All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 264) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
The 2008 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 9 March 2008, to elect the 9th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 264 seats in the Senate.
After four years of growing bipolarisation of Spanish politics, the election saw a record result for both ruling Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and opposition People's Party (PP), together obtaining more than 83% of the vote share—over 21 million votes—and 92% of the Congress seats. The PSOE under José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero benefitted from tactical voting against the PP and emerged as the most-voted party just 7 seats short of an overall majority. On the other hand, Mariano Rajoy's PP saw an increase in its vote share and seat count but remained unable to overtake the Socialists.
United Left (IU) had its worst general election performance ever with less than 4% and 2 seats. Regional nationalist parties Convergence and Union (CiU), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) or Aragonese Union (CHA) were also hurt by the massive tactical voting towards the PSOE, falling to historical lows of popular support. Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD), with 1 seat and slightly more than 300,000 votes, became the first nationwide party aside from PSOE, PP and IU entering in parliament in over two decades.
The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a prime minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which were not subject to the Congress' override. Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.
For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of three percent of valid votes—which included blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold were not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain, with each being allocated an initial minimum of two seats and the remaining 248 being distributed in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting. The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.
For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, Ibiza–Formentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.
The term of each chamber of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the prime minister did not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The decree was to be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette (BOE), with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 14 March 2004, which meant that the legislature's term would expire on 14 March 2008. The election decree was required to be published in the BOE no later than 19 February 2008, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 13 April 2008.
The prime minister had the prerogative to dissolve both chambers at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both chambers were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a prime minister within a two-month period from the first ballot. Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two chambers of the Cortes take place simultaneously.
The Cortes Generales were dissolved on 15 January 2008, after it was announced by Andalusian president Manuel Chaves in November 2007 that he had agreed with Zapatero to hold the 2008 Spanish general election and the regional election in Andalusia simultaneously on 9 March.
The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 15 January 2008, after the publication of the dissolution decree in the Official State Gazette. The tables below show the status of the different parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.
Parties and candidates
The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one percent of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election, disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates.
Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:
In the Canary Islands, an alliance was formed between New Canaries (NC) and Nationalist Canarian Centre (CCN), two splinter groups from Canarian Coalition. In the Valencian Community, Valencian People's Initiative (IdPV)—splinter from United Left of the Valencian Country (EUPV)—joined a coalition with the Valencian Nationalist Bloc (Bloc) and The Greens–Ecologist Left of the Valencian Country (EVEE). Unity for the Isles, an electoral alliance based in the Balearic Islands, was formed by PSM–Nationalist Agreement (PSM–EN), Majorcan Union (UM), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC), Agreement for Majorca (ExM) and The Greens of Menorca (EV–Me).
- 14 January: The election decree is issued with the countersign of the Prime Minister after deliberation in the Council of Ministers, ratified by the King.
- 15 January: Formal dissolution of the Cortes Generales and official start of ban period for the organization of events for the inauguration of public works, services or projects.
- 18 January: Initial constitution of provincial and zone electoral commissions.
- 25 January: Deadline for parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to inform the relevant electoral commission.
- 4 February: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates to the relevant electoral commission.
- 6 February: Submitted lists of candidates are provisionally published in the Official State Gazette (BOE).
- 9 February: Deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad (CERA) and for citizens temporarily absent from Spain to apply for voting.
- 10 February: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors to rectify irregularities in their lists.
- 11 February: Official proclamation of valid submitted lists of candidates.
- 12 February: Proclaimed lists are published in the BOE.
- 22 February: Official start of electoral campaigning.
- 28 February: Deadline to apply for postal voting.
- 4 March: Official start of legal ban on electoral opinion polling publication, dissemination or reproduction and deadline for CERA citizens to vote by mail.
- 5 March: Deadline for postal and temporarily absent voters to issue their votes.
- 7 March: Last day of official electoral campaigning and deadline for CERA citizens to vote in a ballot box in the relevant consular office or division.
- 8 March: Official 24-hour ban on political campaigning prior to the general election (reflection day).
- 9 March: Polling day (polling stations open at 9 am and close at 8 pm or once voters present in a queue at/outside the polling station at 8 pm have casted their vote). Counting of votes starts immediately.
- 12 March: General counting of votes, including the counting of CERA votes.
- 15 March: Deadline for the general counting of votes to be carried out by the relevant electoral commission.
- 24 March: Deadline for elected members to be proclaimed by the relevant electoral commission.
