|"All Is Full of Love"|
Cover artwork used to commercialize physical editions of the single.
|Single by Björk|
|from the album Homogenic|
|Released||7 June 1999|
|Studio||El Cortijo Studios|
|Genre||Ambient (album version)|
Trip hop (video version)
|Length||4:32 (album version)|
4:50 (video version)
4:10 (video edit)
|Producer(s)||Howie B (album version)|
Björk (video version)
|Björk singles chronology|
"All Is Full of Love" is a song by Icelandic musician Björk from her third studio album Homogenic (1997). The lyrics were inspired by love in spring and Ragnarök of Norse mythology. Björk's original version is a trip hop ballad with soul influences, harp, strings, and electronic beats; the version on Homogenic is a minimalist remix by Howie B, emphasising Björk's vocals. A remix by the German IDM duo Funkstörung was released as a single in 1998.
In 1999, "All Is Full of Love" was released as a single with a music video directed by Chris Cunningham. The video uses Björk's original mix, and depicts Björk as a robot being assembled in a factory, who passionately kisses another robot. The video is often cited as one of the best of all time and a milestone in computer animation; it has been displayed in art exhibitions and was on display at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The single reached number 24 on the UK Singles Chart and became a dance hit in the United States.
"All Is Full of Love" is the opening track on Greatest Hits (2002), whose tracks were voted for by fans. It has been covered by various artists.
Background and composition
"All Is Full of Love", the closing track of Homogenic, was the album's last song to be written and recorded. Produced by Björk, the original version of the song was replaced "at the last minute" with a remixed version by Howie B. It was inspired by the spring while producing the album in Málaga, Spain. After living in the mountains among other people for six months, Björk felt lonely, but a morning walk in April inspired her to write the track. She had a rough winter and then she realised it was spring after she could hear the birds singing. She wrote and recorded the song in half a day.
In keeping with Homogenic's theme as a tribute to Björk's native Iceland, the track was inspired by Icelandic mythology, such as the Ragnarök. The previous track, "Pluto", stands for death and destruction, whereas "All Is Full of Love" stands for a new beginning. Björk also called it a song about "believing in love" and expressed that "love isn't just about two persons. It's everywhere around you. Even if you're not getting love from Person A, it doesn't mean there's not love there." However, she also described it as "taking the piss", considering it the most "sugary song" ever. As the song opposes the rest of Homogenic's "macho" aesthetic, Björk has said it could have been included on Vespertine.
The lyrics begin with a promise of protection and caretaking: "You'll be given love / You'll be taken care of / You'll have to trust it". The song moves towards a more reproachful tone as Björk sings, "You just ain't receiving / Your phone is off the hook / Your doors are shut", tempered by the recognition that you have to "twist your head around you" because "love is all around you". This is musically effected by Björk's vocals as she sings the lyric "All is full of love" in counterpoint with herself.
The album version of the track does not have drum accompaniment and portrays an ambient song. It does not have Homogenic's characteristic electronic beats, focusing instead on "[creating] an intimacy between the growing dynamics of the instrumentation and Bjork's impressive vocal abilities." It uses a long reverb, which results in a wash of sound that suggests a very large space suggestive of the "heavenly" environment Björk envisaged for the track. According to Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine, the song has a soft pulse with intervals that build up to an electronic orchestration of industrial beats. David Browne of Entertainment Weekly called it a "moony lullaby" and compared it to the music of Enya. In his review for Spin, James Hunter wrote that the track is one of the times Björk "dips her toe into the warm lake of tradition" and noted its "rockish minor-key verses traipse off into her gospel."
The video version of the song is a midtempo trip hop ballad with soul influences. In opposition to the sonically minimalist mix included on the album, this version has been described as "lushly produced" and includes "fluttering" harps and "shivering" strings. Reportedly the best known and the preferred version by Björk's fans and herself, it is further known under the names of "Mark Stent Mix" and "Video Mix".
