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|Alexander Dennis Enviro400 MMC|
An Abellio London Enviro400 MMC on route 345 in 2016
|Body and chassis|
|Doors||Single or dual door|
|Floor type||Low floor|
|Chassis||Alexander Dennis Enviro400 MMC|
|Engine||Cummins ISBe (Enviro400 MMC)|
Scania DC9 (Scania N2x0UD)
Volvo D5K (Volvo B5LH)
Volvo D8K (Volvo B8L)
|Electric motor||2 x BYD 150kW in-wheel (BYD K10)|
|Transmission||Voith or ZF|
|Battery||320 kWh lithium iron phosphate (BYD K10)|
|Range||303 kilometres (188 mi) (BYD K10)|
|Length||10.3 m (33 ft 10 in) to|
13.4 m (44 ft 0 in)
|Width||2.55 m (8 ft 4 in)|
|Height||4.2 m (13 ft 9 in) to|
4.3 m (14 ft 1 in)
|Curb weight||11 tonnes (10.8 long tons; 12.1 short tons)|
|Predecessor||Alexander Dennis Enviro400|
The Alexander Dennis Enviro400 MMC is a low-floor double-decker bus produced by the British bus manufacturer Alexander Dennis since 2014, replacing the Alexander Dennis Enviro400. The Enviro400 MMC is produced at Alexander Dennis' Falkirk and Scarborough factories in the United Kingdom.
The Enviro400 MMC is available as a complete integral bus – including an alternative styling, the Enviro400 City – or as a bus bodywork on BYD, Scania and Volvo chassis. A tri-axle variant, known as the Enviro400 XLB, is also produced. The Enviro400 MMC is available powered by either Euro VI diesel, compressed natural gas (CNG), hybrid-electric or fully-electric powertrains.
The Enviro400 MMC can trace its design roots back to 1997, with the introduction of the Dennis Trident 2, one of the first low-floor double-decker buses to enter service. The model saw immense success at the turn of the millennium, despite financial difficulties facing Dennis Specialist Vehicles during this period. As a result of these, production of the Trident 2 passed first to TransBus International in 2001 and then to Alexander Dennis in 2004.
Alexander Dennis updated the basic Trident 2 chassis to launch the classic Enviro400 in 2005 – the basic chassis of which was initially still badged internally as a Trident. A second-generation Enviro400 was launched in 2009, with facelifted styling and updated chassis design which finally dropped the Trident moniker. The second-generation Enviro400 was overhauled again to create the Enviro400 MMC, which was launched as the classic model's eventual replacement in 2014. Production of the classic Enviro400 ceased in 2018.
Core body designs
The Enviro400 MMC was unveiled by Alexander Dennis on 1 May 2014, as the eventual successor to the classic Enviro400. Compared to the classic Enviro400, changes included a complete body redesign with new front and rear ends and Euro VI engines as standard. The Oxford Bus Company was the first company to operate the Enviro400 MMC, followed by Go-Ahead, Stagecoach and Reading Buses.
In late 2015, Alexander Dennis launched the Enviro400 City, a premium model of the Enviro400 MMC, featuring restyled front and rear ends to match the single-decker Enviro200 MMC and a glass staircase as standard amongst other features. The Enviro400 City was designed to compete with the New Routemaster and Wright SRM designs, and the first examples, with hybrid powertrain, entered service with Arriva London on route 78.
Blackpool Transport became the first operator outside London to order the Enviro400 City in January 2016, with diesel variants for the 9 service, to be upgraded to high-specification Palladium standard with the arrival of the new buses.
The tri-axle Enviro400 XLB was launched in 2019, providing an equivalent option to the Enviro500 for the United Kingdom market. The Enviro400 XLB features essentially the same body style as the standard Enviro400 MMC, but stretched over three axles and fitted onto Volvo B8L chassis. Lothian Buses were the launch customer for the Enviro400 XLB, with an initial order of 42 vehicles for their new Lothian city core routes. These 100-seat vehicles are intended for British and Irish operators who benefit from the Enviro400 XLB's high degree of parts commonality with other Enviro400 MMC variants; the Enviro500 MMC has a different body structure and is intended for international markets where this factor is less important.
The first Enviro400H integral hybrid-electric buses entered service in late 2014 in London. The Enviro400H was initially launched with the MMC-style body, although the City-style body was also made available from late 2015; it was first unveiled at the UK Bus & Coach Expo at the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham in October 2015. The Enviro400H is also available with Volvo B5LH chassis under the MMC-style body, as ordered in considerable numbers by Stagecoach.
The Enviro400 CNG was launched in 2017, with the first production example entering service with First West of England in Bristol on a trial basis. The Enviro400 CNG is only available with the City-style body, built onto Scania N280UD compressed natural gas-powered chassis. Subsequently, First West of England placed an order for 21 Enviro400 CNGs, with were subcontracted out to CT Plus Bristol and entered service on Bristol Metrobus pink line m1 in 2019.
A further 77 Enviro400 CNGs were ordered in 2019 and entered service in early 2020 on Bristol routes 6, 7, 17, 42, 43, 44, 45, 73, m3 & m3x, T1, Y1 and Y6. The 77 vehicles are based at Lawrence Hill Depot and are branded as Citylines East, Citylines 73, m3 metrobus and South Glos Lynx. 3 of the 77 vehicles are painted in standard First Bus livery and are intended for use as spare vehicles.
Nottingham City Transport have been by far the largest customer for the Enviro400 CNG, taking delivery of 118 examples between 2017 and 2019 as part of a major fleet renewal programme. Additional Enviro400 CNGs have entered service with Reading Buses.