- 3 April: Deadline for both chambers of the Cortes Generales to be re-assembled (the election decree determines this date, which for the 2008 election was set for 1 April).
- 3 May: Maximum deadline for definitive results to be published in the BOE.
|Party or alliance||Original slogan||English translation||Ref.|
|PSOE||« Motivos para creer »[e]||"Reasons to believe"|||
|PP||« Con cabeza y corazón »||"With brain and heart"|||
|CiU||« El teu vot farà respectar Catalunya »||"Your vote will make Catalonia to be respected"|||
|esquerra||« Objectiu: un país de primera »||"Goal: A first class country"|||
|EAJ/PNV||« Euskadin bizi naiz ni, zu, non bizi zara? »
« Yo vivo en Euskadi, tú ¿dónde vives? »
|"I live in the Basque Country, where do you live?"|||
|IU||« LlamazarES + izquierda »||"LlamazarES (is) more left"|||
|CC–PNC||« Habla canario, ponte en tu sitio »||"Speak, Canarian, claim your place"|||
|BNG||« Contigo, Galiza decide »||"With you, Galicia decides"|||
|CHA||« Aragón con más fuerza »||"Aragon, with more strength"|||
|EA||« Herriaren ahotsa »
« La voz del pueblo »
|"The voice of the people"|||
|NaBai||« Moogi, moogi. Mugi gaitezen, mugi dezagun »
« Movámonos, movámoslo »
|"Let's move us, let's move it"|||
|UPyD||« Lo que nos une »||"What unites us"|||
Although the official electoral campaign period in Spain only lasts for the 15 days before the election, (with the exception of the day just before the election), many parties, especially the PP and PSOE, start their "pre-campaigns" months in advance, often before having finalised their electoral lists.
The first phase campaign was done under the slogan "Con Z de Zapatero" (With Z of Zapatero), a joke based on the Prime Minister and socialist candidate's habit of tending to pronounce words ending with D as if they ended with Z. The campaign was linked to terms like equality (Igualdad-Igualdaz) or solidarity (Solidaridad-Solidaridaz), emphasizing the policies carried out by the current government. The second phase was done under the slogan "La Mirada Positiva" (The Positive outlook), emphasising the future government platform, and "Vota con todas tus fuerzas" (Vote with all of your strength), aiming to mobilize the indecisive or potentially abstaining voters. Another common slogan through all the campaign was "Motivos para creer" (Reasons to believe in).
For the pre-campaign the PP used the slogan "Con Rajoy es Posible" (With Rajoy it's Possible). Usually emphasizing PP's campaign proposals, such as "Llegar a fin de mes, Con Rajoy es Posible" (Making ends meet, With Rajoy it's Possible). IU accused PP of copying its slogan from the last municipal elections
IU chose the pre-campaign slogan "LlamazarES + Más Izquierda" (LlamazarES (is) More Left), calling attention to their position as the third national party.
The economy became a major campaign issue due to a number of factors:
- A slowing down in the housing market, with prices even beginning to fall in some areas.
- Sharp increases in prices of some basic commodities.
- Global instability as a result of market uncertainty.
- A rise in unemployment.
The sudden emergence of the economy as a political issue came after several years of steady economic growth, and led some observers to suggest that maybe the government would have benefitted from calling an earlier election. In addition to those factors both the PP and the PSOE made competing proposals on taxation.
