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The year 1956 in archaeology involved some significant events.
- Large University of Pennsylvania project at Tikal begins.
- Excavations of the Neolithic settlement at Argissa Magoula in Thessaly by Vladimir Milojčić of the University of Heidelberg begin (continue to 1958).
- Excavations of the Danubian Neolithic settlement at Bylany in Bohemia begin.
- Excavations at Brahmagiri.
- Excavations at Teppe Hasanlu begin (continue to 1974).
- Documents in Mycenaean Greek by Michael Ventris and John Chadwick; documenting decipherment of Linear B writing.
- Anders Franzén locates the Swedish warship Vasa, sunk on her maiden voyage in 1628, in Stockholm harbor.
- K. M. A. Barnett discovers Lo Ah Tsai Stone Circle on Lamma Island in Hong Kong.
- W. F. Grimes succeeds V. Gordon Childe as director of the University of London Institute of Archaeology.
- March 24 - Alanah Woody, American archaeologist (d. 2007).
- April 30 - Antonio Sagona, Australian archaeologist (d. 2017).
- Yosef Garfinkel, Israeli archaeologist.
- June 6 - Hiram Bingham III, American rediscoverer of Machu Picchu (b. 1875).
- September 6 - Michael Ventris, English co-decipherer of Linear B (car accident) (b. 1922).
- September 12 - John Garstang, English archaeologist of the Near East (in Beirut) (b. 1876).
- November 9 - Alan Wace, English archaeologist who worked on Linear B (b. 1879).
- "Virginia City News". virginiacitynews.com. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- Jamieson, Andrew (12 October 2017). "Scholar brought the ancient world to life". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- "Garfinkel, Yosef". worldcat.org. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
- "Michael Ventris - British architect and cryptographer". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 30 May 2017.
- "John Garstang". Britannica.com. Retrieved 24 May 2017.