|Alfa Romeo 75|
1988 Alfa Romeo Milano Gold (North American model)
|Also called||Alfa Romeo Milano|
|Assembly||Italy: Arese Plant, Lombardy|
|Designer||Ermanno Cressoni at Centro Stile Alfa Romeo|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Compact executive car (D)|
|Body style||4-door saloon|
|Related||Alfa Romeo Alfetta|
Alfa Romeo GTV6
Alfa Romeo SZ
|Engine||1.6 L I4 (petrol)|
1.8 L I4 (petrol)
1.8 L I4 (t/c petrol)
2.0 L I4 (petrol)
2.5 V6 (petrol)
3.0 V6 (petrol)
2.0 L I4 (turbodiesel)
2.4 L I4 (turbodiesel)
|Wheelbase||2,510 mm (98.8 in)|
|Length||4,331 mm (170.5 in)|
|Width||1,631 mm (64.2 in)|
|Height||1,349 mm (53.1 in)|
|Curb weight||1,100–1,300 kg (2,400–2,900 lb)|
|Predecessor||Alfa Romeo Giulietta|
|Successor||Alfa Romeo 155|
The Alfa Romeo 75 (Tipo 161, 162B), sold in North America as the Milano, is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automaker Alfa Romeo between 1985 and 1992. The Alfa 75 was commercially quite successful: in only three years, 236,907 cars were produced, and by the end of production in 1992, around 386,767 had been built.
The Alfa Romeo 75 was the last model released before Alfa Romeo was acquired by Fiat. (The Alfa Romeo 164 was the last model developed independently.)
The 75 was introduced in May 1985 to replace the Giulietta (with which it shared many components), and was named to celebrate Alfa's 75th year of production. The body, designed by head of Centro Stile Alfa Romeo Ermanno Cressoni, was styled in a striking wedge shape, tapering at the front with square headlights and a matching grille (similar features were applied to the Cressoni-designed 33).
At the 1986 Turin Auto Show, a prototype 75 estate was to be seen, an attractive forerunner of the later 156 Sportwagon. This version was, however, never listed for sale, being cancelled after Fiat took control of Alfa Romeo. The car, dubbed the 75 Turbo Wagon, was made by Italian coachbuilder Rayton Fissore using a 75 Turbo as the basis. Two estate versions were to be found at the later 1987 Geneva Motor Show; one was this Turbo Wagon and the other was a 2.0-litre version named the Sportwagon.
The 75 featured some unusual technical features, most notably the fact that it was almost perfectly balanced from front to rear. This was achieved by using transaxle schema — mounting the standard five-speed gearbox and clutch in the rear connected to the rear differential (rear-wheel drive). The front suspension was a torsion bar and shock absorber combination and the rear an expensive de Dion tube assembled with shock absorbers; these designs were intended to optimize the car's handling; moreover the rear brake discs were fitted at the centre of the rear axle, near the gearbox-differential group. The engine crankshaft was bolted directly to the two-segment driveshaft, which ran the length of the underside from the engine block to the gearbox and rotated at the speed of the engine. The shaft segments were joined with elastomeric 'doughnuts' to prevent vibration and engine/gearbox damage. The 2.0 L Twin Spark and the 3.0 Litre V6 were equipped with a limited slip differential.
The 75 featured a then-advanced dashboard-mounted diagnostic computer, called Alfa Romeo Control, capable of monitoring the engine systems and alerting the drivers of potential faults.
The 75 engine range at launch featured four-cylinder 1.6-, 1.8- and 2.0-litre petrol carbureted engines, a 2.0-litre intercooled turbodiesel made by VM Motori, and a 2.5-litre fuel injected V6. In 1986, the 75 Turbo was introduced, which featured a fuel-injected 1,779 cc twin-cam engine using Garrett T3 turbocharger, intercooler and oil cooler.
In 1987, a 3.0-litre V6 was added to the range and the 2.0 L Alfa Romeo Twin Cam engine was redesigned to have now two spark plugs per cylinder, the engine was named as Twin Spark. With fuel injection and variable valve timing this engine produced 148 PS (109 kW; 146 hp). This was an early example of a production engine using variable valve timing, though the first to do so was in Alfa Romeo's own Spider in 1980. In North America, where the car was known as the Milano, only the 2.5 and 3.0 V6 engines were available, from 1987 to 1989.
The North American 2.5-litres were fundamentally different from their European counterparts. Due to federal regulations, some modifications were required. Most noticeable from the outside were the 'America' bumpers, with the typical rubber accordions in them. Furthermore, these bumpers had thick (and heavy) shock-absorbing material inside them and in addition, they were mounted to the vehicle on shock absorbers. To accommodate these shock absorbers, the 'America'-bodies were slightly different from the European ones. Other changes relative to the European model were:
- A 67-litre fuel tank which was located behind the rear seats, reducing the boot capacity from 500 L (18 cu ft) to 300 L (11 cu ft).