|Date||Organisers||Moderator(s)||P Present[f] S Surrogate[g] NI Not invited A Absent invitee|
|21 February||Antena 3[h]||Matías Prats||P
|25 February||TV Academy||Manuel Campo Vidal||P
|28 February||TVE||Ana Blanco||S
|3 March||TV Academy||Olga Viza||P
- Opinion polls
|21 February||TNS Demoscopia/Antena 3||47.4||37.0||–||15.6||–|
|25 February||Sigma Dos/El Mundo||45.5||42.0||–||–||12.5|
|TNS Demoscopia/Antena 3||45.4||39.3||–||15.3||–|
|3 March||Sigma Dos/El Mundo||49.0||40.2||–||–||10.8|
Congress of Deputies
|Parties and coalitions||Popular vote||Seats|
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||11,289,335||43.87||+1.28||169||+5|
|People's Party (PP)||10,278,010||39.94||+2.23||154||+6|
|United Left (IU)||969,946||3.77||–1.19||2||–3|
|Convergence and Union (CiU)||779,425||3.03||–0.20||10||±0|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)||306,128||1.19||–0.44||6||–1|
|Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD)||306,079||1.19||New||1||+1|
|Republican Left of Catalonia (esquerra)||298,139||1.16||–1.36||3||–5|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG)||212,543||0.83||+0.02||2||±0|
|Canarian Coalition–Canarian Nationalist Party (CC–PNC)1||174,629||0.68||–0.25||2||–1|
|Andalusian Coalition (CA)2||68,679||0.27||–0.52||0||±0|
|Navarre Yes (NaBai)||62,398||0.24||±0.00||1||±0|
|Basque Solidarity (EA)||50,371||0.20||–0.11||0||–1|
|The Greens (Verdes)||49,355||0.19||+0.05||0||±0|
|The Greens (EV–LV)3||7,824||0.03||–0.11||0||±0|
|Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (C's)||46,313||0.18||New||0||±0|
|Anti-Bullfighting Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA)||44,795||0.17||New||0||±0|
|Aragonese Party (PAR)||40,054||0.16||+0.02||0||±0|
|Aragonese Union (CHA)||38,202||0.15||–0.21||0||–1|
|New Canaries–Canarian Centre (NC–CCN)||38,024||0.15||New||0||±0|
|The Greens–Green Group (LV–GV)||30,840||0.12||+0.07||0||±0|
|Unity for the Isles (UIB)4||25,454||0.10||–0.10||0||±0|
|For a Fairer World (PUM+J)||23,318||0.09||New||0||±0|
|The Greens of Europe (LVdE)5||20,419||0.08||±0.00||0||±0|
|Social Democratic Party (PSD)||20,126||0.08||New||0||±0|
|Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE)||20,030||0.08||+0.03||0||±0|
|Citizens for Blank Votes (CenB)||14,193||0.06||–0.10||0||±0|
|Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS)||14,023||0.05||±0.00||0||±0|
|National Democracy (DN)||12,836||0.05||–0.01||0||±0|
|The Greens–The Ecologist Alternative (EV–AE)||12,561||0.05||–0.07||0||±0|
|Family and Life Party (PFyV)||9,882||0.04||–0.02||0||±0|
|Humanist Party (PH)||9,056||0.04||–0.04||0||±0|
|Party of Almería (PdeAL)||8,451||0.03||New||0||±0|
|Navarrese Cannabis Representation (RCN/NOK)||7,769||0.03||–0.04||0||±0|
|Internationalist Socialist Workers' Party (POSI)||7,386||0.03||±0.00||0||±0|
|Spanish Alternative (AES)||7,300||0.03||New||0||±0|
|Spain 2000 (E–2000)||6,906||0.03||+0.01||0||±0|
|Catalan Republican Party (RC)||6,746||0.03||New||0||±0|
|Valencian Coalition (CVa)||5,424||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Unsubmissive Seats–Alternative of Discontented Democrats (Ei–ADD)||5,035||0.02||+0.01||0||±0|
|Commoners' Land (TC)||4,796||0.02||–0.01||0||±0|
|Authentic Phalanx (FA)||4,607||0.02||±0.00||0||±0|
|Leonese People's Union (UPL)||4,509||0.02||–0.03||0||±0|
|Internationalist Solidarity and Self-Management (SAIn)||3,885||0.02||New||0||±0|
|Engine and Sports Alternative (AMD)||3,829||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Pensioners in Action Party (PDLPEA)||3,050||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Republican Left (IR)||2,899||0.01||–0.06||0||±0|
|Riojan Party (PR)||2,837||0.01||New||0||±0|
|National Alliance (AN)||2,737||0.01||+0.01||0||±0|
|Alternative in Blank (ABLA)||2,460||0.01||New||0||±0|
|United Extremadura (EU)||2,346||0.01||–0.01||0||±0|
|The Greens–Green Alternative (EV–AV)||2,028||0.01||±0.00||0||±0|
|Carlist Party (PC)||1,956||0.01||±0.00||0||±0|
|Party for Catalonia (PxCat)||1,919||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Non-Smokers' Party (PNF)||1,616||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Union for Leganés (ULEG)||1,566||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Spanish Front (Frente)||1,539||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Liberal Democratic Centre (CDL)||1,503||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Valencian Nationalist Option (ONV)||1,490||0.01||New||0||±0|
|Democratic and Social Centre (CDS)||1,362||0.01||–0.12||0||±0|
|Andecha Astur (AA)||1,299||0.01||±0.00||0||±0|
|Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL)||1,278||0.00||–0.01||0||±0|
|Spanish Democratic Centre (CDEs)||1,047||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Canarian Nationalist Alternative (ANC)||1,017||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Civil Liberties Party (PLCI)||888||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Liberal Party of State Employment and Housing (PLEVE)||786||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Internationalist Struggle (LI (LIT–CI))||722||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Unity of the People (UP)||699||0.00||New||0||±0|