In August 1998, a 12-inch single of "All Is Full of Love", containing a remix by German IDM duo Funkstörung, was released through FatCat Records as a limited release. This remix had been previously distributed as a B-side for "Hunter" (1998), and another remix of the song had been released as a B-side of "Jóga" in 1998. In January 1999, it was announced that the track would be released later that year as a single and that its music video would be shot soon. It was atypical to release a single for promoting an album released two years before, but Björk purposely decided to do this so that the music video was more of a short film than a marketing move. The original release date for the single was 2 May 1999, but was later extended out two weeks to 17 May. To coincide with this announcement, Funkstörung's remix was made available again and an official logo for the release was unveiled.
The music video was released that April, although the premiere of the single was pushed back to June. "All Is Full of Love" was released as two 12-inch singles, two CD singles, a DVD single, and a box set, which included the CD singles and the music video in VHS format. Some publications regard the single as the first DVD single release. In the United Kingdom, it was also made available as two different promotional singles in 1999, and as two VHS singles. B-sides include remixes by μ-Ziq, Funkstörung, Plaid, Guy Sigsworth, Mark Stent and Howie B. The single's artwork consists of shots from the music video and features the official logo, which can be seen in the video as well. The song was also included as the opening track of Björk's 2002 compilation album Greatest Hits, whose songs were selected by fans through a survey, in which the single was the second most voted song, coming after "Hyperballad" (1996).
Both versions of "All Is Full of Love" received acclaim from music critics. In a review for Homogenic, Phares from AllMusic described the track as a "reassuring finale". Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine called it a "sublime rebirth", and Tiny Mix Tapes commented that "the album ends on an optimistic note" with the "exquisite" song. In a retrospective review, Music Tech described the song as "hauntingly-beautiful." Entertainment Weekly's David Browne was less enthusiastic, considering it "the weakest track" of the album.
In a review for the DVD single, Alex Castle of IGN gave the music a score of 9 out of 10, writing "the thing sounds fantastic" and that the song is "pretty good". However, he admitted that he "would probably not have been particularly impressed" if he hadn't seen the music video. James Oldham of NME described it as "magnificent, sultry, pneumatic trip-soul ballad, which gently blooms into a magical garden of fluttering harps and shivering strings." He also added that the track "is no mere soundtrack" for the video. AllMusic's Heather Phares gave the DVD single four out of five stars, considering it "a necessary addition to the collections of dedicated Bjork fans". Douglas Wolk of CMJ New Music Monthly also gave the single a positive review, commending its B-sides and writing it "was hardly the most striking piece at the time—but the tune turns out to have been something of a sleeper."
Norwegian magazine Panorama ranked "All Is Full of Love" at number four on its list of Singles of the Year. Blender included the track on two lists: "Standout Tracks from the 500 CDs You Must Own" and "The 1001 Greatest Songs to Download Right Now!", both published in 2003. The staff members of Slant Magazine placed "All Is Full of Love" at number 59 on their list of "The 100 Best Singles of the 1990s", writing: "Though it has been as oft-remixed as any other Björk single from the landmark Homogenic set, no version quite achieves the ethereal effect that the album mix of the song does. Coming off the tail-end of "Pluto," a sonic threnody for a suicidal fan, Björk's open-source, beat-free echo chamber is both absolution and resurrection". The track was also included on Quintessence Editions' "1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die: And 10,001 You Must Download".
Background and development
The music video for "All Is Full of Love" was directed by Chris Cunningham. Björk was impressed by Cunningham's original music videos for IDM musicians Autechre, Squarepusher, and Aphex Twin, and by his clear lines, science fiction inclinations, and discordant imagery. This resulted in Björk contacting him to meet at his London office; she brought a Chinese Kama Sutra as a guide to what she wanted. Cunningham had also associated the track with sex upon hearing it, but could not figure out how to make the video explicit yet broadcastable. Björk said: "I think the only thing I said was that I thought it was very white [...] and I'm trying to describe some sort of a heaven. But I wanted also to have the other level there, there would be lust, it wouldn't be just clean." She complemented saying she mentioned that the video should be "white" and "frozen", and then it "melts because of love" and "making love".
When Cunningham first heard the track, he wrote down the words "milk", "sexual", "surgery", and "white porcelain"; they outline what would become the music video. Concerning this, Cunningham added that it was like Kama Sutra meeting Industrial Robotics and that because of the surreal nature of the images, they could be "sexually suggestive" as they liked. Initially, it was planned that during the visual's ending, the robots would unfold like a flower as they mated, revealing an abstract life form made from the two artificial forms. However, the team could not manage to materialize this thought.