- Side-markers in the bumpers
- Exhaust silencer sticking out from under the bumper at the r/h side of the vehicle instead of the centre
- Reinforcements in the doors and boot lid
- Hooks underneath the bonnet, to keep the bonnet in position in a crash
The North American cars also had different equipment levels (depending on the version: Milano Silver, Milano Gold or Milano Platinum). L/h and r/h electrically adjustable outside mirrors, electrically reclining seats and cruise control were usually optional in Europe. The car was also available with a 3-speed ZF automatic gearbox option for the 2.5 V6. Other, more common options such as electrically operated rear windows and an A/C system were standard in the USA. The USA-cars also had different upholstery styles and of course different dashboard panels also indicating speed in mph, oil pressure in psi and coolant temperature in degrees F, and as a final touch the AR control was different, including a seat belt warning light. Some North American specification Milanos were sold in Switzerland (When catalytic converters were made mandatory in 1987).
The European-spec 2.5 V6 (2.5 6V Iniezione or 2.5QV) was officially sold only between 1985 and 1987, although some of them were not registered until 1989. Relatively few of them were sold (about 2,800 units), especially when the 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp) 1.8 Turbo got launched, which in some countries was cheaper in taxes because of its lower displacement. To create a bigger space between the V6 and the inline fours, the 2.5 was bored out to 2,959 cc's to deliver 188 PS (138 kW; 185 hp) and this new engine was introduced as the 3.0 America in 1987. As its type designation suggests, the 3.0 only came in the US-specification, with the impact-bumpers and in-boot fuel tank. However, the European 'America's' were not equipped with side-markers or the door, bonnet and boot lid fortifications. Depending on the country of delivery, the 3.0 America could be equipped with a catalytic converter.
In 1988 engines were updated again, the 1.8 L carburetor version was replaced with fuel injected 1.8 i.e. and new bigger diesel engine was added to the range. In the end of 1989 the 1.6 L carburetor version was updated to have fuel injection and 1990 the 1.8 L turbo and 3.0i V6 got some more power and updated suspension. The 3.0 V6 was now equipped with a Motronic system instead of an L-Jetronic. The 1.8L turbo was now also available in 'America'-spec, but strangely enough not available for the USA market. The 3.0 V6 did make it to the United States, and was sold as Milano Verde.
|2.0 Twin Spark||57.084|
|2.5 6v Q.V/Milano||12.611|
500 examples of the Turbo Evoluzione were produced in the spring of 1987 to meet Group A requirements. The car had many modifications when compared to the standard turbo model. The engine was down-sleeved to 1,762 cc (normally 1,779 cc) and while the claimed power was the same as in the standard turbo, this engine was better suited for power upgrades than the standard 75 Turbo engine.
|Model||Engine layout||Displacement||Fuel system/Air delivery||Power||Torque||Note|
|Launch, May 1985|
|1.6 L||I4||1,570 cc||Carburettor/NA||110 PS (81 kW) at 5,800 rpm||146 N⋅m (108 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm||-|
|1.8 L||I4||1,779 cc||Carburettor/NA||120 PS (88 kW) at 5,300 rpm||170 N⋅m (125 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm||-|
|2.0 L||I4||1,962 cc||Carburettor/NA||128 PS (94 kW) at 5,400 rpm||183 N⋅m (135 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm||-|
|2.0 L TD||I4||1,995 cc||Turbodiesel||95 PS (70 kW) at 4,300 rpm||192 N⋅m (142 lb⋅ft) at 2,300 rpm||Available in left hand drive markets only.|
|2.5 L||V6||2,492 cc||Fuel injection/NA||156 PS (115 kW) at 5,600 rpm||206 N⋅m (152 lb⋅ft) at 3,200 rpm||-|
|1.8 L Turbo||I4||1,779 cc||Fuel injection/Turbocharger||155 PS (114 kW) at 5,800 rpm||226 N⋅m (167 lb⋅ft) at 2,600 rpm||-|
|1.8 L Turbo EVOLUZIONE||I4||1.762 cc||Fuel injection/Turbocharger||155 PS (114 kW) at 5,800 rpm||226 N⋅m (167 lb⋅ft) 2600 rpm||-|
|2.0 L TS||I4||1,962 cc||Fuel injection/NA||148 PS (109 kW) at 5,800 rpm||186 N⋅m (137 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm||Addition of FI to the pre-existing 2.0 L engine.|
|3.0 L||V6||2,959 cc||Fuel injection/NA||188 PS (138 kW) at 5,800 rpm||250 N⋅m (184 lb⋅ft) at 3,000 rpm||Available only in the Milano Verde (North American market).|