|For the Valencian Republic (plRV)||645||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Centrist Party (PCTR)||509||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Movement for the Unity of the Canarian People (MUPC)||497||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Aragon United Citizens Party (pCUA)||475||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Citizens' Union–Independent Progressives of Canaries (UC–PIC)||464||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Kingdom of Valencia Identity (IRV)||449||0.00||–0.01||0||±0|
|Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL)||423||0.00||New||0||±0|
|State of Spain Unionist Party (PUEDE)||414||0.00||New||0||±0|
|People of El Bierzo (PB–UB)||385||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Islander Party of the Balearic Islands (PIIB)||360||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Christian Positivist Party (PPCr)||300||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Carlist Traditionalist Communion (CTC)||218||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Asturian Democratic Convergence (CDAS)||216||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Merindades of Castile Initiative (IMC)||202||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Castilian Unity (UdCa)||198||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|European Ibero-American Alliance Party (PAIE)||174||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Workers for Democracy Coalition (TD)||159||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Regionalist Party of Guadalajara (PRGU)||152||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Balearic Alliance (ABA)||145||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Electronic Voting Assembly (AVE)||144||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Liberal Centrist Union (UCL)||124||0.00||±0.00||0||±0|
|Alliance for Burgos (AxB)||123||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Burgalese Citizen Initiative (ICBur)||109||0.00||New||0||±0|
|We Are (N Som)||105||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Independents for Cuenca (ixC)||100||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Citizens' Group (AGRUCI)||79||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Falangist Movement of Spain (MFE)||68||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Aitch Party (PHache)||0||0.00||New||0||±0|
|Votes cast / turnout||25,900,439||73.85||–1.81|
|Parties and coalitions||Directly
|People's Party (PP)||101||–1||23||124|
|Valencian Union (UV)||0||–1||0||0|
|Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)||88||+7||19||107|
|PSOE–Left of Menorca–PSM–Greens (PSOE–EU–PSM–Verds)||1||+1||0||1|
|Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSC–ERC–ICV–EUiA)||12||±0||4||16|
|Initiative for Catalonia Greens–EUiA (ICV–EUiA)||1||±0||1||2|
|Convergence and Union (CiU)||4||±0||3||7|
|Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC)||0||±0||1||1|
|Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)||2||–4||2||4|
|Canarian Coalition–Canarian Nationalist Party (CCa–PNC)||1||–2||1||2|
|Independent Herrenian Group (AHI)||1||±0||0||1|
|Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG)||0||±0||1||1|
|Aragonese Party (PAR)||0||±0||1||1|
|Socialist Party of Majorca (PSM)||0||±0||1||1|
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)
|Ballot →||9 April 2008||11 April 2008|
|Required majority →||176 out of 350||Simple|
168 / 350
169 / 350
158 / 350
158 / 350
23 / 350
23 / 350
1 / 350
0 / 350
- Joaquín Calomarde, former PP legislator.
- Francisco Javier Tuñón, appointed senator for Navarre (supported by UPN, PSN, CDN and IUN).
- The Socialists' Party of Catalonia (8 senators), Republican Left of Catalonia (3 senators), Initiative for Catalonia Greens (1 senator) and United and Alternative Left (0 senators) contested the 2004 Senate election within the Catalan Agreement of Progress alliance.
- The Catalan Agreement of Progress only fielded candidates for the Senate election.
- Under this generic slogan, the party launched another thirteen interchangeable expressions:
- Spanish: Por todo lo que merece la pena (English: "For all what matters")
- Spanish: Comprometidos con la Igualdad (English: "Committed to Equality")
- Spanish: Vivimos juntos, decidimos juntos (English: "We live together, we decide together")
- Spanish: No es lo mismo (English: "Is not the same")
- Spanish: Porque lo estamos consiguiendo (English: "Because we are getting it done")
- Spanish: Somos más (English: "We are more")
- Spanish: Soñar con los pies en la tierra (English: "Head in the clouds, feet on the ground")
- Spanish: Por todo lo logrado (English: "For everything achieved")
- Spanish: Por el pleno empleo (English: "For full employment")
- Spanish: Porque no está todo hecho (English: "Because everything is not done")
- Spanish: La octava potencia económica, la primera en derechos sociales (English: "Eight economic power, first in social rights")
- Spanish: Ahora que avanzamos, por qué retroceder (English: "Now that we move forward, why going back?")
