The year 1869 in archaeology involved some significant events.
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- Temple of Artemis at Ephesus discovered by British archaeologist John Turtle Wood near Kusadasi, Turkey.
- Near Miamisburg, Ohio, the site of Miamisburg Mound is partially excavated, when a vertical shaft is sunk from the top to the base, with two horizontal tunnels extending from it.
- March 30 - Aleš Hrdlička, Czech-born anthropologist (d. 1943)
- September 24 - Maud Cunnington, British archaeologist (d. 1951)
- John Kirk, English physician, Roman archaeologist and physical anthropologist (d. 1940)
- "John Turtle Wood - oil painting". British Museum. Retrieved 23 May 2017.