Andrew Taylor Still
Andrew Taylor Still in 1914
|Born||August 6, 1828|
Lee County, Virginia, United States
|Died||December 12, 1917 (aged 89)|
Kirksville, Missouri, United States
A.T. Still University
Andrew Taylor Still, MD, DO (August 6, 1828 – December 12, 1917) was the founder of osteopathy and osteopathic medicine. He was also a physician and surgeon, author, inventor and Kansas territorial and state legislator. He was one of the founders of Baker University, the oldest four-year college in the state of Kansas, and was the founder of the American School of Osteopathy (now A.T. Still University), the world's first osteopathic medical school, in Kirksville, Missouri.
Early life and interests
Still was the son of a Methodist minister and physician. At an early age, Still decided to follow in his father's footsteps as a physician. After studying medicine and serving an apprenticeship under his father, he entered the Civil War. He served as a hospital steward assigned to Company F of the Cass County Home Guard of the Missouri Cavalry (Union), but later stated in his autobiography that he served as a "de facto surgeon." Despite biographical accounts of him earning an MD there appears to be no record that he was ever conferred one.
At the time, the hospital stewards of the Army had many responsibilities, including maintaining hospital stores, furniture, and supplies for the sick. Since pharmacists were not provided for the hospitals, the hospital stewards also filled prescriptions, and when the medical officers were not present, they took care of the patients. Hospital Stewards were sometimes rewarded with promotions to surgeon or assistant surgeon.
In his autobiography Still says he served in the Civil War in Company F of the 9th Kansas Cavalry. His military service record for the Missouri regiment says that his company was transferred to the 9th Kansas Infantry, not cavalry, but that the transfer was made "without proper authority." The judge advocate general then orders that these men not be given credit for this unauthorized service.
After the Civil War and following the death of his wife, three of his children, and an adopted child from spinal meningitis in 1864, Still concluded that the orthodox medical practices of his day were frequently ineffective and sometimes harmful. He devoted the next thirty years of his life to studying the human body and finding alternative ways to treat disease. During this period, he completed a short course in medicine at the new College of Physicians and Surgeons in Kansas City, Missouri, in 1870.
His initial method of studying the human body was controversial and disturbing. His personal account details that he would desecrate the graves of Native Americans by removing the remains for the purposes of dissection.
Kansas territorial and state legislator
Still was active in the abolition movement and a friend and ally of the Free State leaders John Brown and James H. Lane. He became deeply embroiled in the fight over whether Kansas would be admitted to the Union as a slave state or a free state. The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 provided that the settlers in those two territories would decide the question for themselves. Civil war raged in Kansas as both sides tried to gain control of the territorial government. In October 1857, Still was elected to represent Douglas and Johnson counties in the Kansas territorial legislature. Still and his brothers took up arms in the cause and participated in the Bleeding Kansas battles (between the pro and anti-slavery citizens). By August 1858, a free-state constitution had been passed; Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861.
Inventor and patents
Still was fascinated by machines, and whenever faced with a mechanical problem, his answer was always to devise a better approach. In the 1870s, he patented an improved butter churn. He made improvements to a mowing machine designed to harvest wheat and hay, but before a patent could be submitted, his idea was stolen by a visiting sales representative from the Wood Mowing Machine Co. In 1910, he patented a smokeless furnace burner but had "some difficulty producing a full-sized working model. Heartbroken after his wife, Mary Elvira's, death in May 1910, he did not have the will to pursue the matter further, and the invention was never successfully marketed."[according to whom?]
Still and his family were among the founders of Baker University in Baldwin City in 1858, the first four-year university in the state of Kansas. Still was involved in selecting the location for the site of Baker University's first building. Along with his brother, Still donated 640 acres of land for the university campus. While maintaining his medical practice, where he treated patients afflicted with small-pox and cholera, Still spent five years building the facilities.
Still believed that osteopathy was a necessary discovery because the current medical practices of his day often caused significant harm and conventional medicine had failed to shed light on the etiology and effective treatment of disease. At the time Still practiced as a physician, medications, surgery and other traditional therapeutic regimens often caused more harm than good. Some of the medicines commonly given to patients during this time were arsenic, castor oil, whiskey and opium. Additionally, unsanitary surgical practices often resulted in more deaths than cures.
Dr. Still sought to reform existing 19th-century medical practices. Still investigated alternative treatments, such as hydropathy, diet, bonesetting, and magnetic healing. Still found appeal in the relatively tame side effects of those modalities and imagined that someday "rational medical therapy" would consist of manipulation of the musculoskeletal system, surgery and very sparing use of drugs, including anesthetics, antiseptics and antidotes. He invented the name osteopathy by blending two Greek roots osteon- for bone and -pathos for suffering in order to communicate his theory that disease and physiologic dysfunction were etiologically grounded in a disordered musculoskeletal system. Thus, by diagnosing and treating the musculoskeletal system, he believed that physicians could treat a variety of diseases and spare patients the negative side-effects of drugs.
Still founded the first school of osteopathy based on this new approach to medicine - the school was called the American School of Osteopathy (now A.T. Still University) in Kirksville, Missouri in 1892.
Still defined osteopathy as:
that science which consists of such exact, exhaustive, and verifiable knowledge of the structure and function of the human mechanism, anatomical, physiological and psychological, including the chemistry and physics of its known elements, as has made discoverable certain organic laws and remedial resources, within the body itself, by which nature under the scientific treatment peculiar to osteopathic practice, apart from all ordinary methods of extraneous, artificial, or medicinal stimulation, and in harmonious accord with its own mechanical principles, molecular activities, and metabolic processes, may recover from displacements, disorganizations, derangements, and consequent disease, and regained its normal equilibrium of form and function in health and strength.
