|Ab urbe condita||1259|
|Balinese saka calendar||427–428|
|Chinese calendar||乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)|
3202 or 3142
— to —
丙戌年 (Fire Dog)
3203 or 3143
|- Vikram Samvat||562–563|
|- Shaka Samvat||427–428|
|- Kali Yuga||3606–3607|
|Iranian calendar||116 BP – 115 BP|
|Islamic calendar||120 BH – 119 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1406 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||817/818 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1048–1049|
632 or 251 or −521
— to —
633 or 252 or −520
Year 506 (DVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Messala and Dagalaiphus (or, less frequently, year 1259 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 506 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- November – Emperor Anastasius I accepts a peace agreement with the Sasanian Empire (Persia), based on the status quo. He upgrades the fortifications at Batnae, Edessa and Amida (Northern Mesopotamia).
- February 2 – King Alaric II issues the "Lex Romana Visigothorum" or Breviary of Alaric, an abstract of Roman laws and imperial decrees, compiled by a commission appointed to provide a law code for Alaric's Roman subjects. The "Lex Romana" will be the standard for justice in the Visigothic realm.
- The Visigoths capture the city of Dertosa in Catalonia. They arrest and execute the Roman usurper Peter, with his head being sent as a trophy to Saragossa (Spain).
- September 10 – Council of Agde: The bishops of Visigothic Gaul under the presidency of Caesarius of Arles meet.
- Antipope Laurentius is persuaded by Theoderic the Great to resign his claim to the throne of Pope Symmachus, ending a schism in the Catholic Church; Laurentius then fasts until his death.
- Sanghapala, Mon-Khmer monk (d. 518)
- Soga no Iname, leader of the Soga clan (d. 570)
- Wei Shou, Chinese author (d. 572)
- Zhang Yao'er, empress of Chen Dynasty China (d. 570)
- Greatrex, Geoffrey; Lieu, Samuel N. C., eds. (2002). The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars: a narrative sourcebook. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. p. 74.
- Collins, Roger (2004). Visigothic Spain, 409–711. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. p. 35. ISBN 0-631-18185-7.
- Richards, Jeffrey (1979). The Popes and the Papacy in the Early Middle Ages. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. ISBN 0710000987.
- Davies, Raymond, ed. (1989). The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis): the ancient biographies of the first ninety Roman bishops to AD 715. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0853232164.