The robots were designed by Cunningham and were built in full-size by Paul Catling — who had also sculpted the masks for Aphex Twin's "Windowlicker" (1999) — in clay in two hours. He also worked with Julian Caldow in set design, which was created by Chris Oddy. The treatment described the set as an "elegant" and "white environment" with "a Japanese feel to it". However, the music video's director was dissatisfied with the result and relied heavily on post-production. On the shoot there were two main robot arms, but during its post production, a third and fourth robot arm were created in computer-generated imagery.
The video was shot at Bray Studios and Greenford Studios, and post-production was handled by Glasswork using the software programs Softimage and Flame. Cunningham said that every shot in the clip had four layers. He reportedly first shot the set and the props doing nothing for about 21 seconds, and then removed the robot and replaced it with Björk, who had her face painted white and wore a blue suit. Using a mix of the master shot and a live feed of Björk in frame, the production team tried to match up her face and the robot body as much as possible. Only Björk's eyes and mouth were used, with the rest of the robot representing 3D animation traced from her real head. Cunningham has described the filming process as an unpleasant experience:
I always think that my strength is [...] sculpting stuff up in [post-production] and then, a lot of the time things are pretty ramshackle while they're shot. And I think that with the video that was the most extreme example of that, I mean it really was a disaster [...] In the Avid, looking at this stuff, it just looked awful and I actually had a panic attack when I went to the telecine to look at the rushes. I just thought "this is a fucking disaster, [...] so cheap and nasty. At it was only when Glassworks started doing the computer graphics that [...] I started to realise how the video was gonna be made completely with the computer graphic addition.
Björk left Cunningham alone to work for the video, refusing to see the product until it was finished, explaining that "when you come across someone as special as Chris you just go humble", which Cunningham said made the work much easier.
The video begins with a journey through a dark environment wrought with cables and a faint pulsating light. The sequence has been described as "womb-like, voyeuristic, as if the black box of technology is about to open up". The camera follows these cables to an ethereal, white room where a robot with Björk's features lies in a fetal position. As the room lightens up, two mechanical arms begin to assemble the robot, which opens its eyes and begins to sing the song. Pistons pumping white fluids, as well as drilling and penetrative motions are seen, featuring a "clear" sexual subtext.
Now sitting upright, the robot looks up to see another robotic Björk as the machines stop the assembly. It smiles and extends its hand to the sitting robot, joining in the song. In the climax of the video, the robots passionately kiss and embrace while the machines assemble their backs and light comes and goes. The images of the kissing robots are interposed with shots of white fluid washing over robotic parts and the mechanical arms assembling them. According to the Institute for the Unstable Media, "as the music fades and the pulsating beat becomes more dominant, we are once again drawn in the womb-like dark space, making it clear to us that we sampled a glimpse of a black-boxed kingdom".
The music video was greeted with widespread critical acclaim. Music journalist Mark Pytlik wrote the visual "marked an unquestionable creative apex for Björk's visual work, a perfect synthesis of form and content". IGN gave the video a score of 9/10, writing it is an "utterly gorgeous sight to behold" and "just about perfect". Time's Craig Duff called it a milestone in computer animation and stated that "no robot had expressed the sensuality that director Chris Cunningham imbues in a Björk-bot in the video". MusicRadar considered the music video to be "one of the most visually striking promos of Björk's career." NME also praised the "All Is Full of Love" clip as one of Björk's best, and particularly commended the wide angle shot of the cyborgs kissing as the chorus kicks in. Eric Henderson of Slant Magazine dubbed it "the perfect pre-millennial precursor to our current gadget-assisted culture of self-love" and also wrote, "When it was released, I thought it looked cool and stressed the importance of loving yourself. Now I think it's a terrifying and sealed-off nightmare wherein you find out that you are the only person who will ever love you." Writing for Pitchfork Media, Scott Plagenhoef considered that "the strongest single images from any video of the 1990s come from [the clip]", also calling it "strange and moving". CMJ New Music Monthly's Douglas Wolk called the video "magnificent" and praised it for "[bringing] out the beauty of the song".
