The majority of Islamic commentators do not believe that Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: عَـلِي ابْـن أَبُـو طَـالِـب, translit. ‘Alī ibn Abū Ṭālib) is mentioned explicitly in the Quran.[d] However, Shi'ite scholars and some Sunni scholars interpret many Quranic verses as referring to Ali. Shi'ite scholars also believe other Imams have been referred in the Quran. They believe Imams are referred to as "the signs of Allah, the way, the straight path, the light of Allah, the inheritors of the Book, the people of knowledge, the holders of authority and other such designations," Shi'ite sources state, Muhammad al-Baqir answers: "Allah revealed Salat to his Prophet but never said of three or four Rakats, revealed Zakat but did not mention to its details, revealed Hajj but did not count its Tawaf and the Prophet interpreted their details. Allah revealed this verse and Prophet said this verse is about Ali, Hasan, Husayn and the other Twelve Imams." Shi'ite scholars, thus, have argued that a quarter of Qur'anic verses are stating the station of imams. Such a view is rejected by Sunni scholars, who argue that some of these verses instead refer to the Quraysh or Muhammad's wives.
""Surely the case of Jesus is like the case of Adam. He created him out of dust, then he said to him, "Be', and he was. This is the truth from thy Lord, so be thou not of those who doubt. Now whoso disputes with thee concerning him, after what has come to thee of Knowledge, say to him "Come let us call abnā’anā (Arabic: أَبْـنَـاءَنَـا, our sons) and abnā’akum (Arabic: أَبْـنَـاءَكُـم, your sons) and nisā’anā (Arabic: نِـسَـاءَنَـا, our women) and nisā’kum (Arabic: نِـسـاءكـم, your women) and anfusanā (Arabic: أَنْـفُـسَـنَـا, ourselves) and anfusakum (Arabic: أَنْـفُـسَـكُـم, yourselves), then let us pray fervently and invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie."""[Quran 3:61 (Translated by Shakir)]
In the year 10 AH (631/32 CE), a Christian envoy from Najran (now in southwestern Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad to debate doctrines regarding ‘Īsā (Arabic: عِـيْـسَى, Jesus). After Muhammad likened Jesus' miraculous birth to the creation of Ādam (Arabic: آدَم, Adam),[e]—who was born to neither a mother nor a father — and when the Christians did not accept the Islamic doctrine about Jesus, Muhammad was instructed to call them to Mubahalah where each party should ask God to destroy the false party and their families Sunni historians, except Tabari who do not name the participants, mention Muhammad, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, and some agree with the Shi'ite tradition that Ali was also among the participants in this event on the side of Muhammad. Accordingly, in the verse of Mubahalah it is argued that the phrase "our sons" is representative of Hasan and Husayn, "our women" would refer to Fatimah, and that "ourselves" would be Muhammad and Ali.
This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (5:3).
"Only Allah is Waliyyukum (Arabic: وَلِـيُّـكُـم, "your Walī" (masculine, plural tense)) and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay az-Zakāh (Arabic: اٱلـزّكَـاة, the Poor-rate) while they bow."[Quran 5:55 (Translated by Shakir)]
Shi'ite scholars, along with Sunni ones such as Tabari,[f] Al-Suyuti[g] and Razi,[h] recorded[i] that one day, when Ali was performing the ritual prayers in the Mosque, a beggar began to ask for alms. Ali extended his finger, and the beggar removed his ring. Then Muhammad observed this, and a passage of the Qur'an was sent down upon him (5:55), According to Shi'ites, in this verse, "obedience is absolute and conjoined with obedience to God and his messenger", so the person identified as Wali must be infallible.
One day, I was praying with the Prophet in the mosque when a beggar walked in. No one responded to his pleas. The beggar raised his hands towards the heavens and said, "Allah! Be a witness that I came to the Prophet's Mosque and no one gave me anything." Imam Ali (a) was bowing during his prayer at that time. He pointed his little finger, on which was a ring, towards the beggar who came forward and took away the ring. The incident occurred in the Prophet's presence, and he raised his face towards heaven and prayed:
"O Lord! my brother Musa had begged of Thee to open his breast and to make his work easy for him, to loosen the knot of his tongue so that people might understand him, and to appoint from among his relations his brother, as his wali, and to strengthen his back with Harun and to make Harun his partner in his work. O Allah! Thou said to Musa, 'We will strengthen thy arm with thy brother. No one will now have access to either of you!' O Allah! I am Muhammad and Thou hast given me distinction. Open my breast for me, make my work easy for me, and from my family appoint my brother Ali as my wali. Strengthen my back with him."
"O Messenger! deliver what has been revealed to you from your Rabb (Arabic: رَبّ, Lord); and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people."[Quran 5:67 (Translated by Shakir)]
"And stay in your houses and do not display your finery like the displaying of the Ignorance of yore; and keep up the Salah, and pay the Zakah, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, Ahlal-Bayt (Arabic: أَهْـلَ ٱلْـبَـيْـت, People of the House), and purify you a (thorough) purifying."[Quran 33:33 (Translated by Shakir)]
Shi'ite commentators, along with some Sunni ones, record that the people of the house in this verse are the Ahl al-Kisā’ (Arabic: أَهْـلَ ٱلْـكِـسَـاء, People of the Mantle): Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn.[j] According to Wilferd Madelung, "the great majority of the reports quoted by al-Tabari in his commentary on this verse support this interpretation."[k][l] However, Ibn Kathir, in his tafsir of the verse, says "the [Sunni] scholars are unanimously agreed that they (Muhammad's wives) were the reason for revelation in this case ... but others may be included by way of generalization."
