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Alabama House of Representatives
New session started
|February 25, 2020|
Speaker pro Tempore
Length of term
|Authority||Article IV, Alabama Constitution|
|November 6, 2018|
|November 8, 2022|
|House of Representatives|
Alabama State House
|Alabama House of Representatives|
The Alabama House of Representatives is the lower house of the Alabama Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Alabama. The House is composed of 105 members representing an equal number of districts, with each constituency containing at least 42,380 citizens. There are no term limits in the House. The House is also one of the five lower houses of state legislatures in the United States that is elected every four years. Other lower houses, including the United States House of Representatives, are elected for a two-year term.
Powers and process
All revenue-raising matters must originate in the Alabama House, just as in the Congress of the United States. The House must have a quorum to conduct business, and a majority of a quorum can pass any bill except a constitutional amendment, which requires a three-fifths vote of all those elected. An appropriation to a non-government organization, such as a private college, requires a two-thirds vote of those elected. In order to be a member of the Alabama House of Representatives, one must be a minimum of 21 years of age.
The Alabama House of Representatives is composed of 105 members, for the respectively numbered districts across the state. Each member represents a district of approximately 42,000 people, and is elected to a four-year term. Members of the House at the time of their election must have been citizens of Alabama for three years, and have lived in their respective districts for at least one year immediately preceding their election. The Speaker of the House is a member of the body and is elected by his colleagues to serve as its presiding officer.
Members of the House are paid a salary of ten dollars per day, plus expenses other than travel in an amount fixed by joint resolution of the legislature.
The Speaker of the House presides over the House of Representatives. The Speaker is elected by the majority party caucus followed by confirmation of the full House through the passage of a House Resolution. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker is also the chief leadership position and controls the flow of legislation and committee assignments. Other House leaders, such as the majority and minority leaders, are elected by their respective party caucuses relative to their party's strength in the chamber.
- Speaker of the House: Republican Mac McCutcheon, District 25 (Monrovia, Madison County)
- Majority Leader: Republican Nathaniel Ledbetter, District 24 (Rainsville, DeKalb County)
- Minority Leader: Democrat Anthony Daniels, District 53 (Madison)
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous legislature||72||33||105||0|
|Begin present legislature||77||28||105||0|
|Latest voting share||72.82%||27.18%|
|Speaker of the House||Mac McCutcheon||Republican||25th–Capshaw|
|Speaker pro tempore||Victor Gaston||Republican||100th–Mobile|
|Clerk of the House||Jeffrey Woodard|
|House Majority Leader||Nathaniel Ledbetter||Republican||24th–Rainsville|
|Majority Whip||Danny Garrett||Republican||44th–Trussville|
|Majority Caucus Vice-Chair||Connie Rowe||Republican||13th–Jasper|
|Majority Caucus Secretary/Treasurer||Phillip Pettus||Republican||1st–Killen|
|House Minority Leader||Anthony Daniels||Democratic||53rd–Huntsville|
|Assistant Minority Leader||Merika Coleman||Democratic||57th–Birmingham|
|Minority Caucus Chair||Christopher J. England||Democratic||70th–Tuscaloosa|
|Minority Caucus Vice-Chair||Barbara Drummond||Democratic||103rd–Mobile|
|Minority Whips||Adline Clarke||Democratic||97th–Hartselle|
|Minority Caucus Secretary/Treasurer||Kelvin Lawrence||Democratic||69th–Hayneville|
Past composition of the House
Throughout most of the state's history, the Democratic Party has held the majority in the Alabama House of Representatives except for a few brief exceptions. The Whig Party controlled the lower house in 1819 and again in 1821-23 and for the last time in 1837–1838. After the Civil War, Republicans held the majority during the Reconstruction period from 1868 to 1870 and again from 1872 to 1874. This was followed by 136 years of Democratic control ending in November, 2010. Beginning with the 2010 General Election Republicans swept to a large majority and have increased it in the succeeding elections in 2014 and 2018.
Among the House's historical firsts was the election of its first African-American members in 1868 when 27 black Republicans were elected. The House also elected its first female member in 1922 with the election of Hattie Hooker Wilkins of Dallas County who would serve a single four-year term.
Current committees include:
- Agriculture and Forestry
- Baldwin County Legislation
- Boards, Agencies and Commissions
- Children and Senior Advocacy
- Commerce and Small Business
- Constitutions, Campaigns and Elections
- County and Municipal Government
- Economic Development and Tourism
- Education Policy
- Ethics and Campaign Finance
- Financial Services
- Internal Affairs
- Jefferson County Legislation
- Lee County Legislation
- Local Legislation
- Madison County Legislation
- Military and Veterans' Affairs
- Mobile County Legislation
- Montgomery County Legislation
- Public Safety and Homeland Security
- Shelby County Legislation
- State Government
- Technology and Research
- Transportation, Utilities and Infrastructure
- Tuscaloosa County Legislation
- Ways and Means Education
- Ways and Means General Fund
- "2016 Survey: State Legislative Compensation, Session Per Diem and Mileage" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
- Article IV, Section 50 of the Alabama Constitution.
- Bailey, Neither Carpetbaggers nor Scalawags (1991)
- Dance, Gabby. Alabama Political Reporter, July 24, 2019
- "Alabama House Committees". Open States. Sunlight Foundation. April 9, 2014. Retrieved April 9, 2014.