Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance. It is the applied form of behavior analysis; the other two forms are radical behaviorism (or the philosophy of the science) and the experimental analysis of behavior (or basic experimental research).
The name "applied behavior analysis" has replaced behavior modification because the latter approach suggested attempting to change behavior without clarifying the relevant behavior-environment interactions. In contrast, ABA tries to change behavior by first assessing the functional relationship between a targeted behavior and the environment. Further, the approach often seeks to develop socially acceptable alternatives for aberrant behaviors.
ABA has been brought to bear on a wide range of areas and behavioral problems. Examples include such things as early intensive behavioral interventions for children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research on the principles influencing criminal behavior, as well as HIV prevention, conservation of natural resources, education, gerontology, health and exercise, industrial safety, language acquisition, littering, medical procedures, parenting, psychotherapy, seatbelt use, severe mental disorders, sports, substance abuse, phobias, pediatric feeding disorders, and zoo management and care of animals.
- 1 Definition
- 2 History
- 3 Characteristics
- 4 Concepts
- 5 Measuring behavior
- 6 Analyzing behavior change
- 7 Functional analysis (psychology)
- 7.1 History of functional analysis
- 7.2 Functional behavior assessment (FBA)
- 7.3 Functions of behavior
- 7.4 Function versus topography
- 7.5 Method of identifying functions of behavior
- 7.6 Conducting a functional behavior assessment
- 8 Technologies developed through ABA research
- 9 Efficacy in autism
- 10 Major journals
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
ABA is an applied science devoted to developing procedures which will produce observable changes in behavior. It is to be distinguished from the experimental analysis of behavior, which focuses on basic experimental research, but it uses principles developed by such research, in particular operant conditioning and classical conditioning. Behavior analysis adopts the viewpoint of radical behaviorism, treating thoughts, emotions, and other covert activity as behavior that is subject to the same rules as overt responses. This represents a shift away from methodological behaviorism, which restricts behavior-change procedures to behaviors that are overt, and was the conceptual underpinning of behavior modification.
Behavior analysts also emphasize that the science of behavior must be a natural science as opposed to a social science. As such, behavior analysts focus on the observable relationship of behavior with the environment, including antecedents and consequences, without resort to "hypothetical constructs".
The beginnings of ABA can be traced back to Teodoro Ayllon and Jack Michael's study "The psychiatric nurse as a behavioral engineer" (1959) that they submitted to the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior (JEAB) as part of their doctoral dissertation at the University of Houston. Ayllon and Michael were training the staff and nurses at a psychiatric hospital how to use a token economy based on the principles of operant conditioning and behavioral engineering—a synonym for ABA, also then called behavior modification—with their patients, who were mostly adults with schizophrenia, but some were also mentally retarded children. This paper later served as the basis for the founding of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA), which publishes research on the application of behavior analysis to a wide array of socially relevant behavior.
A group of faculty and researchers at the University of Washington, including Donald Baer, Sidney W. Bijou, Bill Hopkins, Jay Birnbrauer, Todd Risley, and Montrose Wolf, applied the principles of behavior analysis to instruct developmentally disabled children, manage the behavior of children and adolescents in juvenile detention centers, and organize employees who required proper structure and management in businesses, among other situations. In 1968, Baer, Bijou, Risley, Birnbrauer, Wolf, and James Sherman joined the Department of Human Development and Family Life at the University of Kansas, where they founded the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis.
Notable graduate students from the University of Washington include Robert Wahler, James Sherman, and Ivar Lovaas. Lovaas established the UCLA Young Autism Project while teaching at the University of California, Los Angeles, and devoted nearly half a century to groundbreaking research and practice aimed at improving the lives of children with autism and their families. In 1965, Lovaas published a series of articles that outlined his system for coding observed behaviors, described a pioneering investigation of the antecedents and consequences that maintained a problem behavior, and relied upon the methods of errorless learning that was initially devised by Charles Ferster to teach nonverbal children to speak. Lovaas also described how to use social (secondary) reinforcers, teach children to imitate, and what interventions (including electric shocks) may be used to reduce aggression and life-threatening self-injury.
In 1987, Lovaas published the landmark study, "Behavioral Treatment and Normal Educational and Intellectual Functioning in Young Autistic Children". The experimental group in this study received up to 40-hours per week in a 1:1 teaching setting using errorless discrete trial training (DTT). The treatment is done at home with parents involved in every aspect of treatment, and the curriculum is highly individualized with a heavy emphasis on teaching eye contact and language. ABA principles are used to motivate learning and reduce non-desired behaviors. The outcome of this study indicated 47% of the experimental group (9/19) went on to lose their autism diagnosis and were described as indistinguishable from their typical adolescent peers. This included passing regular education without assistance, making and maintaining friends, and becoming self-sufficient as adults. These gains were maintained as reported in the 1993 study, "Long-Term Outcome for Children With Autism Who Received Early Intensive Behavioral Treatment". Lovaas’ work went on to be recognized by the US Surgeon General in 1999, and his research outcomes were replicated in university and private settings. The "Lovaas Method" went on to become known as early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI), or DTT for 30 to 40 hours per week.
In addition to being a major contributor of ABA, Lovaas taught now prominent behaviorists, such as Robert Koegel, Laura Schreibman, Tristram Smith, John McEachin, Ron Leaf, Doreen Granpeesheh, Jacquie Wynn, and thousands of UCLA students who took his "Behavior Modification" course during his 50 years of teaching. He also co-founded what is today the Autism Society of America (ASA), published hundreds of research articles and books, received state and national awards, and forced school districts to adopt evidence-based teaching programs. His work influenced how autism is treated, and improved the lives of families and children diagnosed with autism worldwide.
Over the years, "behavior analysis" gradually superseded "behavior modification"; that is, from simply trying to alter problematic behavior, behavior analysts sought to understand the function of that behavior, what antecedents promote and maintain it, and how it can be replaced by successful behavior. This analysis is based on careful initial assessment of a behavior's function and a testing of methods that produce changes in behavior.
While ABA seems to be intrinsically linked to autism intervention, it is also used in a broad range of other situations. Recent notable areas of research in JABA include autism, classroom instruction with typically developing students, pediatric feeding therapy, and substance-use disorders. Other applications of ABA include applied animal behavior, behavioral economics, behavioral medicine, behavioral neuroscience, clinical behavior analysis, forensic behavior analysis, increasing job safety and performance, schoolwide positive behavior support, and systematic desensitization for phobias.
- Applied: ABA focuses on the social significance of the behavior studied. For example, a non-applied researcher may study eating behavior because this research helps to clarify metabolic processes, whereas the applied researcher may study eating behavior in individuals who eat too little or too much, trying to change such behavior so that it is more acceptable to the persons involved.
- Behavioral: ABA is pragmatic; it asks how it is possible to get an individual to do something effectively. To answer this question, the behavior itself must be objectively measured. Verbal descriptions are treated as behavior in themselves, and not as substitutes for the behavior described.
- Analytic: Behavior analysis is successful when the analyst understands and can manipulate the events that control a target behavior. This may be relatively easy to do in the lab, where a researcher is able to arrange the relevant events, but it is not always easy, or ethical, in an applied situation. Baer et al. outline two methods that may be used in applied settings to demonstrate control while maintaining ethical standards. These are the reversal design and the multiple baseline design. In the reversal design, the experimenter first measures the behavior of choice, introduces an intervention, and then measures the behavior again. Then, the intervention is removed, or reduced, and the behavior is measured yet again. The intervention is effective to the extent that the behavior changes and then changes back in response to these manipulations. The multiple baseline method may be used for behaviors that seem irreversible. Here, several behaviors are measured and then the intervention is applied to each in turn. The effectiveness of the intervention is revealed by changes in just the behavior to which the intervention is being applied.