|1.6 L Catalytic||I4||1,570 cc||Fuel injection/NA||105 PS (77 kW) at 6,000 rpm||132 N⋅m (97 lb⋅ft) 4000 rpm||-|
|1.8 L i.e.||I4||1,779 cc||Fuel injection/NA||122 PS (90 kW) at 5,500 rpm||157 N⋅m (116 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm||Addition of FI to the pre-existing 1.8 L engine.|
|2.4 L TD||I4||2,393 cc||Turbodiesel||112 PS (82 kW) at 4,200 rpm||235 N⋅m (173 lb⋅ft) at 2,400 rpm||-|
|3.0 L V6 America Catalytic||V6||2,959 cc||Fuel injection/NA||188 PS (138 kW) at 5,800 rpm||250 N⋅m (184 lb⋅ft) at 3,000 rpm||Available in the European market only.|
|1.6 L i.e.||I4||1,570 cc||Fuel injection/NA||107 PS (79 kW) at 6,000 rpm||137 N⋅m (101 lb⋅ft) at 4,000 rpm||-|
|1.8 L Turbo Quadrifoglio Verde||I4||1,779 cc||Fuel injection/Turbocharger||165 PS (121 kW) at 5,800 rpm||226 N⋅m (167 lb⋅ft) 2600 rpm||-|
|2.0 L TS Catalytic||I4||1,962 cc||Fuel injection/NA||148 PS (109 kW) at 5,800 rpm||186 N⋅m (137 lb⋅ft) 4000 rpm||Replaced the previous 2.0 L engine.|
|3.0 L V6 QV||V6||2,959 cc||Fuel injection/NA||192 PS (141 kW) at 5,800 rpm||250 N⋅m (184 lb⋅ft) at 3,000 rpm||Replacing the previous 3.0 L, this engine from the 164 featured Motronic fuel injection rather than the earlier L-Jetronic. This model was known as the "Potenziata."|
Alfa Romeo and its racing department Alfa Corse raced the 75 Turbo Group A in the World Touring Car Championship in the 1987 season. There were six official entries, two were ran directly by Alfa Corse, two by Brixia Corse, one by Albatech, and one by the Swedish team Q-Racing. Team drivers included Formula One veterans such as Nicola Larini, Gabriele Tarquini, Alessandro Nannini, Jacques Laffite, and Mario Andretti as well as World Sportscar champion Jean-Louis Schlesser. The Class 2 car had enough power (approximately 320 bhp (239 kW; 324 PS)) to be on par with the new and more track focused BMW M3. However, Alfa had very little success in the WTCC and with the whole season descending into a political farce, Alfa Romeo team boss Cesare Fiorio withdrew the team before the overseas races.
Australian driver Colin Bond, winner of the 1975 Australian Touring Car Championship and 1969 Hardie-Ferodo 500, had been racing the GTV6 since 1984. Remaining loyal to Alfa Romeo, he ran a Caltex sponsored Alfa 75 in the 1987 Australian Touring Car Championship, replacing the GTV6. Bond's new 75 was built by the Italian Luigi team, but Bond found that the engine produced about 200 bhp (149 kW; 203 PS) rather than the promised 320 bhp (239 kW; 324 PS). This saw him finish in a distant 9th place in the championship while the team's engine builder, Melbourne based Alfa expert tuner Joe Beninca, tried to reclaim the lost 120 bhp (89 kW; 122 PS). This was finally achieved by converting the car to right hand drive, allowing for an exhaust system that did not wind around the steering rack. Bond also drove the end of season endurance races including the Bathurst race of the WTCC. After Bond qualified in 21st, co-driver Lucio Cesario destroyed the front of the 75 in a crash at the top of the mountain on lap 34 of the race, forcing the car's withdrawal from the Calder Park and Wellington races of the WTCC. The car was repaired in time for the Australian Grand Prix support races in Adelaide where Bond qualified for a second place start and finished 5th in the car's "down under" swansong. Bond was the only driver to embrace the 75 in Australia but switched to race the all-conquering Ford Sierra RS500 starting in 1988 in a bid to return to the winners circle.
Gianfranco Brancatelli won the 1988 ITC series with Alfa 75 Turbo and Giorgio Francia placed second in the 1991 ITC. The 9th Giro d'Italia automobilistico in 1988 was won by the team of Miki Biasion, Tiziano Siviero and Riccardo Patrese with a 75 Turbo Evoluzione IMSA. A 75 Turbo Evoluzione IMSA also won the 10th Giro d'Italia automobilistico in 1989.
The British Alfa Romeo Dealer Team ran a pair of cars in the 1986-87 seasons with drivers Rob Kirby and John Dooley. Racing in Class B, the team started with the V6 version of the 75, alongside their older GTV6, before upgrading to the 75 turbo. They were able to match the pace of the Ford Escort RS turbos but once Frank Sytner's BMW M3 appeared, they were rendered uncompetitive.
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