Airport Surface Detection Equipment, Model X, or ASDE-X, is a runway-safety tool that enables air traffic controllers to detect potential runway conflicts by providing detailed coverage of movement on runways and taxiways. By collecting data from a variety of sources, ASDE-X is able to track vehicles and aircraft on airport surfaces and obtain identification information from aircraft transponders.
Originally the FAA installed thirty-eight ASDE-3A radar systems at the nation's busiest airports. The cost-effective alternative to the ASDE-3/AMASS capability, referred to as ASDE-X, is one of the first new runway safety program technologies aimed at improving ATCS situational awareness by providing tools to supplement their tasks (McAnulty, Doros, & Poston, 2001). The data that ASDE-X uses comes from a surface movement radar located on the airport traffic control tower or remote tower, multilateration sensors, ADS-B (Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast) sensors, terminal radars, the terminal automation system, and from aircraft transponders. By fusing the data from these sources, ASDE-X is able to determine the position and identification of aircraft and vehicles on the airport surfaces, as well as of aircraft flying within 5 miles (8 km) of the airport (selectively up to 60 nmi).
Controllers in the tower see this information presented as a color display of aircraft and vehicle positions overlaid on a map of the airport's runways/taxiways and approach corridors. The system essentially creates a continuously updated map of all airport-surface operations that controllers can use to spot potential collisions.
Consisting largely of commercial off-the-shelf products, ASDE-X was designed as a solution for the smaller of the top-tier airports, and is especially helpful to controllers at night or in bad weather when visibility is poor. The Federal Aviation Administration has also begun the process of deployment of visual and audio alarms, known as Safety Logic, that will assist ASDE-X by alerting controllers to possible collisions or runway incursions.
Pilots normally activate the aircraft transponder just prior to take off, then return it to standby or off after landing. When ASDE-X is available at an airport, that fact will be included in the recorded ATIS (Automatic Terminal Information Service) to indicate to the pilot that the transponder should be left on while maneuvering on the ground.
The first ASDE-X was activated for operational use and testing at Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in June 2003, and declared ready for national deployment in October 2003.
List of airports
Airports with ASDE-X installed as of October 9, 2020[update]:
- Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (Baltimore, MD)
- Boston Logan International Airport (Boston, MA)
- Bradley International Airport (Hartford, CT)
- Charlotte Douglas International Airport (Charlotte, NC)
- Chicago Midway Airport (Chicago, IL)
- Chicago O’Hare International Airport (Chicago, IL)
- Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (Dallas, TX)
- Denver International Airport (Denver, CO)
- Detroit Metro Wayne County Airport (Detroit, MI)
- Ft. Lauderdale/Hollywood Airport (Ft. Lauderdale, FL)
- Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport (Milwaukee, WI)
- George Bush Intercontinental Airport (Houston, TX)
- Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport (Atlanta, GA)
- Honolulu International Airport / Hickam Air Force Base (Honolulu, HI)
- John F. Kennedy International Airport (New York, NY)
- John Wayne-Orange County Airport (Santa Ana, CA)
- Kahului Airport (Kahului, HI)
- Lambert-St. Louis International Airport (St. Louis, MO)
- LaGuardia Airport (New York, NY)
- Las Vegas McCarran International Airport (Las Vegas, NV)
- Los Angeles International Airport (Los Angeles, CA)
- Louisville International Airport-Standiford Field (Louisville, KY)
- Memphis International Airport (Memphis, TN)
- Miami International Airport (Miami, FL)
- Minneapolis St. Paul International Airport (Minneapolis, MN)
- Newark International Airport (Newark, NJ)
- Orlando International Airport (Orlando, FL)
- Philadelphia International Airport (Philadelphia, PA)
- Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (Phoenix, AZ)
- Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (Arlington, VA)
- Salt Lake City International Airport (Salt Lake City, UT)
- San Diego International Airport (San Diego, CA)
- Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (Seattle, WA)
- Theodore Francis Green State Airport (Providence, RI)
- Washington Dulles International Airport (Chantilly, VA)
- William P. Hobby Airport (Houston, TX)
- Air traffic control
- Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System
- Airport Surface Surveillance Capability
- ASDE-X Fact Sheet by the Federal Aviation Administration, dated March 2, 2007.
- Electronic Eyes Improve Runway Safety[permanent dead link] by the Federal Aviation Administration's Air Traffic Organization (FAA ATO), dated Nov. 16, 2007.
- FAA Deploys System To Prevent Airport Runway Collisions, from The Washington Post
- ASDE-X In Use At Washington Dulles from AviationNews.net, dated April 8, 2008.
- ASDE-X: Coming To An Airport Near You To Squawk Or Not To Squawk, That Is The Question from National Business Aviation Association March 28, 2004 
- McAnulty, D.M., Koros, A., & Poston, A. (2001). Airport surface detection equipment - Model X early user involvement event. (FAA Publication # ACT5302001-2a). Atlantic City International, NJ: Federal Aviation Administration. 
- Runway incursion incident at Charlotte Douglas International Airport on May 29, 2010 where ASDE-X gave an alert