- Technological: The description of analytic research must be clear and detailed, so that any competent researcher can repeat it accurately. Cooper et al. describe a good way to check this: Have a person trained in applied behavior analysis read the description and then act out the procedure in detail. If the person makes any mistakes or has to ask any questions then the description needs improvement.
- Conceptually Systematic: Behavior analysis should not simply produce a list of effective interventions. Rather, to the extent possible, these methods should be grounded in behavioral principles. This is aided by the use of theoretically meaningful terms, such as "secondary reinforcement" or "errorless discrimination" where appropriate.
- Effective: Though analytic methods should be theoretically grounded, they must be effective. If an intervention does not produce a large enough effect for practical use, then the analysis has failed
- Generality: Behavior analysts should aim for interventions that are generally applicable; the methods should work in different environments, apply to more than one specific behavior, and have long-lasting effects.
Other proposed characteristics
In 2005, Heward et al. suggested that the following five characteristics should be added:
- Accountable: To be accountable means that ABA must be able to demonstrate that its methods are effective. This requires the repeatedly measuring the success of interventions, and, if necessary, making changes that improve their effectiveness.
- Public: The methods, results, and theoretical analyses of ABA must be published and open to scrutiny. There are no hidden treatments or mystical, metaphysical explanations.
- Doable: To be generally useful, interventions should be available to a variety of individuals, who might be teachers, parents, therapists, or even those who wish to modify their own behavior. With proper planning and training, many interventions can be applied by almost anyone willing to invest the effort.
- Empowering: ABA provides tools that give the practitioner feedback on the results of interventions. These allow clinicians to assess their skill level and build confidence in their effectiveness.
- Optimistic: According to several leading authors, behavior analysts have cause to be optimistic that their efforts are socially worthwhile, for the following reasons:
- The behaviors impacted by behavior analysis are largely determined by learning and controlled by manipulable aspects of the environment.
- Practitioners can improve performance by direct and continuous measurements.
- As a practitioner uses behavioral techniques with positive outcomes, they become more confident of future success.
- The literature provides many examples of success in teaching individuals considered previously unteachable.
Behavior refers to the movement of some part of an organism that changes some aspect of the environment. Often, the term behavior refers to a class of responses that share physical dimensions or functions, and in that case a response is a single instance of that behavior. If a group of responses have the same function, this group may be called a response class. "Repertoire" refers to the various responses available to an individual; the term may refer to responses that are relevant to a particular situation, or it may refer to everything a person can do.
Operant behavior is the so-called "voluntary" behavior that is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences. Specifically, operant conditioning refers to the three-term contingency that uses stimulus control, in particular an antecedent contingency called the discriminative stimulus (SD) that influences the strengthening or weakening of behavior through such consequences as reinforcement or punishment. The term is used quite generally, from reaching for a candy bar, to turning up the heat to escape an aversive chill, to studying for an exam to get good grades.
Respondent (classical) conditioning
Respondent (classical) conditioning is based on innate stimulus-response relationships called reflexes. In his famous experiments with dogs, Pavlov usually used the salivary reflex, namely salivation (unconditioned response) following the taste of food (unconditioned stimulus). Pairing a neutral stimulus, for example a bell (conditioned stimulus) with food caused the bell to elicit salivation (conditioned response). Thus, in classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus becomes a signal for a biologically significant consequence. Note that in respondent conditioning, unlike operant conditioning, the response does not produce a reinforcer or punisher (e.g. the dog does not get food because it salivates).
The environment is the entire constellation of stimuli in which an organism exists. This includes events both inside and outside of an organism, but only real physical events are included. A stimulus is an "energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells".
A stimulus can be described:
- Topographically by its physical features.
- Temporally by when it occurs.
- Functionally by its effect on behavior.
Reinforcement is the key element in operant conditioning and in most behavior change programs. It is the process by which behavior is strengthened. If a behavior is followed closely in time by a stimulus and this results in an increase in the future frequency of that behavior, then the stimulus is a positive reinforcer. If the removal of an event serves as a reinforcer, this is termed negative reinforcement. There are multiple schedules of reinforcement that affect the future probability of behavior.
Punishment is a process by which a consequence immediately follows a behavior which decreases the future frequency of that behavior. As with reinforcement, a stimulus can be added (positive punishment) or removed (negative punishment). Broadly, there are three types of punishment: presentation of aversive stimuli (e.g., pain), response cost (removal of desirable stimuli as in monetary fines), and restriction of freedom (as in a 'time out'). Punishment in practice can often result in unwanted side effects. Some other potential unwanted effects include resentment over being punished, attempts to escape the punishment, expression of pain and negative emotions associated with it, and recognition by the punished individual between the punishment and the person delivering it.
Extinction is the technical term to describe the procedure of withholding/discontinuing reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior, resulting in the decrease of that behavior. The behavior is then set to be extinguished (Cooper et al.). Extinction procedures are often preferred over punishment procedures, as many punishment procedures are deemed unethical and in many states prohibited. Nonetheless, extinction procedures must be implemented with utmost care by professionals, as they are generally associated with extinction bursts. An extinction burst is the temporary increase in the frequency, intensity, and/or duration of the behavior targeted for extinction. Other characteristics of an extinction burst include an extinction-produced aggression—the occurrence of an emotional response to an extinction procedure often manifested as aggression; and b) extinction-induced response variability—the occurrence of novel behaviors that did not typically occur prior to the extinction procedure. These novel behaviors are a core component of shaping procedures.
Discriminated operant and three-term contingency
In addition to a relation being made between behavior and its consequences, operant conditioning also establishes relations between antecedent conditions and behaviors. This differs from the S–R formulations (If-A-then-B), and replaces it with an AB-because-of-C formulation. In other words, the relation between a behavior (B) and its context (A) is because of consequences (C), more specifically, this relationship between AB because of C indicates that the relationship is established by prior consequences that have occurred in similar contexts. This antecedent–behavior–consequence contingency is termed the three-term contingency. A behavior which occurs more frequently in the presence of an antecedent condition than in its absence is called a discriminated operant. The antecedent stimulus is called a discriminative stimulus (SD). The fact that the discriminated operant occurs only in the presence of the discriminative stimulus is an illustration of stimulus control. More recently behavior analysts have been focusing on conditions that occur prior to the circumstances for the current behavior of concern that increased the likelihood of the behavior occurring or not occurring. These conditions have been referred to variously as "Setting Event", "Establishing Operations", and "Motivating Operations" by various researchers in their publications.
- Tact (psychology) – a verbal response evoked by a non-verbal antecedent and maintained by generalized conditioned reinforcement.
- Mand (psychology) – behavior under control of motivating operations maintained by a characteristic reinforcer.
- Intraverbals – verbal behavior for which the relevant antecedent stimulus was other verbal behavior, but which does not share the response topography of that prior verbal stimulus (e.g., responding to another speaker's question).
- Autoclitic – secondary verbal behavior which alters the effect of primary verbal behavior on the listener. Examples involve quantification, grammar, and qualifying statements (e.g., the differential effects of "I think..." vs. "I know...")
For assessment of verbal behavior from Skinner's system see Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills.
When measuring behavior, there are both dimensions of behavior and quantifiable measures of behavior. In applied behavior analysis, the quantifiable measures are a derivative of the dimensions. These dimensions are repeatability, temporal extent, and temporal locus.
Response classes occur repeatedly throughout time—i.e., how many times the behavior occurs.
- Count is the number of occurrences in behavior.
- Rate/frequency is the number of instances of behavior per unit of time.
- Celeration is the measure of how the rate changes over time.
This dimension indicates that each instance of behavior occupies some amount of time—i.e., how long the behavior occurs.
- Duration is the amount of time in which the behavior occurs.
Each instance of behavior occurs at a specific point in time—i.e., when the behavior occurs.
- Response latency is the measure of elapsed time between the onset of a stimulus and the initiation of the response.
- Interresponse time is the amount of time that occurs between two consecutive instances of a response class.
