Ammi visnaga is a species of flowering plant in the carrot family known by many common names, including toothpick-plant, toothpickweed, bisnaga, khella, or sometimes Bishop's weed. It is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, but it can be found throughout the world as an introduced species. This is an annual or biennial herb growing from a taproot erect to a maximum height near 80 centimeters. Leaves are up to 20 centimeters long and generally oval to triangular in shape but dissected into many small linear to lance-shaped segments. The inflorescence is a compound umbel of white flowers similar to those of other Apiaceae species. The fruit is a compressed oval-shaped body less than 3 millimeters long. This and other Ammi species are sources of khellin, a diuretic extract.
Khellin, a chemical compound obtained from A. visnaga, was used at one time as a smooth muscle relaxant, but its use is limited due to adverse side effects. Amiodarone and cromoglycate are synthetic derivatives of khellin with fewer side effects which were developed for use in modern medicine.[medical citation needed]
- "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- "Ammi visnaga". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Growing Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus from seed". higgledygarden.com. 2015-01-07. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- Azim Khan, Muhammad (2014). "Phytochemistry and Medicinal Properties of Ammi Visnaga". Pak. J. Bot. 46 (3): 861–867.
- Waltenberger B, Mocan A, Šmejkal K, Heiss EH, Atanasov AG. Natural Products to Counteract the Epidemic of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disorders. Molecules. 2016 Jun 22;21(6). doi: 10.3390/molecules21060807 E807.
- Vanachayangkul, P., et al. (2010). An aqueous extract of Ammi visnaga fruits and its constituents khellin and visnagin prevent cell damage caused by oxalate in renal epithelial cells. Phytomedicine 17(8), 653-58.
- Khan, Z. A., et al. (2001). Inhibition of oxalate nephrolithiasis with Ammi visnaga (AI-Khillah). International Urology and Nephrology 33:4 605-8.
- Ziment, I. (1998). How your patients may be using herbalism to treat their asthma - Herbal products are becoming increasingly popular for treating a variety of medical complaints - including asthma. What are these. Journal of Respiratory Diseases 19(12), 1070-83.
- Lee, J. K., et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of visnagin in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research 33(11) 1843–50. PMID 21116788.
- Jepson Manual Treatment
- "Ammi visnaga". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
- Photo gallery
- Botanical drawing
- Fructus Ammi Visnagae WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants - Volume 3
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ammi visnaga.|