Recognition and legacy
The music video has won various awards and accolades. It won the Jury Prize at ArtFutura Festival of 1999, Best Video in the 2000 Fantasporto, Best Video at the 2000 Australian Effects and Animation Festival and Best Art Direction in a Video and Best Special Effects in a Video at the Music Week Awards. Other awards received at festivals include the second place of the Prix PIXEL-INA Best Script in the 2000 Imagina, and the music video award at the London Effects and Animation Festival. At the D&AD Awards, the video was awarded prizes in Video Direction, Cinematography, Animation, and Special Effects. Furthermore, at the MVPA Awards, Cunningham received the award for Best Direction of a Female Artist in a Music Video. Björk won two awards at the MTV Video Music Awards in 2000: Breakthrough Video and Best Special Effects in a Video. The music video also received the Best Special Effects in a Music Video and Best 3D Animation Music Video during the 2000 International Monitor Awards. Particularly, the visual won various nominations: Best Video at the 1999 Ericcson Muzik Awards, Best Short Form Music Video at the 42nd Annual Grammy Awards, and Best Alternative Video, Best Cinematography, and Best Editing in a Video at the 2000 Music Week Awards.
In 2008, MTV2 ranked the music video as number one on their list "Greatest Music Videos Ever". In 2011, "All Is Full of Love" was placed at number 14 in MusicRadar's list of the 30 best music videos of all time, and was placed in Time's list of The 30 All-TIME Best Music Videos. The video was also listed as the fifth-greatest of all time by NME, and the ninth top music video of the decade by Pitchfork Media. In addition, "All Is Full of Love" has been included in various art exhibitions and museums, including DEAF04 Exhibition in the V2_Institute for the Unstable Media in Rotterdam, Chris Cunningham in MoMA PS1 in New York City, the 49th Venice Biennale, While Interwoven Echoes Drip into a Hybrid Body – an Exhibition about Sound, Performance and Sculpture in the Migros Museum für Gegenwartskunst in Zürich, and This Is Not a Love Song in La Virreina Centre de la Imatge in Barcelona. The music video was also on permanent exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City.
Chris Cunningham served as a model for a character in the novel Pattern Recognition (2003) by William Gibson, in which a fictitious music video director who puts "robot girls in his video" makes a clip characterized by the following words: "No sci-fi kitsch for Damien. Dreamlike things in the dawn half-light, their small breasts gleaming, white plastic shining faints as old marble", as a reference to "All Is Full of Love". In 2004, similarities were noted between the design of the robots in the music video and those in the film I, Robot, raising accusations of plagiarism by fans. E! News contacted Cunningham and 20th Century Fox—the studio behind the film—but neither of them returned calls for comment. According to Tymon Smith of The Times, 2015 American film Chappie "ends with a rip off" of the music video. It also was an inspiration for the opening title sequence of the television series Westworld.
Björk first performed "All Is Full of Love" live in July 1997, playing the whole album for a press conference and presentation concert concerning Homogenic at the Old Truman Building, an old beer factory in London, wearing a pink dress designed by Hussein Chalayan, which she would later sport in the video for "Bachelorette" (1997) and photoshoots. The song was part of the set list for her Homogenic Tour, on which Björk embarked with Mark Bell and Icelandic String Octet from late 1997 to early 1999. "All Is Full of Love" was also performed during the Vespertine World Tour in 2001, which featured Vespertine collaborators Matmos and Zeena Parkins, an Inuit choir, and an orchestra. During the tour, Björk performed in concert halls and opera houses in order to "have the best acoustics possible" and avoid the "appalling acoustics" of stadiums and rock venues. The track was the most performed of the tour, alongside "Frosti" and "Pagan Poetry". Björk's concert at the Royal Opera House of 16 December 2001, which included a performance of the song, was broadcast on BBC Four and released as the DVD Live at Royal Opera House in 2002. A live version of the track can also be found on the tour documentary DVD Minuscule of 2003. A Vespertine Tour live version of the song was released through Vespertine Live, a live album of the tour included in the box set Live Box (2003).