Derivative measures are unrelated to specific dimensions:
- Percentage is the ratio formed by combining the same dimensional quantities.
- Trials-to-criterion are the number of response opportunities needed to achieve a predetermined level of performance.
Analyzing behavior change
In applied behavior analysis, all experiments should include the following:
- At least one participant
- At least one behavior (dependent variable)
- At least one setting
- A system for measuring the behavior and ongoing visual analysis of data
- At least one treatment or intervention condition
- Manipulations of the independent variable so that its effects on the dependent variable may be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed
- An intervention that will benefit the participant in some way
Functional analysis (psychology)
History of functional analysis
Prior to the seminal article on functional analytic methodology for aberrant behaviors, behaviorists used the behavioral technology available to them at the time. Instead of treating the function of the disruptive behavior, behavioral psychologists would instead pre-assume consequences to alter disruptive behaviors. For example, in the past to decrease self-injurious behavior in an individual, behaviorists may have delivered an aversive stimulus contingent on the response, or assume a reinforcer without identifying the reinforcer that would be most motivating to the client (Iwata, 1988). This type of intervention was successful to the individual, but it was not uncommon to see other variations of aberrant behavior begin to appear. When applied behavior analysts let clients choose from a wide array of reinforcers (often determined through data collection and reinforcement assessments) in the mid-1980s, reinforcement was shown to be more effective than punishment contingencies. In general, applied behavior analysis as a field favors reinforcement based interventions over aversive contingencies, but at the time the behavioral technology was not advanced enough and the individuals needing intervention had a right to an effective treatment (Van Houten et al., 1988). Nevertheless, not all behavioral therapies involved the use of aversives prior to the mid-1980s. Some behaviorists (for instance, B.F. Skinner) always preferred reinforcement and extinction contingencies over punishment even during that time.
In 1977, Edward Carr published a paper on potential hypotheses for the occurrence and maintenance of self-injurious behaviors. This paper laid out the initial groundwork for a functional analysis of aberrant behaviors. In the paper, Carr described five potential causes for self-injurious behaviors that included (1) positive social reinforcement contingent on the response, (2) negative reinforcement in the form of removal of an aversive stimulus contingent on the response, (3) the response produced stimuli possessed reinforcing qualities (automatic reinforcement), (4) the behavior was a byproduct of an underlying psychological condition, and (5) psychodynamic hypothesis in which the behavior was an attempt to reduce guilt. Throughout the paper, Carr cited recent research to support the first three hypotheses, and disprove the latter two hypotheses, but no formal experiment was conducted to determine the controlling variables of the problem behavior.
In 1982, Iwata and colleagues conducted the first experimental analysis of the maintaining variables for self-injurious behavior. In the paper, the researchers alternated between specific conditions to examine whether or not the behavior occurred under specific environmental conditions. Through direct manipulation of the environment, the researchers could accurately identify the controlling variables of the aberrant behavior, and provide interventions that targeted the functional relationship between the behavior and the environment. Since this seminal article was published, a wide range of research has been published in the area of functional analyses of aberrant behaviors. The methodology has since become the gold standard in assessment and treatment of aberrant behaviors.
Functional behavior assessment (FBA)
Functional assessment of behavior provides hypotheses about the relationships between specific environmental events and behaviors. Decades of research have established that both desirable and undesirable behaviors are learned and maintained through interactions with the social and physical environment. Functional behavior assessments are used to identify controlling variables for challenging behaviors as the basis for intervention efforts designed to decrease the occurrence of these behaviors.
Functions of behavior
Behavior serves two major functions for an individual: (1) to obtain desired events, or (2) to escape/avoid undesired events. Put another way, individuals engage in behavior to get something or to get out of something. When trying to identify the function of a behavior, it is often helpful to think, "What purpose is this behavior serving the individual?" Described below are the common functions of behavior.
Access to attention (positive reinforcement: social): The individual engages in the behavior to obtain attention from another person. For example, a child throws a toy because it characteristically results in mom's attention. (If this behavior results in mom looking at child and giving him lots of attention—even if she's saying "NO"—he will be more likely to engage in the same behavior in the future to get mom's attention.) Common forms of attention include, but are not limited to, hugs, kisses, reprimands, frowns, smiles, etc.
Access to tangibles (positive reinforcement: tangible/activity): The individual engages in the behavior to obtain a specific item or engage in a specific activity from another person. For example, a child hits mom because s/he wants the toy mom is holding. (If this behavior results in mom giving the child the toy, s/he will be more likely to engage in the same behavior in the future to get mom's attention.) Common forms of tangible items include, but are not limited to, food, toys, movies, video games, etc.
Automatic positive reinforcement: The individual engages in the behavior because the response-produced stimulation possesses reinforcing characteristics. In other words, engaging in the behavior produces reinforcing stimulation unique to the specific context. For example, a child hits his/her eyes because it produces the specific stimulation of various colors and effects. Another example includes a child spinning a bowl on a table to produce the specific auditory stimulation unique to that object. Common forms of automatic stimulation include, but are not limited to, auditory stimulation, visual stimulation, endorphin release, etc.
Escape/avoid undesirable events (negative reinforcement)
Escape/removal of attention: The individual engages in the behavior to escape aversive socially mediated attention. Put another way, social situations that are aversive to the child are removed contingent on the behavior occurring. For example, a child hits the teacher to avoid talking in front of the class. Common forms of aversive social situations include, but are not limited to, smiles, hugs, frowns, corrections, group settings, etc.
Escape/removal of tasks or activities: The individual engages in the behavior to escape aversive tasks or demands. For example, when a child is told to take a bath he begins to cry, and his mother tells him he no longer has to take a bath. Another example includes a teacher telling a student to complete a set of worksheets, to which the student flips the desk and is sent to the principal's office. Being sent to the principal's office reinforced the behavior of flipping the desk because it allowed the child to escape the aversive activity of completing the worksheets. Common forms of aversive demands/activities include, but are not limited to, difficult tasks, changes in routines, unpredictability, etc.
Escape/avoid specific stimulation
Automatic negative reinforcement: The individual engages in the behavior because it produces a decrease in aversive stimulation. Put another way, something aversive is occurring in some location on the organism's body, and engaging in the behavior decreases the level of discomfort. For example, a child bangs his head against the wall to decrease the pain experienced from a toothache. Another example includes a child scratching his arm to decrease the level of itchiness experienced from a bug bite. Common forms of aversive stimulation abated by engaging in specific behaviors include sinus pain, itching, hunger, etc.
Function versus topography
As previously stated function refers to the effect the behavior produces on the environment. The actual form of the behavior is referred to the topography. Different behaviors may serve the same function, thus describing one limitation of treating behaviors based on form alone. For example, a child may scream, hit, and cry to obtain attention from his mother. What the behavior looks like often reveals little useful information about the conditions that account for it. However, identifying the conditions that account for a behavior, suggests what conditions need to be altered to change the behavior. Therefore, assessment of function of a behavior can yield useful information with respect to intervention strategies that are likely to be effective.
Method of identifying functions of behavior
FBA methods can be classified into three types:
- Indirect assessment
- Descriptive assessment
- Functional (experimental) analysis
This method uses structured interviews, checklists, rating scales, or questionnaires to obtain information from persons who are familiar with the person exhibiting the behavior to identify possible conditions or events in the natural environment that correlate with the problem behavior. They are referred to as "indirect" because they do not involve direct observation of the behavior, but rather they solicit information based on others' recollections of the behavior. This form of assessment typically yields the least reliable information about the function of behavior, but can provide insight as to possible functions of the behavior to be tested in the future, the form of the behaviors (e.g. screaming, hitting, etc.), and environments in which the behavior typically occurs (e.g. school, home, etc.). This type of assessment should be performed as the initial step of any functional behavior assessment to gather relevant information to complete more direct assessments.