In a 1907 interview by the Topeka Daily Capital newspaper, A.T. Still's son, Charles Still, D.O., described his father's philosophy that the body would operate smoothly into old age, if properly maintained and that every living organism possessed the ability to produce all the necessary chemicals and materials to cure itself of ailments.
Still published four books during his life. His first book, published in 1897, was entitled Autobiography of Andrew Taylor Still with a History of the Discovery and Development of the Science of Osteopathy. A revised edition of the book was re-published in 1908 after a fire damaged the original printing plates. In 1899, Still published his second book, Philosophy of Osteopathy.
In 1902, Still published his third book, The Philosophy and Mechanical Principles of Osteopathy, although some dispute remains over the date. Still published his fourth and final book in 1910, entitled Osteopathy Research and Practice.
In December 2013, Still was announced as an inductee to the Hall of Famous Missourians. His bronze bust will be one of forty-four on permanent display in the Missouri State Capitol in Jefferson City. For the first time in the hall's history, the public was allowed to vote on new inductees. Still received over 38 percent of the votes, far outdistancing all others in consideration.
- S. S. Still—nephew of Andrew Taylor Still, and an osteopath on the faculty of A. T. Still University
- "Andrew Taylor Still: The Father of Osteopathic Medicine". A.T. Still University Museum. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "A.T. Still: A Profile Of The Founder Of Osteopathy". Osteopathic Educational Services. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
- "Glossary of Osteopathic Terminology". AACOM. November 2011. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- "Medical Registration for Macon County, MO as of March 27, 1874, Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
- Medical registration for Adair County, MO dated July 28, 1883, Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri. Archived October 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Note: The state of Missouri did not have legislation requiring medical registration until March 27, 1874.
- Osteopathy:Research & Practice, Eastland Press, Inc (1910 & 1992)
- Still 1908
- "Six Survivors of First Free State Legislature in Kansas, Topeka Daily Capital, Missouri's Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- Still 1908, pp. 97–98
- "Certificate of Discharge from 9th Kansas Infantry,A.T. Still Collection, Missouri Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- "Civil War Service Records (CMSR) - Union - Missouri". Fold3. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
- Smart 2002, pp. 98–99
- Smart 2002, pp. 92
- Still, Andrew (1897). Autobiography of Andrew T. Still. Kirksville, Mo.: By Author. p. 81.
- Young, Warren R. (September 26, 1960). "U.S. Bone Setters". Life. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- "Andrew Taylor Still - Historic Missourians - The State Historical Society of Missouri". historicmissourians.shsmo.org. Retrieved 2020-04-25.
- Trowbridge, Carol. Andrew Taylor Still, 1828-1917. Truman State University Press, 1991, 232 pages
- "Charles E. Still (son) – Letters to Edith Mellor, DO. Missouri's Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- "Kansas Free State Legislature Reunion: Invitation (1907), Kansas State Historical Society. Andrew Taylor Still Papers. Museum of Osteopathic Medicine. Kirksville, Missouri". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- "Veterans of '56 Annual Meeting Program, Personal papers of A.T. Still. Missouri's Digital Heritage, Secretary of State of Missouri". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
- Still 1908, pp. 91–93
- Missouri Digital Heritage. "Andrew Taylor Still's Furnace Burner Invention: Set of 6 Letters relating to his design". Andrew Taylor Still Papers. Museum of Osteopathic Medicine. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- "Andrew Taylor Still". A.T. Still University. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- "Missouri Digital Heritage Collections: Item Viewer". Cdm.sos.mo.gov. 2010-01-22. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
- Hansen, G. P. (1 March 2006). "Beyond OMT: time for a new chapter in osteopathic medicine?" (Free full text). The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 (3): 114–116. ISSN 0098-6151. PMID 16585374.
- Gevitz, Norman (July 3, 2011). "History of Osteopathic Medicine (Interview with Norman Gevitz)". Sound Medicine. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2012.
- Howell, Joel D. (1999). "The Paradox of Osteopathy". New England Journal of Medicine. 341 (19): 1465–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM199911043411910. PMID 10547412.
- Trowbridge, Carol (2007). Andrew Taylor Still, 1828-1917. Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press. ISBN 978-1931112789.
- The True Fountainhead of Osteopathy, Journal of Osteopathy, p. 230. Archived 2015-03-29 at the Wayback Machine
- Still 1908, pp. 403
- ""Osteopathy Founded by Dr. Andrew Still at Baldwin", Topeka Daily Capital, December 7, 1907". Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2019.
- Stark, JE (June 2012). "Quoting A.T. Still with rigor: an historical and academic review". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 112 (6): 366–73. PMID 22707646.
- Blank, Chris (December 7, 2013). "4 new selections for Hall of Famous Missourians". The St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved December 9, 2013.
- Smart, Charles (2002). The Medical Department. US Army Center for Military History. pp. 92, 98–99.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Still, Andrew Taylor (1908). Autobiography of A.T. Still. Kirksville, Missouri. ISBN 978-1150207792.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Andrew Taylor Still|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Andrew Taylor Still.|
- Works by Andrew Taylor Still at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Andrew Taylor Still at Internet Archive
- Andrew Taylor Still at Find a Grave
- Still National Osteopathic Museum, Kirksville
- Autobiography of A. T. Still, 1897
- Philosophy of Osteopathy 1899 (HTML)
- Philosophy of Osteopathy, 1899, from Project Gutenberg
- Autobiography of A. T. Still Revised Edition, 1908
- The Philosophy and Mechanical Principles of Osteopathy, 1902