The headliner of the 2002 Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival, Björk opened the set with the track, wearing a white Comme des Garçons dress. This performance was included on the 2006 video documentary Coachella. The song was also part of the set list of the Greatest Hits Tour (2003), which once again featured the Icelandic String Octet, but with the addition of Vespertine World Tour collaborators Matmos and Zeena Parkins. It was one of the most played songs of the tour. Björk's performance of the song in New York City during the tour was included in the 2005 documentary film Screaming Masterpiece. "All Is Full of Love" was also performed during the Volta Tour (2007–08), a tour she undertook with Mark Bell, Jónas Sen, Damian Taylor, Chris Corsano, and a 10-piece female brass band. Several of the concerts were part of festivals, including Coachella, Glastonbury, and Rock en Seine, among others. A live performance of the track during the tour was included in the box set Voltaïc (2009), specifically the CD Songs from the Volta Tour Performed Live at the Olympic Studios. The track was also performed a few times during Björk's Biophilia Tour (2011–13). The song was performed only once on the 2015 Vulnicura Tour.
Usage in media and cover versions
"All Is Full of Love" was used in the 1999 film Stigmata, directed by Rupert Wainwright. It was subsequently included on the official soundtrack, Stigmata: Music From The MGM Motion Picture Soundtrack. The Funkstörung mix of the song was also included on the soundtrack for the 2000 Christopher Nolan film, Memento. The track was further used for the 1998 French film Those Who Love Me Can Take the Train, directed by Patrice Chéreau.
In 2001, American indie rock band The Microphones covered the song and added it on their 2001 studio album, Blood. "All Is Full of Love" was also covered by Death Cab for Cutie and was released on their 2002 The Stability EP. The Vitamin String Quartet, a musical group widely known for its series of tributes to popular music acts, covered the track as part of their 2005 tribute to Björk Violently: The String Quartet Tribute To Bjork. The song was also sampled in Kerli's "Love Is Dead" from her 2008 album of the same name.
- UK CD
- Björk mit Funkstörung – "All Is Full of Love (In Love With Funkstörung Mix)" – 5:29
- Funkstörung – "This Shit" – 5:01
- Björk mit Funkstörung – "All Is Full of Love (Secondotted by Funkstörung)" – 4:37
- The 12" vinyl version of the single only featured the first two tracks. The "Secondotted by Funkstörung" mix was included on the 1999 single as the "Funkstörung Exclusive Mix".
Credits and personnel
- Written by Björk
- Production – Howie B (album version) – Björk (video version)
- Mixing engineer – Howie B (album version) – Björk, Mark Stent (video version)
- Assistants – Rebecca Storey, Russell Polden, Paul "P-Dub" Walton, Jason Westbrook, Danny Brown, Kirsten Cowie, Sie Midway-Smith, James Loughrey, Rob Murphy and Jason Groucott
- Keyboards – Björk, Mark Bell and Guy Sigsworth
- Programming – Mark Bell and Markus Dravs
- Electronic drumkit – Trevor Morais
- Clavichord and pipe organ – Guy Sigsworth
- Accordion – Yasuhiro "Coba" Kobayashi
- Glass harmonica – Alasdair Malloy
- Published by Polygram Music Publishing Ltd
|Europe (Eurochart Hot 100)||89|
|UK Singles (OCC)||24|
|UK Indie (OCC)||3|
|US Dance/Electronic Singles Sales (Billboard)||8|
- "The 100 Best Singles of the 1990s". Slant Magazine. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- Burleson, Ryan (10 January 2011). "Take Cover! Death Cab For Cutie Vs. Björk". Magnet. Magnet Magazine Inc. Retrieved 14 March 2015.