Unlike the indirect methods of FBAs, descriptive functional behavior assessment employs direct observation of behavior. These observations occur in the environment in which the behavior naturally occurs (e.g. school, home, etc.) therefore there is no direct manipulation of the environment. The most common form of descriptive assessment involves recording the antecedents and consequences that naturally occur when the individual emits the behavior. This is referred to as ABC data collection, in which (A) represents the common antecedent, (B) represents the behavior of interest, and (C) represents the immediate consequences that occur following the behavior. ABC data collection is used to identify the naturally occurring consequences delivered in the environment in which the behavior occurs. ABC data collection can be conducted by a wide array of individuals who have received appropriate training on how to record the data. Another form of descriptive FBA is called a scatterplot. In this assessment, staff record the time and setting in which the behavior of interest occurs over a series of days. The data are plotted on a visual scale to indicate whether there are any patterns in the behavior (for example, if the behavior occurs more frequently during math instruction than it does during lunchtime). Although this assessment does not indicate the consequences maintaining the behavior, it can be used to identify some of the antecedent conditions that typically precede the behavior of interest.
Functional (experimental) analysis
A functional analysis is the most direct form of functional behavior assessment, in which specific antecedents and consequences are systematically manipulated to test their separate effects on the behavior of interest. Each manipulation of the antecedent and consequence in a particular situation is referred to a condition. In a functional analysis, conditions are typically alternated between quite rapidly independent of responding to test the different functions of behavior. When data paths are elevated above the control condition (described below) it can be said that there is a functional relation between that condition and the behavior of interest. Complexity, time restraints, and setting restraints, are a few limitations to this particular method. When deciding to use this method, it should be noted that there is a chance of high-risk behavior and the possibility of low-rate behaviors.
Below, common examples of experimental conditions are described. A standard functional analysis normally has four conditions (three test conditions and one control).
In this condition, the experimenter gives the individual moderately preferred items and instructs them to go play. After that initial instruction, the experimenter pretends to act busy and ignores all bids for attention from the individual. If the individual engages in the behavior of interest, the experimenter provides the individual with attention (commonly in the form of a reprimand). Behaviors that occur more frequently in this condition can be said to be attention maintained.
In this condition, the experimenter instructs the individual that it is time to work. After the initial instruction, the experimenter delivers a series of demands that the individual is typically required to complete (e.g. math problems, cleaning up, etc.). If the individual engages in the behavior of interest, the demand is removed and the child is allowed to take a break. Behaviors that occur more frequently in this condition can be said to be escape maintained.
In this condition, the child is left alone with a variety of items to engage with. If the child engages in the behavior of interest, no programmed consequences are delivered. Behaviors that occur more frequently in this condition can be said to be automatically maintained.
In this condition, the child is allowed to engage with a variety of items during the session. No demands are placed on the child throughout the duration of the session. The experimenter provides attention to the individual throughout the session on any behavior that is not the target behavior. If the target behavior occurs, the experimenter removes attention until the behavior has subsided. This session is meant to act as a control condition, meaning that the environment is enriched for the purpose of the behavior not occurring. Said another way, by meeting environmental needs for all possible functions, the individual is not likely to engage in the behavior of interest. This condition is used as a comparison to the other conditions. Any condition that is elevated to a large degree form the control condition, shows a higher degree experimental control indicating the functional relationship between the specific environmental conditions and the behavior of interest.
Conducting a functional behavior assessment
Functional behavior assessments are rarely limited to only one of the methods described above. The most common, and most preferred, method for identifying the function of behavior can be seen as a four-part processes.
- The gathering of information via indirect and descriptive assessment.
- Interpretation of information from indirect and descriptive assessment and formulation of a hypothesis about the purpose of problem behavior.
- Testing of a hypothesis using a functional analysis.
- Developing intervention options based on the function of problem behavior.
Technologies developed through ABA research
Task analysis is a process in which a task is analyzed into its component parts so that those parts can be taught through the use of chaining: forward chaining, backward chaining and total task presentation. Task analysis has been used in organizational behavior management, a behavior analytic approach to changing the behaviors of members of an organization (e.g., factories, offices, or hospitals). Behavioral scripts often emerge from a task analysis. Bergan conducted a task analysis of the behavioral consultation relationship and Thomas Kratochwill developed a training program based on teaching Bergan's skills. A similar approach was used for the development of microskills training for counselors. Ivey would later call this "behaviorist" phase a very productive one and the skills-based approach came to dominate counselor training during 1970–90. Task analysis was also used in determining the skills needed to access a career. In education, Englemann (1968) used task analysis as part of the methods to design the Direct Instruction curriculum.
The skill to be learned is broken down into small units for easy learning. For example, a person learning to brush teeth independently may start with learning to unscrew the toothpaste cap. Once they have learned this, the next step may be squeezing the tube, etc.
For problem behavior, chains can also be analyzed and the chain can be disrupted to prevent the problem behavior. Some behavior therapies, such as dialectical behavior therapy, make extensive use of behavior chain analysis, but is not philosophically behavior analytic.
A prompt is a cue that is used to encourage a desired response from an individual. Prompts are often categorized into a prompt hierarchy from most intrusive to least intrusive, although there is some controversy about what is considered most intrusive, those that are physically intrusive or those that are hardest prompt to fade (e.g.,verbal). In order to minimize errors and ensure a high level of success during learning, prompts are given in a most-to-least sequence and faded systematically. During this process, prompts are faded quickly as possible so that the learner does not come to depend on them and eventually behaves appropriately without prompting.
Types of prompts Prompters might use any or all of the following to suggest the desired response:
- Vocal prompts: Words or other vocalizations
- Visual prompts: A visual cue or picture
- Gestural prompts: A physical gesture
- Positional prompt: e.g., the target item is placed close to the individual.
- Modeling: Modeling the desired response. This type of prompt is best suited for individuals who learn through imitation and can attend to a model.
- Physical prompts: Physically manipulating the individual to produce the desired response. There are many degrees of physical prompts, from quite intrusive (e.g. the teacher places a hand on the learner's hand) to minimally intrusive (e.g. a slight tap).
This is not an exhaustive list of prompts; the nature, number, and order of prompts are chosen to be the most effective for a particular individual.
The overall goal is for an individual to eventually not need prompts. As an individual gains mastery of a skill at a particular prompt level, the prompt is faded to a less intrusive prompt. This ensures that the individual does not become overly dependent on a particular prompt when learning a new behavior or skill.
Thinning a reinforcement schedule
Thinning is often confused with fading. Fading refers to a prompt being removed, where thinning refers to an increase in the time or number of responses required between reinforcements. Periodic thinning that produces a 30% decrease in reinforcement has been suggested as an efficient way to thin. Schedule thinning is often an important and neglected issue in contingency management and token economy systems, especially when these are developed by unqualified practitioners (see professional practice of behavior analysis).
Generalization is the expansion of a student's performance ability beyond the initial conditions set for acquisition of a skill. Generalization can occur across people, places, and materials used for teaching. For example, once a skill is learned in one setting, with a particular instructor, and with specific materials, the skill is taught in more general settings with more variation from the initial acquisition phase. For example, if a student has successfully mastered learning colors at the table, the teacher may take the student around the house or his school and then generalize the skill in these more natural environments with other materials. Behavior analysts have spent considerable amount of time studying factors that lead to generalization.
Shaping involves gradually modifying the existing behavior into the desired behavior. If the student engages with a dog by hitting it, then he or she could have their behavior shaped by reinforcing interactions in which he or she touches the dog more gently. Over many interactions, successful shaping would replace the hitting behavior with patting or other gentler behavior. Shaping is based on a behavior analyst's thorough knowledge of operant conditioning principles and extinction. Recent efforts to teach shaping have used simulated computer tasks.
One teaching technique found to be effective with some students, particularly children, is the use of video modeling (the use of taped sequences as exemplars of behavior). It can be used by therapists to assist in the acquisition of both verbal and motor responses, in some cases for long chains of behavior.
