ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī
ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī in Arabic calligraphy.
|Born||17 March 1078 CE|
(1 Ramadan, 470 AH)
|Died||21 February 1166 CE|
(11 Rabi' al-Thani, 561 AH)
|Resting place||Baghdad, Iraq|
|Era||Islamic Golden Age|
|Main interest(s)||Fiqh, Sufism, aqidah|
ʿAbd al-Qādir Gīlānī, (Persian: عبدالقادر گیلانی, formally Muḥyī l-Dīn Abū Muḥammad b. Abū Sālih ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Gīlānī al-Ḥasanī wa'l-Ḥusaynī (Arabic: عبدالقادر الجيلاني, Turkish: Abdülkâdir Geylânî, Kurdish: Evdilqadirê Geylanî, Sorani Kurdish: عهبدوالقادری گهیلانی), known as for short was a Hanbali Sunni Muslim preacher, orator, ascetic, mystic, sayyid, faqīh, and theologian who was known for being the eponymous founder of the Qadiriyya tariqa (Sufi order) of Sufism.
Born 29 Sha'ban 470 AH (around 1077) in the town of Na'if, district of Gilan-e Gharb, Gilan, Iran[nb 1] and died Monday, February 14, 1166 (11 Rabi' al-Thani 561 AH), in Baghdad, (1077–1166 CE), was a Persian Hanbali Sunni jurist and sufi based in Baghdad. The Qadiriyya tariqa is named after him. And say that he was born in Gilan Iraq, a historic village near the cities (Al-Mada'in) of 40 kilometers south of Baghdad, as evidenced by historical studies academic and adopted by the Gilan Family in Baghdad.
The name Muhiyudin describes him as a "reviver of religion". Gilan (Arabic al-Jilani) refers to his place of birth, Gilan. However, Gilani also carried the epithet Baghdadi. referring to his residence and burial in Baghdad. He is also called al-Hasani wa'l-Husayni, which indicates a claim to lineal descent from both Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali.
Gilani spent his early life in Gilan, the town of his birth. In 1095, at the age of eighteen years, he went to Baghdad. There, he pursued the study of Hanbali law  under Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi and ibn Aqil. He was given lessons on Hadith by Abu Muhammad Ja'far al-Sarraj. His Sufi spiritual instructor was Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas. (A detailed description of his various teachers and subjects are included below). After completing his education, Gilani left Baghdad. He spent twenty-five years as a reclusive wanderer in the desert regions of Iraq.
Education in Baghdad
At the age of 18, Gilani went to Baghdad to study the Hanbali school of fiqh.
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Ibn Aqil|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Abu Al Hasan Muhammad ibn Qazi Abu Yala|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Abu Al Khatab Mahfuz Hanbali|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Muhammad ibn Al Husnayn|
|Fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence)||Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhrami|
|Tasawwuf (Sufism)||Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhrami
Abu'l-Khair Hammad ibn Muslim al-Dabbas
Abu Zakariya ibn Yahya ibn Ali Al Tabrezi
|Hadith||Abu Bakr ibn Muzaffar|
|Hadith||Muhammad Ibn Al Hasan Baqalai Abu Sayeed
Muhammad ibn Abdul Kareem
|Hadith||Abu Al Ghanaem Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ali Ibn Maymoon Al Farsi|
|Hadith||Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Al Muzaffar|
|Hadith||Abu Jafer Ibn Ahmad Ibn Al Hussain Al Qari|
|Hadith||Abu Al Qasim Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Banaan Al Karkhi|
|Hadith||Abu Talib Abdul Qadri Ibn Muhammad Yusuf|
|Hadith||Abdul Rahman Ibn Ahmad Abu Al Barkat Hibtaallah Ibn Al Mubarak|
|Hadith||Abu Al Nasr Ibn Il Mukhtar|
|Hadith||Abu Nasr Muhammad|
|Hadith||Abu Ghalib Ahmad|
|Hadith||Abu Abdullah Aulad Ali Al Bana|
|Hadith||Abu Al Hasan Al Mubarak Ibn Al Teyvari|
|Hadith||Abu Mansur Abdurahman Al Taqrar|
In 1127, Gilani returned to Baghdad and began to preach to the public. He joined the teaching staff of the school belonging to his own teacher, al-Mazkhzoomi, and was popular with students. In the morning he taught hadith and tafsir, and in the afternoon he held discourse on the science of the heart and the virtues of the Quran. He was said to have been a convincing preacher and converted numerous Jews and Christians. His strength came in the reconciling of the mystical nature of Sufism and strict nature of the Quran.
Death and burial
Gilani died in the evening of Tuesday, February 21, 1166 (11th Rabi' al-thani 561 AH) at the age of ninety one years according to the Islamic calendar. His body was entombed in a shrine within his madrasa in Babul-Sheikh, Rusafa on the east bank of the Tigris in Baghdad, Iraq. During the reign of the Safavid Shah Ismail I, Gilani's shrine was destroyed. However, in 1535, the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent had a turba (dome) built over the shrine, which exists to this day.
Birthday & Death Anniversary celebration
1 Ramadan is celebrated as the birthday of Abdul Qadir Gilani while the death anniversary is on 11 Rabi us Thani though some scholars and traditions say 29 Shaban and 17 Rabi us Sani as birth and death day respectively. The later is called in the Subcontinent as Giyarwee Shareef or Honoured Day of 11th.
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- There is uncertainty as to the year of his birth; some sources say 1077, others 1078،He was born in Jilan Iraq, a historic village near Mada'in, 40 kilometers south of Baghdad, as evidenced by historical and academic studies adopted by the Kailan family in Baghdad .'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani at Encyclopædia Britannica
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