- Spanish: Podemos llegar tan lejos como queramos (English: "We can reach as far as we want")
- Denotes a main invitee attending the event.
- Denotes a main invitee not attending the event, sending a surrogate in their place.
- Economic debate.
- "Constitución Española". Act of 29 December 1978. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". Congress of Deputies (in Spanish). Retrieved 12 September 2020.
- Carreras de Odriozola & Tafunell Sambola 2005, pp. 1077. sfn error: no target: CITEREFCarreras_de_OdriozolaTafunell_Sambola2005 (help)
- "Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, del Régimen Electoral General". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "Chaves pacta con Zapatero celebrar elecciones conjuntas el 9 de marzo". El País (in Spanish). 1 November 2007. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Zapatero convoca las elecciones y promete más políticas sociales". El País (in Spanish). 15 January 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
- "Real Decreto 33/2008, de 14 de enero, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (13): 2607–2608. 15 January 2008. ISSN 0212-033X.
- "Grupos Parlamentarios en el Congreso de los Diputados y el Senado". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Composición del Senado 1977-2020". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 15 March 2019.
- "Parliamentary Groups". www.congreso.es (in Spanish). Congress of Deputies. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- "El diputado Calomarde justifica su paso al Grupo Mixto del Congreso por el giro "a la derecha" del PP" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 18 April 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
- "Parliamentary Groups since 1977". www.senado.es (in Spanish). Senate of Spain. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- "Francisco Javier Tuñón San Martín es elegido Senador por la Comunidad Foral de Navarra". www.parlamentodenavarra.es (in Spanish). Parliament of Navarre. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "Zapatero reclama una mayoría más amplia para recuperar la 'convivencia'". El Mundo (in Spanish). 25 November 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "9-M.- PSOE y Coalición por Melilla firman ante Zapatero su acuerdo para concurrir juntos a las elecciones" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 26 January 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Rajoy trata de calmar las aguas del PP". El País (in Spanish). 9 September 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "PP e Independientes de Fuerteventura irán juntos en las elecciones generales". Canarias Ahora (in Spanish). 28 January 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Llamazares será el candidato de IU a las elecciones generales". El País (in Spanish). 14 November 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Duran i Lleida y Artur Mas dan por zanjada la enésima crisis en CiU". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 21 September 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "El Consejo Nacional de CiU proclama a Duran candidato a las elecciones generales con el 98,1% de los votos" (in Spanish). Terra. 1 December 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "ERC designa a Joan Ridao como próximo cabeza de lista en el Congreso". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 7 July 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "CC se impone a AHI y Fernando Ríos irá de tres al Congreso de los Diputados". eldia.es (in Spanish). 20 January 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Francisco Rodríguez no será candidato al Congreso para dedicarse en exclusiva al Bloque". La Voz de Galicia (in Spanish). 25 September 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "El BNG elige a sus cabezas de lista para las generales". El País (in Spanish). 10 November 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "CHA aprueba la lista de los candidatos para las próximas elecciones generales". El Periódico de Aragón (in Spanish). 15 December 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "Nekane Alzelai abrirá la lista guipuzcoana de EA tras negarse Galdos". El País (in Spanish). 27 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "Nafarroa Bai elabora listas paritarias al Congreso y al Senado con candidatos independientes" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "Maite Arqué dejará la alcaldía de Badalona tras las elecciones de marzo". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 9 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "El partido de Rosa Díez rechaza ir en coalición con Ciudadanos". El País (in Spanish). 26 October 2007. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "Díez se presenta como garante de la "regeneración democrática"". El País (in Spanish). 27 January 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- "NC y CCN sellan su acuerdo para concurrir juntos a las próximas elecciones generales y ahora esperan sumar al PIL". La Voz de Lanzarote (in Spanish). 18 December 2007. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "9-M.- Iniciativa del Poble Valencià concurrirá con El Bloc y Els Verds/EE e Isaura Navarro se dará de baja de EUPV" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Unitat per les Illes quiere 'hacer historia' en las Cortes". El Mundo (in Spanish). 21 February 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- "Elecciones Generales a Cortes Generales 2008. Calendario electoral" (in Spanish). elecciones.mir.es. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- "Los socialistas rompen la tradición con 13 eslóganes y múltiples fotos de Zapatero". El Mundo (in Spanish). 