Interventions based on an FBA
Critical to behavior analytic interventions is the concept of a systematic behavioral case formulation with a functional behavioral assessment or analysis at the core. This approach should apply a behavior analytic theory of change (see Behavioral change theories). This formulation should include a thorough functional assessment, a skills assessment, a sequential analysis (behavior chain analysis), an ecological assessment, a look at existing evidenced-based behavioral models for the problem behavior (such as Fordyce's model of chronic pain) and then a treatment plan based on how environmental factors influence behavior. Some argue that behavior analytic case formulation can be improved with an assessment of rules and rule-governed behavior. Some of the interventions that result from this type of conceptualization involve training specific communication skills to replace the problem behaviors as well as specific setting, antecedent, behavior, and consequence strategies.
Motivating operations (MOs) include establishing operations (EOs) and abolishing operations (AOs).
Efficacy in autism
This section needs expansion with: critical response. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)
ABA-based techniques are often used to change behaviors associated with autism, so much so that ABA itself is often mistakenly considered to be synonymous with therapy for autism. ABA for autism may be limited by diagnostic severity and IQ. The most influential and widely cited review of the literature regarding efficacy of treatments for autism is the National Research Council's book Educating Children with Autism (2001) which concluded that ABA was the best research supported and most effective treatment for the main characteristics of autism. Some critics[who?] claimed that the NRC's report was an inside job by behavior analysts but there were no board certified behavior analysts on the panel (which did include physicians, speech pathologists, educators, psychologists, and others). Other criticisms raised include the small sample sizes used in the published research to date. Medications have not been proven to correct the core deficits of ASDs and are not the primary treatment. ABA is the primary treatment according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Recent reviews of the efficacy of ABA-based techniques in autism include:
- A 2007 clinical report of the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that the benefit of ABA-based interventions in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) "has been well documented" and that "children who receive early intensive behavioral treatment have been shown to make substantial, sustained gains in IQ, language, academic performance, and adaptive behavior as well as some measures of social behavior".
- Researchers from the MIND Institute published an evidence-based review of comprehensive treatment approaches in 2008. On the basis of "the strength of the findings from the four best-designed, controlled studies", they were of the opinion that one ABA-based approach (the Lovaas technique created by Ole Ivar Løvaas) is "well-established" for improving intellectual performance of young children with ASD.
- A 2009 review of psycho-educational interventions for children with autism whose mean age was six years or less at intake found that five high-quality ("Level 1" or "Level 2") studies assessed ABA-based treatments. On the basis of these and other studies, the author concluded that ABA is "well-established" and is "demonstrated effective in enhancing global functioning in pre-school children with autism when treatment is intensive and carried out by trained therapists". However, the review committee also concluded that "there is a great need for more knowledge about which interventions are most effective".
- A 2009 paper included a descriptive analysis, an effect size analysis, and a meta-analysis of 13 reports published from 1987 to 2007 of early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI, a form of ABA-based treatment with origins in the Lovaas technique) for autism. It determined that EIBI's effect sizes were "generally positive" for IQ, adaptive behavior, expressive language, and receptive language. The paper did note limitations of its findings including the lack of published comparisons between EIBI and other "empirically validated treatment programs".
- In a 2009 systematic review of 11 studies published from 1987 to 2007, the researchers wrote "there is strong evidence that EIBI is effective for some, but not all, children with autism spectrum disorders, and there is wide variability in response to treatment". Furthermore, any improvements are likely to be greatest in the first year of intervention.
- A 2009 meta-analysis of nine studies published from 1987 to 2007 concluded that EIBI has a "large" effect on full-scale intelligence and a "moderate" effect on adaptive behavior in autistic children.
- In 2011, investigators from Vanderbilt University under contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality performed a comprehensive review of the scientific literature on ABA-based and other therapies for autism spectrum disorders; the ABA-based therapies included the UCLA/Lovaas method and the Early Start Denver Model (the latter developed by Sally Rogers and Geraldine Dawson). They concluded that "both approaches were associated with ... improvements in cognitive performance, language skills, and adaptive behavior skills".:ES-9 However, they also concluded that "the strength of evidence ... is low", "many children continue to display prominent areas of impairment", "subgroups may account for a majority of the change", there is "little evidence of practical effectiveness or feasibility beyond research studies", and the published studies "used small samples, different treatment approaches and duration, and different outcome measurements".:ES-10
A 2009 systematic review and meta-analysis by Spreckley and Boyd of four small-n 2000–2007 studies (involving a total of 76 children) came to different conclusions than the aforementioned reviews. Spreckley and Boyd reported that applied behavior intervention (ABI), another name for EIBI, did not significantly improve outcomes compared with standard care of preschool children with ASD in the areas of cognitive outcome, expressive language, receptive language, and adaptive behavior. In a letter to the editor, however, authors of the four studies meta-analyzed claimed that Spreckley and Boyd had misinterpreted one study comparing two forms of ABI with each other as a comparison of ABI with standard care, which erroneously decreased the observed efficacy of ABI. Furthermore, the four studies' authors raised the possibility that Spreckley and Boyd had excluded some other studies unnecessarily, and that including such studies could have led to a more favorable evaluation of ABI. Spreckley, Boyd, and the four studies' authors did agree that large multi-site randomized trials are needed to improve the understanding of ABA's efficacy in autism. Some initial, theoretical work has been initiated to use applied behavioral analysis (ABA) as a foundation for agent-mediated, AI-based instructions for children with autism spectrum disorder.
A United States District Court Judge ruled withholding ABA from children (0–21) with autism causes irreparable harm, finding Elizabeth Dudek of Florida's Agency for Healthcare Administration's position suggesting ABA was experimental was arbitrary and capricious, ordering AHCA enjoined from withholding ABA. Thereafter, CMS ordered its guidance that all states to cover ABA via Head Start and Early Head Start EPSDT programs.
Further research is clearly required, specifically to include larger and thus more representative samples.
Controversy regarding ABA persists in the autism community. Various major figures within the autistic community have written biographies detailing harm caused by the provision of ABA. Several of these people have since been diagnosed with PTSD and depression. Less scholarly reviews were provided by Elizabeth Devita-Raeburn in The Atlantic magazine and by an ex-practitioner.
A 2018 study, based on a survey of 'post-traumatic stress symptoms' completed by individuals with presumed, self-reported diagnosis of ASD and their caregivers, found that 46% of the individuals who also reported receiving ABA treatment met the author's "diagnostic threshold for PTSD" via their survey score, versus 28% of respondents not reporting receipt of ABA treatment. Individuals reported as receiving ABA were 86% more likely on average (41% for adults, 130% for children) to meet the author's "diagnostic threshold". However, in the same journal and same year, the study was heavily criticized by peer reviewers who used objective evaluation to note the study's multiple critical methodological and conceptual flaws. These significant issues included hypothesis-testing bias, non-validated diagnoses of ASD and measures of 'post-traumatic stress symptoms', and indirect survey-based measures with leading questions, correlation-based conclusions, incomplete treatment descriptions, and unverified self-report with tendencies for response bias and unreliable 'say-do' correspondence. These authors expressed caution to families and consumers who could be misled into falsely believing that "an intervention with vast amounts of empirical support is harmful rather than effective...[due to a] biased analysis which led to striking claims with little to no evidence to support these claims."