"That is of which Allah gives the good news to His servants, (to) those who believe and do good deeds. Say: I do not ask of you any reward for it but al-mawaddah fil-qurbā (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـوَدَّة فِي ٱلْـقُـرْبَى, the love for the near relatives), and whoever earns good, We give him more of good therein; surely Allah is Forgiving, Grateful."[Quran 42:23 (Translated by Shakir)]
Shi'ite commentators and Sunni ones like Baydawi[m] and Razi [n] agree that the near relatives in question are Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. Such a view is rejected by Ibn Kathir, who claims the verse refers to the Quraysh, quoting hadiths from Sahih Bukhari and Ahmad ibn Hanbal. According to Madelung Shi'ite and Sunni sources agree that by the near relatives in this verse and other similar verses were meant the descendants of Muhammad's great-grandfather Hashim ibn ‘Abd Manaf, and of Hashim's brother al-Muttalib.[verification needed][clarification needed]
- Quran, 43: 4
- Quran, 19: 50
- Quran, 15: 41
- An exception is in Ibn al-Haytham's Kitab al-Munazarat, there is a specific mention of the words ‘Aliyyan (Arabic: عَـلِـيًّـا), ‘Aliyyun (Arabic: عَـلِيٌّ) and ‘Alayya (Arabic: عَـلَيَّ) in the Quran which, he believes, according to grammatical rules are the names to Ali. Examples of these, he says, are the following verses: In the (mother of the Book which is with Us, he is Ali, full of wisdom;[a] We appointed for them Ali as a voice of truth;[b] and This is the straight path of Ali[c]
- Quran, 3: 59
- See at-Tabari: at-Tarikh, vol.6, p.186
- See as-Suyuti: Dur al-Manthur, vol.2, pp. 293–4
- See ar-Razi: at-Tafsiru 'l Kabir, vol.12, p.26
- See also az-Zamakhshari: at-Tafsir al-Kashshaf, vol.1, p.469; al-Jassas:Ahkamu 'l-Quran, vol.2, pp. 542–3; al-khazin: at-Tafsir, vol.2, p.68 Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet By Sayyid Saeed Akhtar Rizv p24
- see also al-Bahrani, Ghayat al-Marum, p. 126:al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. V, p.199; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al Musnad, Vol. I, p.331; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. I, p.783; Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq p.85
- See Tabari, Jarir XXII, 5–7.
- Madelung writes "the verse addressed to the wives of the Prophet: 'Stay in your houses, and do not show yourselves in spectacular fashion like that of the former time of ignorance. Perform the prayer, give alms, and obey God and His Messenger. God desires only to remove defilement from you, o people of the house (ahl al-bayt)^ and to purify you (yutahhirakum) completely' (XXXIII 33). Who are the 'people of the house' here? The pronoun referring to them is in the masculine plural, while the preceding part of the verse is in the feminine plural. This change of gender has evidently contributed to the birth of various accounts of a legendary character, attaching the latter part of the verse to the five People of the Mantle ahl al-kisa: Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn."
- See Baydawi, Anwar at-Tanzil. Vol.5 p.53
- See Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb, vol. 7, pp. 273–5
- Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Quran: an Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis e-Library. pp. 28–31. ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1.
- Momen 1985, p. 151
- Naseri, AliAkbar. Imamat and Shifa'at. pp. 203–204.
- Feyrahi, Davoud. "General coordinates of Imaamat". Shia Studies Quarterly (3 and 4).
- Momen 1985, pp. 13–14
- Madelung 1997, pp. 15–16
- Madelung 1997, p. 16
- Momen 1985, p. 14
- Hamid, Mavani (2013). Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi'ism. New York and London: Routledge. pp. 68–73. ISBN 978-0-415-62440-4.
- al-Bahrani, Seyyed Hashim. Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 1. pp. 434–437.
- Makarem Shirazi, Naser. Tafsir Nemooneh. 4. pp. 263–271.
- Sobhani, Ja'far. Al-Iman va al-Kofr fi al-Ketab va al-Sunnah. 1. p. 244.
- Akhtar Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed (1988). Imamate: The vicegerency of the Holy Prophet. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania. pp. 24–. ISBN 978-9976-956-13-9.
- Cornille, Catherine; Conway, Christopher (1 July 2010). Interreligious Hermeneutics. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 124–. ISBN 978-1-63087-425-4.
- Hasnain Rizvi, Syed Tilmiz (3 February 2014). Fazail-e-Ali ibn Abi Talib. Lulu.com. pp. 1–42. ISBN 978-1-304-87140-4.
- Shomali (2004), pp. 140–142.
- Quran 20:25.
- Rizvi & al. (2006), p. 24.
- Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61
- Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tafsir al-Tabari vol. XXII. pp. 5–7.
- H. Algar, "Al-E Aba," Encyclopædia Iranica, I/7, p. 742; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/al-e-aba-the-family-of-the-cloak-i (accessed on 14 May 2014).
- "Fāṭima." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Online, 2014. Reference. 08 April 2014
- Madelung 1997, pp. 14–15
- Tafsir Ibn Kathir. IslamKotob. p. 126.
- Momen 1985, p. 334
- Momen 1985, p. 152
- Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (29 Oct 2009). The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 9). MSA Publication Limited. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-86179-667-7.
- Madelung 1997, p. 13