The Amana Colonies were founded in 1856 by Inspirationalists of German origin who came from West Seneca near Buffalo in New York. Amana is derived from the Hessian dialect, which is a West Central German dialect. There are seven villages in Amana with slightly different dialect features.
- Philip E. Webber: Kolonie-Deutsch: Life and Language in Amana, Ames, 2006, page 14.
- Philip E. Webber: Kolonie-Deutsch: Life and Language in Amana. Ames, 2006.
- Michael T. Putnam: Anaphors in contact: The distribution of intensifiers and reflexives in Amana German in "Studies on German-language islands". Amsterdam et al., 2011.
- Lawrence L. Rettig: Grammatical structures in Amana German. Dissertation at the University of Iowa, 1970.
- Joan Liffring-Zug: Life in Amana: reporters' views of the communal way, 1867 - 1935. Iowa City, 1998.
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