Applied behavior analysts publish in many journals. Some examples of "core" behavior analytic journals are:
- Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
- Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
- Journal of Organizational Behavior Management
- Journal of Behavioral Education
- Journal of the Analysis of Verbal Behavior
- Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice
- The Behavior Analyst Today
- The Behavior Analyst
- The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis
- Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions
- Journal of Early and Intensive Behavioral Interventions
- The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy
- The Journal of Behavioral Assessment and Intervention in Children
- The Behavioral Development Bulletin
- The Journal of Precision Teaching and Standard Celeration
- Behavior and Social Issues
- Journal of Behavior Analysis of Sports, Health, Fitness, and Behavioral Medicine
- Journal of Behavior Analysis of Offender and Victim: Treatment and Prevention
- Behavioral Health and Medicine
- Applied Animal Behaviour Science
- Behavior Modification
- Behavior Therapy
- Behavior and Philosophy
- Association for Behavior Analysis International
- Autism rights movement
- Behavior analysis of child development
- Behavior therapy
- Behavioral activation (BA)
- Educational psychology
- Parent management training
- Professional practice of behavior analysis
- Baer, D.M.; Wolf, M.M. & Risley, T.R. (1968). "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 1 (1): 91–97. doi:10.1901/jaba.1968.1-91. PMC 1310980. PMID 16795165.
- See also footnote number "(1)" of [and the whole "What is ABA?" section of] «Olive, Dr. Melissa. "What is ABA?". Applied Behavioral Strategies. Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015. », where the same definition is given, (or quoted), and it credits (or mentions) both [i] the source "Baer, Wolf & Risley, 1968" and [ii] another source, called "Sulzer-Azaroff & Mayer, 1991"
- Mace, F.C. (1994). "The significance and future of functional analysis methodologies". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 27 (2): 385–392. doi:10.1901/jaba.1994.27-385. PMC 1297814. PMID 16795830.
- Baer, D.M.; Wolf, M.M. & Risley, T.R. (1987). "Some still-current dimensions of applied behavior analysis". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 20 (4): 313–327. doi:10.1901/jaba.1987.20-313. PMC 1286071. PMID 16795703.
- F.C. Mace; T.S. Critchfield (May 2010). "Translational research in behavior analysis: Historical traditions and imperative for the future". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 93 (3): 293–312. doi:10.1901/jeab.2010.93-293. PMC 2861871. PMID 21119847.
- Dillenburger, K.; Keenan, M. (2009). "None of the As in ABA stand for autism: dispelling the myths". J Intellect Dev Disabil. 34 (2): 193–95. doi:10.1080/13668250902845244. PMID 19404840.
- DeVries, J.E.; Burnette, M.M.; Redmon, W.K. (1991). "AIDS prevention: Improving nurses' compliance with glove wearing through performance feedback". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 24 (4): 705–11. doi:10.1901/jaba.1991.24-705. PMC 1279627. PMID 1797773.
- Brothers, K.J.; Krantz, P.J.; McClannahan, L.E. (1994). "Office paper recycling: A function of container proximity". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 27 (1): 153–60. doi:10.1901/jaba.1994.27-153. PMC 1297784. PMID 16795821.
- Dardig, Jill C.; Heward, William L.; Heron, Timothy E.; Nancy A. Neef; Peterson, Stephanie; Diane M. Sainato; Cartledge, Gwendolyn; Gardner, Ralph; Peterson, Lloyd R.; Susan B. Hersh (2005). Focus on behavior analysis in education: achievements, challenges, and opportunities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-111339-9.
- Gallagher, S.M.; Keenan M. (2000). "Independent use of activity materials by the elderly in a residential setting". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 33 (3): 325–28. doi:10.1901/jaba.2000.33-325. PMC 1284256. PMID 11051575.
- De Luca, R.V.; Holborn, S.W. (1992). "Effects of a variable-ratio reinforcement schedule with changing criteria on exercise in obese and nonobese boys". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 25 (3): 671–79. doi:10.1901/jaba.1992.25-671. PMC 1279749. PMID 1429319.
- Fox, D.K.; Hopkins, B.L.; Anger, W.K. (1987). "The long-term effects of a token economy on safety performance in open-pit mining". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 20 (3): 215–24. doi:10.1901/jaba.1987.20-215. PMC 1286011. PMID 3667473.
- Drasgow, E.; Halle, J.W.; Ostrosky, M.M. (1998). "Effects of differential reinforcement on the generalization of a replacement mand in three children with severe language delays". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 31 (3): 357–74. doi:10.1901/jaba.1998.31-357. PMC 1284128. PMID 9757580.
- Powers, R.B.; Osborne, J.G.; Anderson, E.G. (1973). "Positive reinforcement of litter removal in the natural environment". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 6 (4): 579–86. doi:10.1901/jaba.1973.6-579. PMC 1310876. PMID 16795442.
- Hagopian, L.P.; Thompson, R.H. (1999). "Reinforcement of compliance with respiratory treatment in a child with cystic fibrosis". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 32 (2): 233–36. doi:10.1901/jaba.1999.32-233. PMC 1284184. PMID 10396778.
- Kuhn, S.A.C.; Lerman, D.C.; Vorndran, C.M. (2003). "Pyramidal training for families of children with problem behavior". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 36 (1): 77–88. doi:10.1901/jaba.2003.36-77. PMC 1284418. PMID 12723868.
- Van Houten, R.; Malenfant, J.E.L.; Austin, J.; Lebbon, A. (2005). Vollmer, Timothy, ed. "The effects of a seatbelt-gearshift delay prompt on the seatbelt use of motorists who do not regularly wear seatbelts". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 38 (2): 195–203. doi:10.1901/jaba.2005.48-04. PMC 1226155. PMID 16033166.
- Wong, S.E.; Martinez-Diaz, J.A.; Massel, H.K.; Edelstein, B.A.; Wiegand, W.; Bowen, L.; Liberman, R.P. (1993). "Conversational skills training with schizophrenic inpatients: A study of generalization across settings and conversants". Behavior Therapy. 24 (2): 285–304. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80270-9.
- Brobst, B.; Ward, P. (2002). "Effects of public posting, goal setting, and oral feedback on the skills of female soccer players". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 35 (3): 247–57. doi:10.1901/jaba.2002.35-247. PMC 1284383. PMID 12365738.
- Forthman, D.L.; Ogden, J.J. (1992). "The role of applied behavior analysis in zoo management: Today and tomorrow". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 25 (3): 647–52. doi:10.1901/jaba.1992.25-647. PMC 1279745. PMID 16795790.
- Marr, M (2009). "The natural selection: behavior analysis as a natural science" (PDF). European Journal of Behavior Analysis. 10 (2): 103–118. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2014.
- Thompson, T. (1984). "The examining magistrate for nature: a retrospective review of Claude Bernard's An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 2 (41): 212–13. doi:10.1901/jeab.1984.41-211. PMC 1348034.
- Pierce, W. David; Cheney, Carl D. (June 16, 2017) . Behavior Analysis and Learning: A Biobehavioral Approach (6 ed.). New York: Routledge. p. 622. ISBN 978-1138898585.
- Ayllon T, Michael J (October 1959). "The psychiatric nurse as a behavioral engineer". Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 2 (4): 323–334. doi:10.1901/jeab.1959.2-323. PMC 1403907. PMID 13795356.
- Larsson EV, Wright S (2011). "O. Ivar Lovaas (1927–2010)". The Behavior Analyst. 34 (1): 111–114. PMC 3089401.
- Lovitt, Thomas C. (1993). "A brief history of applied behavior analysis at the University of Washington". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 26 (4): 563–567. doi:10.1901/jaba.1993.26-563. PMC 1297893. PMID 16795814.
- "Identifying applied behavior analysis interventions" (PDF). Association of Professional Behavior Analysts. July 25, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
- Baer, Donald M. (1993). "A brief, selective history of the Department of Human Development and Family Life at the University of Kansas: The early years". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 26 (4): 569–570. doi:10.1901/jaba.1993.26-569. PMC 1297894. PMID 16795815.
- Smith, T; Eikseth (14 December 2010). "S". Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders. 41 (3): 375–378. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1162-0.
- Smith, T.; Eikeseth, S. (2011). "O. Ivar Lovaas: Pioneer of Applied Behavior Analysis and Intervention for Children with Autism". J Autism Dev Disord. 41 (3): 375–378. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1162-0.
- Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Taubman, Mitchell (2008). Sense and Nonsense in the Behavioral Treatment of Autism: It Has To Be Said. New York: DRL. p. 13-35. ISBN 0-975-58599-1.
- Anderson, CM; Freeman, KA (Spring 2000). "Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis". The Behavior Analyst. 23 (1): 85–94. PMC 2731369. PMID 22478340.
- Anderson, CM; Kincald, D (2005). "Applying behavior analysis to school violence and discipline problems". The Behavior Analyst. 28 (1): 49–63. PMC 2755344. PMID 22478439.
- Waasdorp, TE; Bradshaw, CP; Leaf, PJ (Winter 2012). "The impact of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on bullying and peer rejection: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial". Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 166 (2): 149–56. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.755. PMID 22312173.
- Baer, D.M.; Wolf, M.M.; Risley, T.R. (1968). "Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis". J Appl Behav Anal. 1 (1): 91–97. doi:10.1901/jaba.1968.1-91. PMC 1310980. PMID 16795165.
- Cooper, J.O.; Heron, T.E.; Heward, W.L. (2007). Applied Behavior Analysis (2nd ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-142113-1.
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 16
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 17
- Heward, W.L.; et al., eds. (2005). Focus on behavior analysis in education: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Merrill. ISBN 0-13-111339-9.
- Stokes, Trevor; Budd, Karen S. (2003). A small matter of proof: the legacy of Donald M. Baer. Reno, NV: Context Press. ISBN 1-878978-43-8.
- Heward, 205 p. 322
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 19
- Johnston, James M. & Pennypacker, H.S. (1993a). Strategies and tactics of behavioral research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates. p. 23. ISBN 0-8058-0905-8.
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 26
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 33
- Michael, J. (2004). Concepts and principles of behavior analysis (rev. ed.) Kalamazoo, MI: Society for the Advancement of Behavior Analysis.
- Flora, S.R. (2004). The power of reinforcement. Albany: State University of New York Press.
- Northup, J.; Vollmer, T.R.; Serret, K. (1993). "Publication trends in 25 years of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 26 (4): 527–37. doi:10.1901/jaba.1993.26-527. PMC 1297882. PMID 16795803.
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 27
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 355
- Reese E.P. (1966). The analysis of human operant behavior. Dubuque IA: Brown.
- Miltenberger, R. G. "Behavioral Modification: Principles and Procedures". Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. p. 102.
- Miltenberger, R. G. "Behavioral Modification: Principles and Procedures". Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. p. 104.
- Moxley, R.A. (2004). "Pragmatic selectionism. The philosophy of behavior analysis". The Behavior Analyst Today. 5: 108–25. doi:10.1037/h0100137.
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 41
- Peterson, P. (2007). Promoting generalization and maintenance of skills learned via natural language teaching. SPL-ABA 1(4)–2(1), 97–138
- Johnston, J.M. & Pennypacker, H.S. (1993b). Readings for Strategies and tactics of behavioral research (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, HF: Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-0906-6.
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987, p. 422
- Behavioral Cusp
- Brian A. Iwata (2010). "Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior: the Basics" (PDF). University of Florida. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- Crowell, C.R.; Anderson, D.C.; Abel, D.M.; Sergio, J.P. (1988). "Task clarification, performance feedback, and social praise: procedures for improving the customer service of bank tellers". J Appl Behav Anal. 21 (1): 65–71. doi:10.1901/jaba.1988.21-65. PMC 1286094. PMID 16795713.
- MacDuff, G.S.; Krantz, P.J.; McClannahan, L.E. (1993). "Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules: Maintenance and generalization of complex response chains". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 26 (1): 89–97. doi:10.1901/jaba.1993.26-89. PMC 1297722. PMID 8473261.
- Krantz, P.J.; McClannahan, L.E. (1993). "Teaching children with autism to initiate to peers: Effects of a script-fading procedure". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 26 (1): 121–32. doi:10.1901/jaba.1993.26-121. PMC 1297725. PMID 8473251.
- Bergan, J.R. (1977). Behavioral Consultation. Merrill. ISBN 0-675-08488-1.
- Kratochwill, T.R.; Van Someren, K.R.; Sheridan, S.M. (1989). "Training behavioral consultants: a competency-based model to teach interview skills". Professional School Psychology. 4: 41–58. doi:10.1037/h0090570.
- Ivey, A.E.; Normington, C.J.; Miller, C.D.; Morrill, W.H.; Haase, R.F. (1968). "Microcounseling and attending behavior: an approach to prepracticum counselor training". J Couns Psychol. 15 (5, pt. 2): 1–12. doi:10.1037/h0026129.
- Ivey, A.E.; Ivey, M.B. (1998). Intentional Interviewing and Counseling: Facilitating Client Development in a Multicultural Society (4th ed.). Brooks/Cole. ISBN 0-534-35756-3.
- Iwata, B.A.; Wong, S.E.; Riordan, M.M.; Dorsey, M.F.; Lau, M.M. (1982). "Assessment and training of clinical interviewing skills: Analogue analysis and field replication". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 15 (2): 191–203. doi:10.1901/jaba.1982.15-191. PMC 1308264. PMID 7118753.
- Littrell, J.M. (2001). "Allen E. Ivey: transforming counseling theory and practice". J Couns Dev. 79 (1): 105–18. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2001.tb01949.x. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
- McLennan, J. (1994). "The skills-based model of counselling training: a review of the evidence". Aust Psychol. 29 (2): 79–88. doi:10.1080/00050069408257328.
- Krumboltz, J.D.; Mitchell, A.M.; Jones, G.B. (1980). "A social learning theory of career selection". In Wentling TL. Annual Review of Research in Vocational Education, Vol. 1. Office of Vocational Education Research, University of Illinois. pp. 259–82.
- Englemann, S. (1968). "Relating operant techniques to programming and teaching". J Sch Psychol. 6 (2): 89–96. doi:10.1016/0022-4405(68)90002-2.
- Cooper, Heron & Heward 1987
- Weiss, K.M. (1978). "A comparison of forward and backward procedures for the acquisition of response chains in humans". J Exp Anal Behav. 29 (2): 255–59. doi:10.1901/jeab.1978.29-255. PMC 1332753. PMID 16812053.
- Walker, H.M. (1995). The Acting-Out Child: Coping With Classroom Disruption (2nd ed.). Sopris West. ISBN 1-57035-047-7.[page needed]
- Linehan, M.M. (1993). Skills Training Manual for Treating Borderline Personality Disorder. The Guilford Press. ISBN 0-89862-034-1.[page needed]
- Ontario Ministry of Education (2007). Effective Educational Practices for Students with ASD. Queen's Printer for Ontario.
- Barnett, D.W.; et al. (2006). "Preschool Intervention Scripts: Lessons from 20 years of Research and Practice". Journal of Speech Language Pathology and Applied Behavior Analysis. 2 (2): 158–81. doi:10.1037/h0100216.
- Martin; Pear (2003). Behavior Modification: What is it and how to do it? (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Education.
- VanDerHeyden, A.M.; Snyder, P.; DiCarlo, C.F.; Stricklin, S.B.; Vagianos, L.A. (2002). "Comparison of within-stimulus and extra-stimulus prompts to increase targeted play behaviors in an inclusive early intervention program". Behav Analyst Today. 3 (2): 188–97. doi:10.1037/h0099967.
- Chesnut, M.; Williamson, P.N.; Morrow, J.E. (2003). "The use of visual cues to teach receptive skills to children with severe auditory discrimination deficits". Behav Analyst Today. 4 (2): 212–24. doi:10.1037/h0100120.
- LeBlanc, L.A.; Hagoplan, L.P.; Maglieri, K.A.; Poling, A. (2002). "Decreasing the intensity of reinforcement-based interventions for reducing behavior: conceptual issues and a proposed model for clinical practice". Behav Analyst Today. 3 (3): 289–300. doi:10.1037/h0099991.
