The consumption of alcohol is prohibited in the Islamic faith, but was practised widely in the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. Murad IV (1612 - 1640) forbade drinking alcohol by law despite being a drinker himself. Turkey has been a secular country since its establishment in 1923, and the consumption of rakı in particular is a significant part of Turkey's food culture. However, today, 83% of adult Turks report being teetotal, and at 1.5 litres per head, alcohol consumption is the lowest in Europe. This amount is disputed by WHO Data from 2016 which places the amount of alcohol consumed per person per year at 28.5 litres, the 8th highest in the world.
In Turkey, the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages is age limited to persons 18 and over. A governmental act imposed in January 2011 restricted the sale of alcohol at various events to persons under 24 years of age rather than 18 as it was previously established. However, the ban was later overturned by the courts.
Turkey's driving under the influence law gives a blood alcohol content limit of 0.05mg/ml (as of January 2013) and 0 for commercial drivers. Under the new 2013 laws, breaching the drunk driving limit is punishable with a six-month driving ban.
Licences are required in Turkey to sell or serve alcohol (including beer); they are administered by the Tobacco and Alcohol Market Regulatory Authority. In 2008 shops with retail licenses were barred from selling alcohol out of its original packaging, preventing the custom of some shops of setting up chairs and tables outside to become de facto small bars.
In 2013 the government passed laws limiting retail licenses from 10 pm to 6 am and banning "student dormitories, health institutions, sports clubs, and all sorts of education institutions and gas stations" from selling alcohol. 185,000 kiosks with alcohol licenses could be affected.
The 2013 laws also created additional restrictions on obtaining new licenses. No new licenses would be issued for locations less than 100 metres from a school or mosque. In addition, new licensees would now need to obtain a business permit from the local municipality, and "a tourism document from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism" before applying.
The high tax on the alcoholic beverages, called special consumption tax (Turkish: Özel Tüketim Vergisi ÖTV), established first in 2002 and dramatically increased in 2010 by the government of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), whose leadership is known for their aversion to alcohol, led to a significant rise in smuggling and fraud involving alcoholic beverages in the country. Bootlegging is blamed for the 2011 Turkish Riviera mass alcohol poisoning.
Advertising and promotion
In 2013, new laws banned all forms of advertising and promotion for alcoholic beverages, including "promotions, sponsored activities, festivals and free giveaways." Beverage companies ran ads criticizing the ban.
The law also included a requirement to blur depictions of alcoholic beverages on television and in films, as was already done for cigarettes, and for bottles to carry health warnings similar to tobacco packaging warning messages.
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