|37th Governor of Texas|
July 11, 1949 – January 15, 1957
|Preceded by||Beauford H. Jester|
|Succeeded by||Price Daniel|
|Chair of the National Governors Association|
June 29, 1952 – August 2, 1953
|Preceded by||Val Peterson|
|Succeeded by||Daniel I. J. Thornton|
|33rd Lieutenant Governor of Texas|
January 21, 1947 – July 11, 1949
|Governor||Beauford H. Jester|
|Preceded by||John Lee Smith|
|Succeeded by||Ben Ramsey|
|Member of the Texas Senate|
from the 4th district
January 8, 1935 – January 14, 1947
|Preceded by||Wilfred R. Cousins Sr.|
|Succeeded by||Wilfred R. Cousins Jr.|
Robert Allan Shivers
October 5, 1907
Lufkin, Texas, U.S.
|Died||January 14, 1985 (aged 77)|
Austin, Texas, U.S.
|Resting place||Texas State Cemetery|
|Education||University of Texas, Austin (LLB)|
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1943–1945|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Robert Allan Shivers (October 5, 1907 – January 14, 1985) was an American politician who served as the 37th Governor of Texas. Shivers was a leader of the Texas Democratic Party during the turbulent 1940s and 1950s, and also developed the lieutenant governor's post into an extremely powerful perch in state government.
Life and state politics
Born in Lufkin, the seat of Angelina County in East Texas, Shivers was educated at the University of Texas at Austin, having earned a law degree in 1933. While at UT, he was a member of the Texas Cowboys and the Friar Society, and he served as the student body president. In 1934, he was elected to the Texas State Senate, having become the youngest person ever to serve in the State Senate. He served in the Senate from 1934 to 1946, except for two years' service in the United States Army during World War II, from which he was discharged with the rank of major.
In 1946, he was elected the 33rd Lieutenant Governor of Texas defeating the Republican nominee, John A. Donaldson, by a landslide margin, with Shivers garnering 344,630 votes (91.54%) to Donaldson's 31,835 votes (8.46%) and was re-elected in 1948, garnering 1,050,163 votes (87.47%) to Republican Taylor Cole's 143,887 votes (11.98%). He is credited with developing the "ideas, practices, and techniques of leadership" that made the office the most powerful post in Texas government, although the powers of the governor are limited by the state constitution more so than other states.
In office, Shivers initiated the practice of appointing state senators to specific committees and setting the daily agenda. Subsequently, the Senate passed a right-to-work law, reorganized the public school system with the Gilmer-Akin laws, appropriated funds for higher education, including the Texas State University for Negroes (now Texas Southern University), and provided money for improvements of state hospitals and highways.
When Governor Beauford Jester died on July 11, 1949, Shivers succeeded him—the only lieutenant governor in Texas history thus far to gain the governor's office through the death of his predecessor. In 1950, Shivers won election as governor in his own right, defeating Republican Ralph W. Currie: 355,010 votes (89.93%) for the incumbent governor while Currie had garnered 39,737 votes (10.07%)
In 1952, Shivers proved so popular that he was listed on the gubernatorial ballot as the nominee of both the Democratic and Republican parties (Democrat Shivers handily defeated Republican Shivers). Between both parties, Shivers garnered 1,844,530 votes (98.05%) to "No Preference" getting 36,672 votes (1.95%). Subsequently, Texas law was changed to remove the "No Preference" option.
Shivers then set the three-term precedent by running again and winning in 1954, he garnered 569,533 votes (89.42%) to Republican Tod R. Adams' 66,154 votes (10.39%).
He worked closely with his appointed Secretary of State John Ben Shepperd, who won election in 1952 and 1954 as state attorney general. Together, Shivers and Shepperd tried to clean up corruption in the machine province of Duval County.
The Shivercrats were a conservative faction of the Democratic Party in Texas in the 1950s. The faction was named for Shivers, who was criticized by liberals within the party—particularly Ralph Yarborough—for his corruption and conservatism. The term was first used derisively by party liberals, who attacked Shivers and his allies in the party for backing Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower over the national party's chosen candidate Adlai Stevenson in 1952.
Corruption during the Shivers administration damaged his reputation and endangered his chances of re-election in 1954. Land Office Commissioner Bascom Giles was convicted of committing rampant fraud against Texas war veterans, and a disproportionate number of African-American veterans in particular, through a veterans land program under the Texas Veterans Land Board of the Texas General Land Office. Giles was the only member of the Shivers administration to go to prison, but Shivers and the state attorney general, John Ben Shepperd, as ex officio members of the Veterans Land Board, were implicated in the scandal, which occurred during their watch.
The Shivercrats responded with a vicious negative campaign that tried to paint the party liberals as communists. Shivers also urged the Texas Legislature to pass a bill making membership in the Communist Party a death-penalty offense, describing such membership as being "worse than murder", although a less extreme version of the proposition finally passed both Houses.
In 1956, Shivers ordered Captain Jay Banks of the Texas Ranger Division, to block "desegregation of Mansfield High School in Tarrant County". The Mansfield school desegregation incident was the first state action resisting enforcement of the nationwide integration of public schools ordered by the United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education (1954).
President Lyndon B. Johnson at first aligned himself with the Shivercrats (including John Connally), but after becoming President, Johnson increasingly sided with Yarborough and the liberals on policy matters. Most of the Shivercrats either left public life or became Republicans after Johnson's presidency, as the liberal-moderate faction was in firm control of the state party after 1970.