- Cautilli, J. (2005). "Brief report: application of proposed model of decreasing reinforcement intensity". Int J Behav Consult Ther. 1 (1): 21–36. doi:10.1037/h0100731.
- Bailey, J.S. & Burch, M.R. (2005). Ethics for behavior analysts. LEA
- Alberto; Troutman (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River NJ: Pearson Education.
- Osnes, P.G.; Lieblein, T. (2003). "An explicit technology of generalization". Behav Analyst Today. 3 (4): 364–74. doi:10.1037/h0099994.
- Kemp, S.M.; Eckerman, D.A. (2002). "Simulating a shaping task". Behav Analyst Today. 3 (2): 166–78. doi:10.1037/h0099975.
- D'Ateno, P.; Mangiapanello, K.; Taylor, B.A. (2002). "Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism". J Posit Behav Interv. 5 (1): 5–11. doi:10.1177/10983007030050010801.
- Corbett, B.A.; Abdullah, M. (2005). "Video modeling: why does it work for children with autism?". J Early Intensive Behav Interv. 2 (1): 2–8. doi:10.1037/h0100294.
- Tryon, W.W. (1976). "A system of behavioral diagnosis". Prof Psychol. 7 (4): 495–506. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.7.4.495.
- Kanfer, F.H.; Saslow, G. (1969). "Behavioral diagnosis". In Franks CM. Behavior Therapy: Appraisal and Status. McGraw-Hill. pp. 417–44. OCLC 24223.
- Romano, J.M.; Jensen, M.P.; Turner, J.A.; Good, A.B.; Hops, H. (2000). "Chronic pain patient-partner interactions: further support for a behavioral model of chronic pain". Behav Ther. 31 (3): 415–40. doi:10.1016/S0005-7894(00)80023-4.
- Malott, R.W. (1992). "A theory of rule-governed behavior and organizational behavior management". J Organ Behav Manage. 12 (2): 45–65. doi:10.1300/J075v12n02_03.
- Malott, R.W.; Shimamune, S.; Malott, M.E. (1992). "Rule-governed behavior and organizational behavior management: an analysis of interventions". J Organ Behav Manage. 12 (2): 103–16. doi:10.1300/J075v12n02_09.
- Hayes, S.C.; Brownstein, A.J.; Zettle, R.D.; Rosenfarb, I.; Korn, Z. (1986). "Rule-governed behavior and sensitivity to changing consequences of responding". J Exp Anal Behav. 45 (3): 237–56. doi:10.1901/jeab.1986.45-237. PMC 1348236. PMID 16812448.
- Gerhardt, P.F.; Weiss, M.J.; Delmolino, L. (2003). "Treatment of severe aggression in an adolescent with autism: non-contingent reinforcement and functional communication training". Behav Analyst Today. 4 (4): 386–94. doi:10.1037/h0100124.
- Shreck, K.A.; Metz, B.; Mulick, J.A.; Smith, A. (2000). "Making it fit: A Provocative Look at Models of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Autism". The Behavior Analyst Today. 1 (3): 27–32.
- Mary Jane Weiss; Delmolino Lara (2006). "The Relationship Between Early Learning Rates and Treatment Outcome For Children With Autism Receiving Intensive Home-Based Applied Behavior Analysis". The Behavior Analyst Today. 7 (1): 96–105. doi:10.1037/h0100140.
- Myers, Scott M.; Johnson, Chris Plauché (1 November 2007). "Management of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders". Pediatrics. 120 (5): 1162–1182. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2362. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 17967921.
- Myers, S.M.; Johnson, C.P.; Council on Children with Disabilities (2007). "Management of children with autism spectrum disorders". Pediatrics. 120 (5): 1162–82. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-2362. PMID 17967921. Lay summary – AAP (2007-10-29).
- Rogers, S.J.; Vismara, L.A. (2008). "Evidence-based comprehensive treatments for early autism". J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 37 (1): 8–38. doi:10.1080/15374410701817808. PMC 2943764. PMID 18444052.
- Eikeseth, S. (2009). "Outcome of comprehensive psycho-educational interventions for young children with autism". Res Dev Disabil. 30 (1): 158–78. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2008.02.003. PMID 18385012.
- Reichow, B.; Wolery, M. (2009). "Comprehensive synthesis of early intensive behavioral interventions for young children with autism based on the UCLA Young Autism Project model". J Autism Dev Disord. 39 (1): 23–41. doi:10.1007/s10803-008-0596-0. PMID 18535894.
- Howlin, P.; Magiati, I.; Charman, T. (2009). MacLean, Jr.; William E., eds. "Systematic review of early intensive behavioral interventions for children with autism". Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 114 (1): 23–41. doi:10.1352/2009.114:23-41. PMID 19143460.
- Eldevik, S.; Hastings, R.P.; Hughes, J.C.; Jahr, E.; Eikeseth, S.; Cross, S. (2009). "Meta-analysis of Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention for children with autism". J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 38 (3): 439–50. doi:10.1080/15374410902851739. PMID 19437303.
- Warren, Z.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J.; Stone, W.; Bruzek, J.L.; Nahmias, A.S.; Foss-Feig, J.H.; Jerome, R.N.; Krishnaswami, S.; Sathe, N.A.; Glasser, A.M.; Surawicz, T.; McPheeters, M.L. (2011). Therapies for children with autism spectrum disorders (PDF). AHRQ Publication No. 11-EHC029-EF, Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 26. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Spreckley, M.; Boyd, R. (2009). "Efficacy of applied behavioral intervention in preschool children with autism for improving cognitive, language, and adaptive behavior: a systematic review and meta-analysis". J Pediatr. 154 (3): 338–44. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.09.012. PMID 18950798.
- Smith, T.; Eikeseth, S.; Sallows, G.O.; Graupner, T.D. (2009). "Efficacy of applied behavior analysis in autism". J Pediatr. 155 (1): 151–52, author reply 152–53. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.01.065. PMID 19559310.
- Begoli, Edmon (May 2014). Procedural-Reasoning Architecture for Applied Behavior Analysis-based Instructions. Knoxville, Tennessee, USA: University of Tennessee, Knoxville. pp. 44–79. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- Permanent Injunction Order
- "CMCS Informational Bulletin: Clarification of Medicaid Coverage of Services to Children with Autism" (PDF). Department of Health & Human Services. July 7, 2014.
- DeVita-Raeburn, Elizabeth. "Is the Most Common Therapy for Autism Cruel?".
- Advocate, Anxious. "Why I Left ABA". sociallyanxiousadvocate.wordpress.com.
- Kupferstein, H. (2018). "Evidence of increased PTSD symptoms in autism exposed to applied behavior analysis". Advances in Autism. 4 (1): 19–29. doi:10.1108/AIA-08-2017-0016.
- Leaf, J.B.; Ross, R.K.; Cihon, J.C.; Weiss, M.J. (2018). "Evaluating Kupferstein's claims of the relationship of behavioral intervention to PTSS for individuals with autism". Advances in Autism. 4 (3): 122–129. doi:10.1108/AIA-02-2018-0007.
- "Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice". APA.
- "BAOJournals Have Moved". baojournal.com. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
- "Behavior and Social Issues". Uic.edu. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- "Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies". Behavior.org. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- John J. Wheeler; David Dean Richey (2013). Behavior Management: Principles and Practices of Positive Behavior Supports. Pearson Education, Limited. ISBN 978-0-13-285169-5.
- Steege, M.W.; Mace, F.C.; Perry, L.; Longenecker, H. (2007). "Applied behavior analysis: beyond discrete trial teaching". Psychol Schools. 44 (1): 91–99. doi:10.1002/pits.20208.
- Mayer, G. Roy; Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth; Wallace, Michele (2011). Behavior Analysis for Lasting Change (2/E ed.). Sloan. ISBN 978-1-59738-032-4.
- Catania, A. Charles (2007). Learning. Sloan. ISBN 1-59738-007-5.