|Raeen, Rain or Arai|
Raeens or Arains, Mahomedans, Lahore
|Languages||Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Saraiki, Hindi|
|Country||Pakistan, India (Malerkotla),|
|Region||Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa|
|Feudal title||Mian, Mehar, Sardar and Chaudhry|
Arain (also known as Rain) are a major landowning tribe found mainly in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. In 1908 Punjabi Arains held over thirty-three percent of Jalandhar District's Land. The Arain caste holds one of the most prominent positions in Pakistan's politics, from 1985 to 2013, Arain's along with Rajputs, Sayyids and Jatts held the highest percentage of seats at the National Assembly.
The historian and political scientist Christophe Jaffrelot agrees, believing that they are displaced farming communities who moved to Punjab from Sindh and Multan as Arab Muslim armies encroached. Jaffrelot also believes the community to be related to the Kamboj community mainly in the northern India and eastern Pakistan. Although the belief of a Kamboj relation largely comes from Baxley and has been un-proved since, as noted by later historians and Arain in many places do not marry Kamboj seeing them as inferior. Additionally H.A Rose notes that since some Kamboj are also Muslims yet none-the-less are viewed separate from Arain, there are likely to be other point of differences in origin between Arain and Kamboj..
Ishtiaq Ahmed, a political scientist that is also a member of the Arain community, acknowledges that some early Arain texts ascribe a Persian origin and others a Rajput descent. He says that the Arain claims of Arab descent could be viewed as a claim to status as "conquerors and original Muslims". He believes that the Arains "are a mix of many ethnicities and races", similar to other "farming castes of the Punjab and Haryana".
British Raj period
In pre-partition Lahore district they were the main Muslim-landowning group located close to the urban areas while in the rural areas of the districts Jats predominated. When the British wanted land developed in the Punjab after its annexation, the Arain were brought in to cultivate lands around the cities, and were one of the preferred agricultural castes to assist with the opening up of the agrarian frontier in canal colonies between 1885 and 1940. The Arain received 86 per cent of the land that was allotted to Muslim agricultural castes in canal colonies.[need quotation to verify]
The British favoured them for their "hard work, frugality and sense of discipline". Subsequent development of towns and cities and increasing urbanization resulted in the value of the land settled by Arain to rise significantly, and Arain families thus flourished. Education was prioritised with the new-found wealth and the Arain came to dominate the legal profession amongst urban Punjabi Muslims. Many used law to enter politics.
- Adina Beg - Governor of Punjab in 1758
- Chaudhry Muhammad Ali - Prime Minister of Pakistan 1955 to 1956
- Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq - Sixth President of Pakistan
- Mian Family Baghbanpura - An Arain family of Lahore
- "Jullandar Gazetteer". Imperial Gazetteers: 89. 1908.
- Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Peasant History of Late Pre-colonial and Colonial India, Volume 8. Center for studies in Civilization. p. 195. ISBN 9788131716885. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- Donald Anthony Low. Soundings in Modern South Asian History. University of California Press. p. 375. ISBN 978-0520007703. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- Burki, Shahid Javed (October 1988). "Pakistan under Zia, 1977-1988". Asian Survey. 28 (10): 1082–1100. doi:10.1525/as.1988.28.10.01p0206e. JSTOR 2644708. (subscription required)
- Anwar, Ayub. "Leading Role of Political Dynasties of Faisalabad Division in Politics – 1985 to 2015" (PDF). Cite journal requires
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (2004). A History Of Pakistan And Its Origins. trans. Beaumont, Gilliam. Anthem Press. pp. 154, 208. ISBN 9781843311492. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- A glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North-West Frontier Province By H.A. Rose Vol II/A. p. 13 (footnote) and 15.
- "Jullundar Gazetteer". Imperial Gazetteer: 89+. 1908.
- Ahmed, Ishtiaq (18 April 2006). "There is many a slip betwixt cup and lip". Daily Times. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-15.
- Shaw, Alison (2000). Kinship and Continuity: Pakistani Families in Britain. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-9-05823-075-1.
- "The Punjab Canal Colonies', 1885-1940", Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University, 1980, p.29
- "The Punjab Canal Colonies', 1885-1940", Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University, 1980; and Imran Ali, The Punjab Under Imperialism, 1885-1947 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1988).
- "Dina Arain: the master 'double game' player".
- Pakistan Under the Military: Eleven Years of Zia Ul-Haq by Shahid Javed Burki, Craig Baxter, Robert LaPorte, Kamal Azfar Pg.4
- Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military By Husain Haqqani pg.112
- The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849-1947 by Tan Tai Yong pg.263