|First Census of Canada|
|Date taken||April 2, 1871|
|Most populous province||Ontario (1,620,851)|
|Least populous province||New Brunswick (285,594)|
The 1871 Canadian Census marked the first regularly scheduled collection of national statistics of the Canadian population on April 2, 1871 as required by section 8 of the then-British North America Act (now the Constitution Act of 1867). The constitution required a census to be taken in 1871 and every tenth year thereafter. Parliament implemented the requirements of the constitution through the Census Act of May 12, 1870. In the first census, the population of Canada was enumerated to be 3,485,761.
All inhabitants of Canada were included, including aboriginals. While this was the first national census of Canada, only four provinces existed at the time: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Other areas of what later became part of Canada continued to be enumerated in their own separate censuses. The results of the 1871 census, in both English and French, were reported in a five volume set.
The following census was the 1881 Census.
The questionnaire was on a variety of subjects and asked 211 questions including area, land holdings, vital statistics, religion, education, administration, the military, justice, agriculture, commerce, industry and finance. Information was collected in tabular form on population, houses and other buildings, lands, industries and institutions. The population section included the age, sex, religion, education, race and occupation of each person, although not every household answered all 211 questions.
As the data were compiled, Statistics Canada released various census data products.
Population and dwelling counts
|Source: Statistics Canada. - Manitoba and Northwest Territories|
|Source: Statistics Canada.|
|Native Indian & Inuit (Eskimo)||23,037||0.7%|
|^1 Source: Statistics Canada.|
- 1871 Census (Canada)
- Canada Year Book population
- "History of the Census of Canada". Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved 2010-06-22.
- Overview of the 1871 Census (Canada)
- History of the Census of Canada The first national census in 1871
- Series A2-14. Population of Canada by province, census dates, 1851 to 1976
- Census of 1871: (33 & 34 Vict. C. 107.) ...By Great Britain. Census Office
- They joined the Canadian confederation in July 15, 1870 but were not included in the 1871 official Census of Canada. In 1870 the Hudson's Bay Company-controlled Rupert's Land and North-Western Territory were transferred to the Dominion of Canada. Most of these lands were formed into a new territory named Northwest Territories, but the region around Fort Garry was simultaneously established as the province of Manitoba by the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec later received additional land from the Northwest Territories, and Yukon, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Nunavut were later created out of the Northwest Territories. The remaining provinces joined Canada as separate and previously independent colonies.
- Religions of the People in the 1871 Canada Census.
- CANADA - ORIGINS OF THE PEOPLE ACCORDING TO THE CENSUSES OF 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 AND 1921. (Page: 134-135)