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The year 1955 in archaeology involved some significant events.
- Thor Heyerdahl organizes the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition to Easter Island (continues to 1956).
- Start of extensive discoveries at the Anglo-Saxon cemetery on Loveden Hill in Lincolnshire, England.
- September: Gustav Riek begins systematic excavations at Brillenhöhle (continues to 1963).
- A. C. O'Dell begins excavations on St Ninian's Isle (continues to 1958).
- Alexander Sahinian begins excavations at Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia (continues to 1956).
- A. Ledyard Smith makes the first archaeological investigation of the Mayan site of Chutixtiox in Guatemala.
- Archaeological Survey of India begins excavations at Nagda chalcolithic site (continues to 1957).
- A Hebrew University team led by Yigal Yadin begins excavations at Tel Hazor (continues to 1958).
- Excavation of Qujialing culture type site in China begins (continues to 1957).
- Cyril Fox - Offa's Dyke: a Field Survey of the Western Frontier Works of Mercia in the Seventh and Eighth Centuries AD.
- Ivan D. Margary - Roman Roads in Britain, vol. 1.
- I. A. Richmond - Roman Britain (Penguin Books).
- May 19 - Greenock Coin Hoard.
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- January 1 - Mary Beard, English Classicist.
- April 20 - Svante Pääbo, Swedish paleogeneticist.
- September 30 - Martin Millett, English Classical archaeologist.
- January 1 - Arthur C. Parker, part-Seneca American archaeologist and ethnographer of Native Americans in the United States (b. 1881).
- March 31 - Thomas Dunbabin, Australian-born Classical archaeologist and Greek Resistance leader (b. 1911).
- August 17 - Edward Thurlow Leeds, English archaeologist of the Anglo-Saxons (b. 1877).
- October 29 - Alexander Keiller, British archaeologist and benefactor (b. 1889).
- December 15 - V. E. Nash-Williams, Welsh archaeologist (b. 1897).
- December 25 - Thomas J. Preston, Jr., American archaeologist (b. 1862).
- "Monument No. 325833". Pastscape. Historic England. 2015. Retrieved 2019-07-01.
- "Offa's Dyke: A Field Survey of the Western Frontier-Works of Mercia in the Seventh and Eighth Centuries A.D." British Academy. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
- Rix, Michael (October 1955). "Industrial Archaeology". The Amateur Historian. U.K. 2 (8): 225–9.
- "Papers of Edward Thurlow Leeds". nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- "Keiller, Alexander (1889-1955), businessman and archaeologist". nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
- "Nash-Williams, Victor Erle". The National Library of Wales - Dictionary of Welsh Biography. Retrieved 13 November 2017.