|Ab urbe condita||1436|
|Balinese saka calendar||604–605|
|Chinese calendar||壬午年 (Water Horse)|
3379 or 3319
— to —
癸未年 (Water Goat)
3380 or 3320
|- Vikram Samvat||739–740|
|- Shaka Samvat||604–605|
|- Kali Yuga||3783–3784|
|Minguo calendar||1229 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||994/995 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1225–1226|
809 or 428 or −344
— to —
810 or 429 or −343
Year 683 (DCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 683 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- King Sighere of Essex dies after a 19-year joint reign. His brother Sæbbi becomes the sole ruler of Essex until his death in 694.
- Siege of Mecca: The Umayyad army led by Husayn ibn Numayr al-Sakuni besieges Mecca, during which the Kaaba ("Sacred House") catches fire and is burned down.
- Uqba ibn Nafi, Arab general, is ambushed and killed near Biskra (modern Algeria). His Muslim army evacuates the city of Kairouan in Tunisia, and withdraws to Barca.
- November 14 – Caliph Yazid I dies at Damascus, after a 3-year reign marked by civil war. He is succeeded by his son Muawiya II as ruler of the Umayyad Caliphate.
- December 27 – Emperor Gao Zong dies at Luoyang, age 55, after a 34-year reign in which he expanded the Chinese Empire by acquiring Korea as a vassal state.
- Emperor Tenmu decrees a reform in Japan; copper coins must be used instead of silver coins. Three days later he issues a decree to allow the continued use of silver.
- Prince Ōtsu, son of Tenmu, attends to matters of State for the first time (approximate date).
- Pacal the Great, ruler (ajaw) of the Maya state of Palenque (Mexico), dies after a 68-year reign. He is buried in the Temple of the Inscriptions.
- Seaxwulf, bishop of Mercia, founds All Saints' Church at Brixworth (approximate date).
- June 28 – Pope Leo II dies at Rome 10 months after being consecrated.
- The sarcophagus lid in the tomb of K'inich Janaab' Pakal (Shield 2), Temple of the Inscriptions, Palenque, Mexico, Maya culture is made. (approximate date)
- Bilge Khan, ruler (khagan) of the Turkic Khaganate (or 684)
- Genshō, empress of Japan (d. 748)
- Monmu, emperor of Japan (d. 707)
- Yi Xing, Chinese astronomer and mechanical engineer (d. 727)
- June 28 – Leo II, pope of the Catholic Church (b. 611)
- November 11 – Yazid I, Muslim caliph (b. 647)
- December 27 – Gao Zong, emperor of the Tang Dynasty (b. 628)
- Æbbe, Anglo-Saxon princess and abbess
- Anseung, king of Goguryeo (Korea)
- Cui Zhiwen, official of the Tang Dynasty (b. 627)
- Dúnchad Muirisci, king of Connacht (Ireland)
- Pacal the Great, ruler (ajaw) of Palenque (b. 603)
- Sighere, king of Essex
- Uqba ibn Nafi, Arab general (b. 622)
- Waningus, Frankish abbot (approximate date)
- Xue Rengui, general of the Tang Dynasty (b. 614)
- Xue Yuanchao, official of the Tang Dynasty (b. 622)
- Chaney, William A. (1970). The Cult of Kingship in Anglo-Saxon England: The Transition from Paganism to Christianity. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 168.