Events from the year 1855 in art.
- July 3 – John Everett Millais and Effie Gray marry.
- May – Having had several of his paintings rejected for the Exposition Universelle Gustave Courbet exhibits them, including the monumental The Artist's Studio, in a tent alongside the official Paris Salon, creating both public outrage and artistic admiration.
- Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres exhibits Venus Anadyomene, which has taken him forty years to complete.
- William Bell Scott begins painting murals of Northumbrian history at Wallington Hall.
- The Bavarian National Museum is founded by King Maximilian II of Bavaria.
- Rosa Bonheur – The Horse Fair (1853–55; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)
- Joanna Mary Boyce – Elgiva
- Ford Madox Brown – The Last of England
- Philip Hermogenes Calderon – Lord, Thy Will Be Done
- Théodore Chassériau – Macbeth and Banquo Meeting the Witches on the Heath
- Gustave Courbet – The Artist's Studio (L‘Atelier du Peintre): A Real Allegory of a Seven Year Phase in my Artistic and Moral Life (Musée d'Orsay, Paris)
- Edgar Degas – Self-portrait
- Johan Fredrik Höckert – Gudstjänst i Lövmokks fjällkapell
- Paul Huet – The flood of Saint-Cloud
- George Inness – The Lackawanna Valley
- Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann – Double portrait of the Brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
- Frederic Leighton – Cimabue's Celebrated Madonna (1853-55)
- John Everett Millais – The Rescue
- Élias Robert with Georges Diebolt – France crowning Art and Industry (sculpture for Palais de l'Industrie at Exposition Universelle in Paris)
- José Rodrigues – O Pobre Rabequista
- Ary Scheffer – Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appraised by Dante and Virgil (Louvre version)
- Rebecca Solomon – The Story of Balaclava, wherein he spoke of the most disastrous chances
- Carl Wahlbom – Death of King Gustav II Adolf at the Battle of Lützen (1632)
- Franz Xaver Winterhalter – The Empress Eugénie Surrounded by her Ladies in Waiting
- January 4 – Jean Baptiste Guth, French watercolor portraitist (died 1922)
- January 31 – Karl Uchermann, Norwegian canine painter (died 1940)
- February 11 – Ellen Day Hale, American painter and printmaker (died 1940)
- February 25 – Frederick McCubbin, Australian painter of the Heidelberg School (died 1917)
- March 22 – Dorothy Tennant, English painter (died 1926)
- May 1 – Cecilia Beaux, American portrait painter (died 1942)
- July 30 – James E. Kelly, American sculptor and illustrator (died 1933)
- September 8 – William Friese-Greene, English photographer and cinematographer (died 1921)
- Willis E. Davis, American landscape painter (suicide 1910)
- William John Wainwright, English painter (died 1931)
- January 19 – Jean-Baptiste Paulin Guérin, French painter (born 1783)
- March 3 – Copley Fielding, painter (born 1787)
- April 18 – Jean-Baptiste Isabey, painter (born 1767)
- June 9 – Piotr Michałowski, Polish portrait painter (born 1800)
- June 10 – Jacques-Jean Barre, French engraver and designer of French medals, the Great Seal of France, bank notes and postage stamps (born 1793)
- June 24 – Edward Williams, landscape painter (born 1782)
- August 18 – Amasa Hewins – American portrait, genre, and landscape painter (born 1795)
- September 16 – Benedetto Pistrucci, engraver (born 1783)
- October 21 – Henry Pierce Bone, English enamel painter (born 1779)
- November 3 – François Rude, sculptor (born 1784)
- date unknown
- Dimitrije Avramović, Serbian painter (born 1815).
- Angelus de Baets, Belgian painter of portraits and architectural subjects (born 1793)
- Giovanni Paolo Lasinio, Italian engraver (born 1796)
- Johann Georg Primavesi, German etcher and painter, primarily of landscapes (born 1774)
- Wendela Gustafva Sparre, Swedish textile artist and member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Art (born 1772)
- Maxim Vorobiev, Russian Romantic landscape painter (born 1787)
- James, William, ed. (1947). The Order of Release: the story of John Ruskin, Effie Gray and John Everett Millais told for the first time in their unpublished letters. London: John Murray.
- Batchelor, John (2004). "Scott, William Bell (1811–1890)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24938. Retrieved 2012-06-13. (subscription or UK public library membership required)