Segregation and State Resistance to Integration in Texas
Shivers was anti-integration and used the office of the Governor to resist legally-mandated integration in Texas. Following the U.S. Supreme Court decision ending the "separate but equal" doctrine in Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Shivers, on July 27, 1955, appointed a committee called the "Texas Advisory Committee on Segregation in Public Schools." The charge of this committee was to "[e]xamine three major problems and present recommendations leading to their solution. The problems are: (1) The prevention of forced integration. (2) The achievement of maximum decentralization of school authority. (3) The ways in which the State government may best assist the local school districts in solving their problems. The committee members were: State Senator A.M. Aiken, Jr., Earnest. E. Sanders, Mrs. Joe Fisher, J.V. Hammett, Charles Howell, Will Crews Morris, and Houston attorney, Hall E. Timanus. A legal and legislative subcommittee of the Texas Advisory Committee on Segregation in Public Schools produced a 58-page report on August 18, 1955, detailing, among other ideas, ways that Texas schools could resist integration and the framework for ending compulsory public school attendance for those parents who did not want their children to attend integrated schools.
Trivia and miscellaneous
Shivers previously held the record for longest continuous service as Texas Governor at 7.5 years until June 2008, when Rick Perry surpassed Shivers's record for continuous service. (Bill Clements initially broke Shivers's total service record, having served eight years over two nonconsecutive terms; Perry subsequently surpassed this record, as well.)
Both Shivers and Perry are the only two Texas governors to have been inaugurated four times.
Shivers disputed the Truman administration's claim on the Tidelands and disapproved of Truman's veto that would have vested tideland ownership in the states. Bucking the tradition of the "Solid South", Shivers delivered Texas in the 1952 presidential election for Dwight D. Eisenhower—only the second time that Texas had supported a Republican for president since Reconstruction. The state Republican Party reciprocated by nominating Shivers for governor; he thus ran as the nominee of both parties. Shivers is believed to have lost popularity with some voters over his disloyalty to the Democratic Party. He also became less popular because of his opposition to the Brown v. Board of Education decision and his link to the Veterans' Land Board scandal.
Shivers helped enact laws raising teacher salaries and granting retirement benefits to state employees.
Shivers did not seek a fourth term in the 1956 elections. He retired from politics on January 15, 1957, and went into business.
In 1973, Democratic Governor Preston Smith appointed Shivers to the University of Texas Board of Regents. In January 1975 He was elected as chairman of the board and served for four years. During this time, he donated his Austin home, Woodlawn, the historic Pease mansion, to the university to help raise funds for its law school.
In 1980, Shivers was instrumental in securing a $5 million grant for the UT Austin Moody College of Communication, which soon thereafter established an endowed chair of journalism in his honor.
Finally, he served as a member of the University of Texas Centennial Commission, which oversaw the 100th-anniversary celebration of the university's founding in 1883.
Shivers died suddenly of a massive heart attack in Austin on January 14, 1985. He was survived by his wife, the former Marialice Shary (1910–1996), a long-time regent of Pan American University in Edinburg, Texas, three sons, a daughter, and 10 grandchildren. The Shiverses are interred at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin.
|Gubernatorial election in Texas, 1950 |
|Republican||Ralph W. Currie||39,737||10.07%|
|Gubernatorial election in Texas, 1952 |
|Gubernatorial election in Texas, 1954 |
|Republican||Tod R. Adams||66,154||10.58%|
- Mansfield School Desegregation Incident
- Allan Shivers Library and Museum
- Allan Shivers' altercation with author John Patric in college
- "William Douglas Noël". The Handbook of Texas. Archived from the original on 15 July 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.
- Ricky F. Dobbs, Yellow Dogs and Democrats: Allan Shivers and Texas Two-Party Politics (College Station: Texas A&M Press, 2005).
- Richards, Dave (2009-08-19). "So Long to the Communist Threat". The Texas Observer. Retrieved 2017-07-09.
- "Shivers Plans To Ask Death Law For Reds". The Orlando Sentinel. Universal Press. February 12, 1954. p. 12. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
- McEnteer, James (2004). Deep in the Heart: The Texas Tendency in American Politics. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 87–88. ISBN 9780275983062.
- Maverick, Maury (1997). Texas Iconoclast, Maury Maverick Jr. TCU Press. p. 60. ISBN 9780875651729.
- "From segregation to integration: The first Black students at Texas State University - School Integration in Texas". Texas State University. February 7, 2020. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- Hanson, Gayle W. (2013-02-20). "Mansfield (Texas) School Desegregation Incident (1955-1965) •". Retrieved 2020-07-04.
- "Legislative Reference Library | Committees | Committee overview". lrl.texas.gov. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
- "Clipped From Austin American-Statesman". Austin American-Statesman. 1956-09-25. p. 22. Retrieved 2020-07-04.
- "Governor Robert Allan Shivers". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved July 3, 2020.
- "Elections of Texas Governors, 1845–2010". Texas Almanac. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
- J. William Davis, There Shall Also Be a Lieutenant Governor (1967).
- Tex. Legis. Council, Presiding Officers of the Texas Legislature: 1846–1995 81 (1995).
- National Governors Association, "Texas Governor Allan Shivers".
- Allan Shivers from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Historic photographs of Allan Shivers, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
- "Allan Shivers". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2009-03-01..
- Allan Shivers on IMDb
Wilfred R. Cousins Sr.
| Member of the Texas Senate
from the 4th district
Wilfred R. Cousins Jr.
John Lee Smith
| Lieutenant Governor of Texas
Beauford H. Jester
| Governor of Texas
| Chair of the National Governors Association
Daniel I. J. Thornton
|Party political offices|
Beauford H. Jester
| Democratic nominee for Governor of Texas
1950, 1952, 1954
Ralph W. Currie
| Republican nominee for Governor of Texas
Tod R. Adams