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The year 1998 in archaeology involved some significant events.
- August - Excavation begins at the Belitung shipwreck, an Arab dhow wrecked off Belitung island in Indonesia about 830 AD discovered earlier in the year; it will yield the biggest single collection of Tang dynasty treasures found in one location.
- October - Excavation begins at "Seahenge" ('Holme I'), a prehistoric timber circle off Holme-next-the-Sea in England discovered earlier in the year.
- November 5–20 - British female Mark IV tank D51 Deborah, knocked out at the Battle of Cambrai (1917), at Flesquières in the north of France.
- Igeum-dong, a settlement-burial-ceremonial site of the Mumun Pottery Period in Sacheon, Korea (excavations finish in 1999).
- Excavations at Urkesh by the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft.
- September - The largest Shapwick Hoard of Roman coins, including the largest number of silver denarii ever found in Britain.
- Whydah Gally, wrecked off Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 1717, the first authenticated pirate shipwreck ever discovered.
- Artognou stone found at Tintagel Castle, Cornwall.
- World's oldest wet-rice (rice paddy) agricultural feature, c. 800 BC, at Okhyeon site, Ulsan, Korea.
- Human remains at 36 Craven Street, London, former home of Benjamin Franklin, probably dissected in the anatomy school run here by his friend, surgeon William Hewson, 1772–74.
- Flemming Kaul - Ships on Bronzes: a study in Bronze Age religion and iconography.
- Ian M. Stead - The Salisbury Hoard.
- Patricia Wattenmaker - Household and State in Upper Mesopotamia: specialized economy and the social uses of goods in an early complex society.
- Exhibition is held at the Harvard University Semitic Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts: "The Sphinx and the Pyramids: One Hundred Years of American Archaeology at Giza". A model of the Giza plateau is prepared for it.
- April 18 - Linda Schele, American Mayanist (b. 1942)
- May 11 - Vronwy Hankey, British Near Eastern archaeologist (b. 1916)
- November 24 - John Chadwick, English co-decipherer of Linear B (b. 1920)
- Mearns, David L.; Parham, David; Frohlich, Bruno (2016-03-14). "A Portuguese East Indiaman from the 1502–1503 Fleet of Vasco da Gama off Al Hallaniyah Island, Oman: an interim report" (PDF). International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. 46 (2): 331–350. doi:10.1111/1095-9270.12175.
- "Belitung Wreck Details & Photos". Marine Exploration. Archived from the original on 2008-10-01. Retrieved 2011-02-15.
- "Discovery". The Tank of Flesquières. Association du tank de Flesquières. Retrieved 2019-01-17.
- "Gold coin hoard unveiled". BBC News. UK. Archived from the original on 2009-02-12. Retrieved 2019-05-28.
- "Treasure Annual Report 1998–1999" (PDF). UK: Department for Culture, Media and Sport. 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 2010-07-12.
- Commonwealth of Massachusetts v. Maritime Underwater Surveys, Inc., 403 Mass. 501 (Mass. Supreme Court 1988).
- "Clue to King Arthur discovered". BBC News. UK. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
- Hillson, Simon; Waldron, Tony; Owen-Smith, Brian; Martin, Louise (February 2006). "Benjamin Franklin, William Hewson and the Craven Street bones". Archaeology International. 2: 14–16. doi:10.5334/ai.0206.
- "Obituary: Linda Schele". The Independent. London. 1998-05-22. Retrieved 2017-03-21.
- "Obituary: Vronwy Hankey". The Independent. 1998-06-22. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
- "Obituary: John Chadwick". The Independent. 1998-12-04. Retrieved 2017-05-30.