In 2018, Alexander Dennis launched the Enviro400 EV all-electric variant on BYD Auto's K10 chassis, powertrain and batteries. This 10.9 metre long variant is due to enter service in 2019 with Metroline in London and is the second electric bus model from Alexander Dennis, following 2016's launch of the Enviro200 EV, also in partnership with BYD. The chassis, motor and battery are adapted from BYD's integral K10 10.2 metre double-decker (in service with Metroline in London since 2015) which achieves a 303km service range from a 320kWh lithium iron phosphate battery and two 150kW motors.
In 2015, National Express West Midlands took delivery of 106 Enviro400 MMCs, 58 of which were for its new high-specification Platinum range of services. Stagecoach is currently in the process of receiving a total of 136 examples for services with Stagecoach London, Stagecoach Manchester, Stagecoach South East, Stagecoach East Scotland and Stagecoach in Oxfordshire as well as a single demonstrator vehicle whilst Cardiff Bus has received 10 examples.
In 2016, National Express West Midlands took delivery of a further 96 examples for its expanding Platinum range of services; they were launched on routes 126 (Now X7/8), 529, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X14 and X61 (now withdrawn, these buses went onto replacement routes X20, X21 and X22) . In 2017, Southern Vectis took delivery of the MMC version to launch at the same time as its new ticket machines. National Express West Midlands again purchased a further 38 examples for its Platinum range. They were delivered throughout December 2017. All 38 were intended for the Harborne corridor in Birmingham, originally routes 22, 23, 24 and 29. In 2018, National Express West Midlands bought a further 72 Enviro400 MMCs for the West Midlands 9, 50, X10 and X70 and the Coventry 11 and 12X services.
Stagecoach East Midlands have placed 35 Enviro400 MMCs into service as of 2019. The first three buses arrived at Worksop depot in August 2016. The next batch of 15 buses entered service on newly-branded Simplibus services in Kingston upon Hull in October 2016. Six more Enviro400 MMCs entered service on Lincolnshire County Council-funded InterConnect cross-county services based out of Gainsborough depot in November 2017, painted in a purple variation of the standard Stagecoach livery. The final eleven buses entered service at Mansfield and Worksop depots in June 2018, branded for Nottingham to Chesterfield service the Pronto, operated jointly with Trentbarton. A further 17 Enviro400 MMCs have entered service with Stagecoach Yorkshire, the first nine of which entered service at Barnsley depot in September 2016 for Town Lines service 66. Eight more buses, delivered to luxury Stagecoach Gold specification for extended route X17 between Matlock, Chesterfield, Sheffield, Meadowhall and Barnsley, entered service in September 2018.
In October 2016, eight high-specification Enviro400 MMCs entered service at First West Yorkshire's Hunslet Park depot for First Express service X84 between Leeds and Skipton, branded as the Wharfedale Connection. Arriva Yorkshire placed 37 Enviro400 MMCs into service across their Castleford and Heckmondwike depots during the summer of 2017. Eleven of these were delivered to Arriva's luxury Sapphire standard for upgraded Castleford to Leeds services 163 and 166. The remainder were delivered in standard Arriva specification for Leeds to Wakefield route 189 (based at Castleford) and Leeds to Dewsbury and Halifax routes 254 and 255 (based at Heckmondwike).
In November 2019 East Yorkshire placed eleven high specification Enviro400 MMC's into service on their circular 104/154 service between Hull and Castle Hill Hospital via Hull University, Cottingham, Willerby, and Hull Royal Infirmary. The new vehicles have proven to be extremely popular with passengers so in August 2020 the company added a further eight even higher specification buses to their fleet for use on their flagship services 45 and X46 between Hull, Beverley Bridlington, Driffield, Market Weighton, Pocklington and York. Now branded as EastRider, these eight vehicles have luxury features such as on board entertainment, bike racks and ambient mood lighting as well as audio/visual next stop announcements, USB charging facilities and part leather seating that are also featured on the previous batch of eleven.
- "The all-new Enviro400 – designed by the industry for the industry". Alexander Dennis. 1 May 2014. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "£80m FLYING START FOR ENVIRO400 AS ADL ALSO CONFIRMS £175m EXPORT WINS". Alexander Dennis. Alexander Dennis. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- "Arriva London to be the first operator of the New ADL Enviro400H City Bus". Arriva London. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- Blackpool to take first single-door Enviro400 City Archived 2016-11-05 at the Wayback Machine Bus & Coach Professional 22 January 2016
- Dalton, Alastair. "Monster buses coming to Edinburgh will be the UK's biggest". The Scotsman. Factiva SC00000020181111eebb000jh. Archived from the original on 27 February 2019. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
- "BYD ADL partnership continues the electric revolution in London with biggest part of London's first order for pure electric double deckers | Alexander Dennis". www.alexander-dennis.com. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "News Center-BYD". www.byd.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Peterborough, Brave Creative (22 November 2016). "Alexander Dennis – Enviro200EV - Bus & Coach Buyer". Bus & Coach Buyer. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "World's First Zero Emission Electric Double Decker | Metroline News". www.metroline.co.uk. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- "BYD Product Pages - 10.2M Double Decker for UK" (PDF).
- "Electric Buses | Stagecoach". www.stagecoachbus.com. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
- "Cambridge's First Electric Buses". www.stagecoachbus.com. Retrieved 2020-04-08.
- "National Express West Midlands launches first electric buses". www.birminghamupdates.com. Retrieved 2020-07-09.
- "Platinum Premium Bus Service - National Express West Midlands". nxbus.co.uk. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
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