- Pytlik 2003, p. 170
- "GH&FT special: All Is Full Of Love". bjork.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2006. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Brouwer, Joke (2004). Feelings are Always Local. V2_ publishing. pp. 180–183. ISBN 978-90-5662-423-1. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Duff, Craig (26 November 2011). "Björk, 'All Is Full of Love' (1999) | The 30 All-TIME Best Music Videos". Time. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- Whiteley, Sheila (2005). Too Much Too Young: Popular Music Age and Gender. Routledge. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-415-31029-1. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- Tangari, Joe (27 February 2002). "Death Cab for Cutie: The Stability EP". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Top 100 Albums of the 1990s". Pitchfork Media. 17 November 2003. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Schroer, Brendan (5 January 2014). "Review: Björk – Homogenic". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- Dibben, 2009. p.108
- Cinquemani, Sal (6 May 2007). "Björk: Homogenic". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- Browne, David (September 26, 1997). "Björk: Homogenic". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- Hunter, James (October 1997). "Björk: Homogenic (Elektra)". Spin: 135. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- "Bjork – All is Full of Love". IGN. 28 January 2000. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Oldham, James (12 September 2005). "Bjork : All is full of love". NME. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "funkstörung remix Björk". bjork.com. 24 August 1998. Archived from the original on 28 April 2001. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "The Grapewire of 1999". bjork.com. 1999. Archived from the original on 15 August 2000. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Hunter – Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Jóga – Björk". AllMusic. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Björk – All Is Full Of Love". DigiTitles. 3 April 2012. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "About Us". One Little Indian. December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Business End". Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Group. May 2004. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
More recently he has produced both the first DVD single (Bjork's 'All Is Full Of Love') ...
- "All Is Full of Love releases". 77ísland. Official Björk discography. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "All Is Full of Webvoting". bjork.com. 9 August 2000. Archived from the original on 21 March 2008. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Homogenic – Björk: Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Björk – Homogenic". Tiny Mix Tapes. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Landmark Productions: Bjork – Homogenic". Music Tech. 3 December 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "All Is Full of Love – Björk". AllMusic'. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Wolk, Douglas (January 2000). "Singles". CMJ New Music Monthly. CMJ Network, Inc: 62. ISSN 1074-6978. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "All Is Full of Love". Acclaimed Music. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die: And 10,001 You Must Download. Universe Books. November 2010. ISBN 978-0-7893-2089-6.
- Pytlik 2003, p. 140
- "Björk.. All is Full of Love". Director-File.com. Archived from the original on 26 May 2005. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "EXPOSURE: All Is Full of Love". SciFi.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "All is Full of Love". V2_Institute for the Unstable Media. 2004. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Brannigan, Erin (2011). Dancefilm: Choreography and the Moving Image. Oxford University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-19-536724-9. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "The 30 best music videos of all time". MusicRadar. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
- "100 Greatest Music Videos". NME. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- Cinquemani, Sal (5 July 2013). "Top 10 Björk Music Videos". Slant Magazine. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Plagenhoef, Scott (23 August 2010). "Staff Lists:The Top 50 Music Videos of the 1990s". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Award Winning Work". Glassworks. Archived from the original on 2013-01-28. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Music Video Awards and Nominations". Archived from the original on 14 February 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "Animation World News – Awards". Archived from the original on 2012-01-07. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- "2000 Winners". D&AD. Archived from the original on 16 December 2000. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "MVPA Award Winners, 2000". Music Video Production Association. Archived from the original on 15 November 2000. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "2000 MTV Video Music Awards". MTV. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Santana Tops List With 10 Grammy Nominations". The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company. 5 January 2000. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Ta da – Greatest Video Ever". MTV Blogs. 15 August 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "MoMA PS1: Exhibitions: Chris Cunningham". The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times Company. 5 January 2000. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- La Biennale di Venezia: 49. Esposizione internazionale d'arte : platea dell'umanità, Volumen 1. Electa. 2001. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "While Interwoven Echoes Drip into a Hybrid Body – an Exhibition about Sound, Performance and Sculpture". Migros Museum für Gegenwartskunst. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- "This Is Not a Love Song: Touring Exhibition Dossier" (PDF). Screen-Projects. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
- Carroll, Grace (27 February 2013). "Robot rock: the best droids in music of all time". Gigwise. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- Keazor, Henry; Wübbena, Thorsten (2010). Rewind, Play, Fast Forward: The Past, Present and Future of the Music Video. Transcript-Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 978-3-8376-1185-4. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Twentieth Century Fox, meet award-winning director Chris Cunningham". lowculture.com. 10 June 2004. Archived from the original on 24 July 2004. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- Joal, Ryan (16 July 2004). "The Björk-"I, Robot" Connection?". E! News. Archived from the original on 15 August 2004. Retrieved 27 November 2014.
