|Ab urbe condita||1312|
|Balinese saka calendar||480–481|
|Chinese calendar||戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)|
3255 or 3195
— to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
3256 or 3196
|- Vikram Samvat||615–616|
|- Shaka Samvat||480–481|
|- Kali Yuga||3659–3660|
|Iranian calendar||63 BP – 62 BP|
|Islamic calendar||65 BH – 64 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1353 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||870/871 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1101–1102|
685 or 304 or −468
— to —
686 or 305 or −467
Year 559 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 559 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Winter – The Kutrigurs and Huns under Zabergan cross the frozen Danube River, and invade the Balkans. They raid Thracia and Macedonia, but are driven back near Constantinople by a Byzantine force under Belisarius. Outside the city walls he defeats the "barbarians" with his veteran cavalry (bucellarii), and a few thousand hastily raised levies.
- Glappa succeeds his father Ida as king of Bernicia (North East England). During his rule, Anglian settlers expand their territory in what is now southeastern Scotland.
- First successful human flight: a manned kite lands in the proximity of Ye, China. Emperor Wen Xuan Di sponsors the flight; Yuan Huangtou, a prisoner, is the unwilling aviator; other imprisoned kite flyers also fly, but those die and Yuan survives. Yuan is executed afterwards.
- Wen Di, age 37, succeeds his uncle Chen Wu Di as emperor of the Chen Dynasty. During his reign, he consolidates the state against the rebellious warlords.
- The city-state Ara Gaya, a member of the Gaya confederacy, surrenders to Silla in the Korean peninsula.
- Pyeongwon becomes ruler of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo.
- Reccared I, king of the Visigoths (d. 601)
- Wu Shihuo, father of Wu Zetian (d. 635)
- Xuan Di, emperor of Northern Zhou (d. 580)
- Chen Wu Di, emperor of the Chen Dynasty (b. 503)
- Ida, king of Bernicia (approximate date)
- Leonard of Noblac, Frankish abbot and saint
- Wen Xuan Di, emperor of Northern Qi (b. 529)
- （永定三年）使元黄头与诸囚自金凤台各乘纸鸱以飞，黄头独能至紫陌乃堕，仍付御史中丞毕义云饿杀之。 (Rendering: [In the 3rd year of Yongding, 559], Gao Yang conducted an experiment by having Yuan Huangtou and a few prisoners launch themselves from a tower in Ye, capital of the Northern Qi. Yuan Huangtou was the only one who survived from this flight, as he glided over the city-wall and fell at Zimo [western segment of Ye] safely, but he was later executed.) Zizhi Tongjian 167.
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved April 19, 2019.