounded Arda in ancient times, beyond Ekkaia, the Encircling Sea. In the west and east of the World, Ekkaia was wide, and the Walls were a great distance from land. In the north and south, however, the Encircling Sea was much narrower. This was how Melkor returned into the World during the Years of the Lamps of the Valar, coming secretly over the Walls of Night into the north of Arda, and building there his fortress of Utumno beyond the knowledge of the Valar.
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1977), Christopher Tolkien, ed., The Silmarillion, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Ch. 8 "Of the Darkening of Valinor", p. 73, ISBN 0-395-25730-1
- Tolkien, J. R. R. (1993), Christopher Tolkien, ed., Morgoth's Ring, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, The Later Quenta Silmarillion, p. 284, ISBN 0-395-68092-1
- J.R.R. Tolkien. 1983. The Book of Lost Tales, Part One: Part One. Retrieved on December 18. 2014
- J. R. R. Tolkien (2013), ed. Christina Scull & Wayne G. Hammond, Roverandom, Harper Collins, ch. 4 p. 145; ISBN 978-0-00-752328-3
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1977), The Silmarillion, George Allen & Unwin, ch. 3 p. 48; ISBN 0 04 823139 8
- The Ambarkanta, J.R.R. Tolkien
- The Book of Lost Tales Part 2, J.R.R. Tolkien
- The Silmarillion, J.R.R. Tolkien
- The Book of Lost Tales Part 2, J.R.R. Tolkien
- The Silmarillion, Akallabêth, J.R.R. Tolkien, p. 263.
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1986), The Shaping of Middle-earth, George Allen & Unwin, part 5 'The Ambarkanta', p. 239, 'East Sea' on Maps IV & V (pp. 249-251); ISBN 0-04-823279-3
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1986), The Shaping of Middle-earth, George Allen & Unwin, part 5 'The Ambarkanta', p. 239 and Map IV (p. 249); ISBN 0-04-823279-3
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1986), The Shaping of Middle-earth, George Allen & Unwin, part V 'The Ambarkanta' p. 239; ISBN 0-04-823279-3
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1977), The Silmarillion, George Allen & Unwin, 'Akallabêth' p. 263; ISBN 0 04 823139 8
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1955), The Return of the King, 2nd edition (1966), George Allen & Unwin, Appendix D, p. 386; ISBN 0 04 823047 2
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1977), The Silmarillion, George Allen & Unwin, ch. 11 p. 102; ISBN 0 04 823139 8
- Christopher Tolkien (1984, editor), The Book of Lost Tales part 2, ch. VI pp. 324-325; ISBN 0-04-823265-3
- The Silmarillion, index entry for Helcaraxë.
- Sauron Defeated, The History of Middle-earth, Vol. IX, part 5 "The Drowning of Andadûnê ", section "The theory of the work", p. 411.
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Peoples of Middle-earth, "Of Dwarves and Men"
- The Book of Lost Tales Part 1 J.R.R. Tolkien
- The Book of Lost Tales Part 1 J.R.R. Tolkien
- The Book of Lost Tales Part 1
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1977), The Silmarillion, George Allen & Unwin, ch. 1 p. 37 & Index p. 346; ISBN 0 04 823139 8
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1977), The Silmarillion, George Allen & Unwin, ch. 11 p. 102; ISBN 0 04 823139 8
- Christopher Tolkien, 1986. The Shaping of Middle-earth, p.258, Harper Collins Publishers
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1983), The Book of Lost Tales Part 1, George Allen & Unwin, ch. IX. p. 210; ISBN 0-04-823238-6
- J. R. R. Tolkien (1977), The Silmarillion, George Allen & Unwin, ch. 24 p. 248; ISBN 0 04 823139 8
- J. R. R. Tolkien (2013), Roverandom, Harper Collins, ch. 4 p. 145; ISBN 978-0-00-752328-3
- The Silmarillion, Akallabêth, J.R.R. Tolkien, p. 338.
- The Lost Road and Other Writings, The History of Middle-earth vol. V, p. 80.
- David Day (1991), Tolkien:The Illustrated Encyclopedia, Mitchell Beazley Publishers, Pages 116. ISBN 0-85533-924-1.
- The Lost Road and Other Writings, The History of Middle-earth vol. V, "The Etymologies", entry for TUB, p. 394.
- The Shaping of Middle-earth, The History of Middle Earth, Vol. IV.
- The Silmarillion, p. 47, 81.
- Hammond and Scull, The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, p. 297.