- Smith, Tymon (13 March 2015). "'Chappie' a mix of 'hodge-podge messiness'". The Times. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Westworld". www.artofthetitle.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Epstein, Adam. "Westworld opening credits: The beautifully eerie title sequence is really a meticulously crafted short film — Quartz". qz.com. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Maio, Luis (18 July 1998). "The Women In Fire". Público. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Grapewire 2001: Closeup of the tour at hand". bjork.com. 4 August 2001. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Grapewire 2001: Fun figures on songs sung this year". bjork.com. 30 December 2001. Archived from the original on 29 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Grapewire 2002: Royal Opera House Concert Broadcast in March". bjork.com. 19 January 2002. Archived from the original on 29 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Grapewire 2002: The Royal Concert Release on DVD". bjork.com. 6 June 2002. Archived from the original on 27 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Grapewire 2003: Tour peek and Minuscule". bjork.com. 31 October 2003. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Grapewire 2003: DVD's coming up & Live Box". bjork.com. 22 May 2003. Archived from the original on 29 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "gigOgraphy: 2002: Coachella Festival 2002". bjork.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "Coachella [DVD]". AllMusic. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- "gigOgraphy: 2003". bjork.com. Archived from the original on 18 June 2006. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- "Grapewire 2003: Björk&Matmos&Zeena&Octet – Live in concert". bjork.com. 20 May 2003. Archived from the original on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- "Grapewire 2003: Fun figures on songs sung this tour". bjork.com. 10 October 2003. Archived from the original on 23 November 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "Grapewire 2005: Inez & Vinoodh show off, Screaming Masterpiece awarded". bjork.com. 5 October 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2005. Retrieved 19 March 2015.
- "gigOgraphy: Volta Tour summary". bjork.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- "News: Volta Concerts Start in Reykjavik". bjork.com. 11 April 2007. Archived from the original on 1 January 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- "Voltaïc". bjork.com. 2009. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
- "gigography". bjork.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- "Bjork played 2 shows at King's Theatre (pics, setlists), showing virtual reality "Stonemilker" vid @ MoMA PS1 & Rough Trade". BrooklynVegan. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 20 September 2016.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Stigmata – Original Soundtrack". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "David Julyan, Various Artists: Memento, Music for and inspired by the film". Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "Ceux qui m'aiment prendront le train" (in French). Microbe Records. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Pecoraro, David M. (11 November 2001). "The Microphones: Blood". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Violently: The String Quartet Tribute To Bjork". Vitamin Records. Archived from the original on 4 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Love Is Dead (album liner notes). Kerli. Island Records. 2008. 460502670134.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Björk Mit Funkstörung – All Is Full Of Love". Discogs. Retrieved 16 March 2019. Fatcat. 1998. CDFAT022
- "Bjork* Mit :Funkstorung.* – All Is Full Of ..." Discogs. Retrieved 16 March 2019. Fatcat. 1998. 12FAT022
- "Björk Mit Funkstörung – All Is Full Of Love". Discogs. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- All Is Full of Love (EU CD single liner notes). Björk. Mother Records. 1999. 561 140-2.CS1 maint: others (link)
- All Is Full of Love (US CD single liner notes). Björk. Elektra Records. 1999. 63723-2.CS1 maint: others (link)
- All Is Full of Love (UK CD1 single liner notes). Björk. One Little Indian Records. 1999. 242TP7CD.CS1 maint: others (link)
- All Is Full of Love (UK CD2 single liner notes). Björk. One Little Indian Records. 1999. 242TP7CDL.CS1 maint: others (link)
- All Is Full of Love (UK DVD single liner notes). Björk. One Little Indian Records. 1999. 242TP7DVD.CS1 maint: others (link)
- All Is Full of Love (12-inch vinyl 1 single liner notes). Björk. One Little Indian Records. 1999. 242TP12.CS1 maint: others (link)
- All Is Full of Love (12-inch vinyl 2 single liner notes). Björk. One Little Indian Records. 1999. 242TP12L.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Homogenic (Media notes). Björk. One Little Indian Records. 1997.CS1 maint: others (link)
- All Is Full Of Love (Media notes). Björk. One Little Indian. 1999.CS1 maint: others (link)
- "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- "Homogenic – Björk: Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Music & Media: Eurochart Hot 100" (PDF). Music & Media. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
- "Official Independent Singles Chart Top 50". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- Pytlik, Mark (2003). Björk: Wow and Flutter. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-556-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)