|Ab urbe condita||1309|
|Balinese saka calendar||477–478|
|Chinese calendar||乙亥年 (Wood Pig)|
3252 or 3192
— to —
丙子年 (Fire Rat)
3253 or 3193
|- Vikram Samvat||612–613|
|- Shaka Samvat||477–478|
|- Kali Yuga||3656–3657|
|Iranian calendar||66 BP – 65 BP|
|Islamic calendar||68 BH – 67 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1356 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||867/868 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1098–1099|
682 or 301 or −471
— to —
683 or 302 or −470
Year 556 (DLVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 556 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- King Chlothar I suppresses a revolt of the Saxons and Thuringii in Saxony (Germany). For some time he exacts a tribute of 500 cows every year.
- King Cynric and his son Ceawlin of Wessex fight against the Britons at Beranburh, now identified as Barbury Castle (Wiltshire) in South West England.
- Lazic War: A Byzantine expeditionary force under Justin retakes Archaeopolis (modern Georgia), and routs the Persian army.
- Siege of Phasis: The Persians are defeated at the besieged town of Phasis in Lazica, held by the Byzantines.
- King Khosrau I opens negotiations with Justinian I, leading to the establishment of a 50 year peace agreement in 562.
- April 16 – The diplomatic representative (apocrisiarius) to Constantinople is elected as Pope Pelagius I, succeeding Vigilius as the 60th pope of Rome.
- February 22 – Maximianus, bishop of Ravenna (b. 499)
- Echu Tirmcharna, king of Connacht (Ireland)
- Erzhu Ying'e, empress of Northern Wei
- Romanos the Melodist, Syrian poet (approximate date)
- Xiao Yuanming, emperor of the Liang Dynasty
- Yuwen Tai, general of Western Wei (b. 507)