4 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Elecciones 2008: De la A a la Z (M)". javierpanzano.com (in Spanish). 12 March 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "'Con cabeza y corazón', lema del PP para la campaña electoral del 9 de marzo". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 19 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "Duran Lleida assegura que el vot a CiU servirà per "fer respectar Catalunya"" (in Catalan). CCMA. 22 February 2008. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- "Los carteles de Convergència y de Unió para las elecciones generales desde 1982". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 17 December 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- ""Objectiu: un país de primera", eslògan d'ERC per a la campanya electoral" (in Catalan). CCMA. 13 January 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "'Objetivo: un país de primera', lema de la campaña de ERC". El País (in Spanish). 14 January 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "El PNV ve confluencia de intereses entre "quien ilegaliza y quien es ilegalizado"". Diario Vasco (in Spanish). 1 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "PNV y PP iniciarán su campaña en Vitoria, PSE y EB en Bilbao, EA en Zarautz y Aralar en San Sebastián" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "IU concurre el 9M con el lema 'LlamazarES + izquierda' y 'contrato social'". El Mundo (in Spanish). 11 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "CC apuesta por el "puerta a puerta" y apela al voto del nacionalismo sentimental". eldia.es (in Spanish). 14 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "9-M.- 'Contigo, Galiza decide' será el lema del BNG, que hará una campaña didáctica frente a la "demagogia" de PSOE y PP" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 12 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- "La campaña de CHA apelará al voto aragonesista para no perder la "representación de Aragón" en el Congreso" (in Spanish). Europa Press. 18 February 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "Nafarroa Bai organiza una campaña bidireccional en la que invita al "movimiento"". soitu.es (in Spanish). 20 February 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- "'Lo que nos une', lema de UPyD para la campaña". El Mundo (in Spanish). 12 February 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
- El PP copia el Lema de IU en su Ultima Campaña Archived November 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Público, 23/11/2007
- "Zapatero's bear fight". The Economist. 2008-01-24. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
- "Pizarro habla de crisis económica profunda y Solbes le tacha de demagogo y catastrofista". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 21 February 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Casi cinco millones de espectadores siguieron el debate Pizarro-Solbes". El País (in Spanish). 22 February 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Cinco debates cara a cara en once elecciones generales". El País (in Spanish). 14 December 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "El Zapatero-Rajoy se convierte en lo más visto de la historia". El País (in Spanish). 27 February 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "El 'Debate a siete' no cautiva". El Mundo (in Spanish). 29 February 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Casi 12 millones de personas siguieron el segundo debate electoral Zapatero-Rajoy". El Mundo (in Spanish). 4 March 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "'Sin tetas...' bate récord frente al mal estreno de 'Tres deseos'" (in Spanish). FormulaTV. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
- "Sigma Dos da la victoria a Zapatero por un estrecho margen de 3,5 puntos". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 February 2008.
- "Rajoy estuvo mejor de lo esperado para un 48,2% y Zapatero sólo para un 30,7%". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 February 2008.
- "Victoria a los puntos de Zapatero". El País (in Spanish). 26 February 2008.
- "Los sondeos de los medios dan como ganador a Zapatero en el debate con Rajoy". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 26 February 2008.
- "Los sondeos de las cadenas de televisión proclaman ganador a Zapatero". El Mundo (in Spanish). 26 February 2008.
- "Zapatero gana a Rajoy en un debate lleno de propuestas". El Mundo (in Spanish). 3 March 2008.
- "Zapatero se impone con claridad a Rajoy en el segundo cara a cara". El País (in Spanish). 4 March 2008.
- "Los primeros sondeos del segundo cara a cara dan como ganador a Zapatero". 20 minutos (in Spanish). 26 February 2008.
- "Los sondeos de las cadenas dan la victoria por segunda vez a Zapatero". El Mundo (in Spanish). 4 March 2008.
- "Post-electoral Elecciones Generales y al Parlamento de Andalucía, 2008" (PDF). CIS (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 January 2008.
- "Electoral Results Consultation. Congress. March 2008. National totals". Ministry of the Interior (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Elecciones Generales 9 de marzo de 2008". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Electoral Results Consultation. Senate. March 2008. National totals". Ministry of the Interior (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Elecciones al Senado 2008". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Congreso de los Diputados: Votaciones más importantes". Historia Electoral.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 September 2017.