This article contains information about the literary events and publications of 1837.
- June 16 – Charles Dickens is introduced to the actor William Macready by John Forster backstage at a rehearsal of Othello.
- July – The English "peasant poet" John Clare first enters an asylum for the insane, at High Beach in Essex.
- September – In Burton's Gentleman's Magazine (Philadelphia), William Evans Burton publishes an early example of the detective story, "The Secret Cell", featuring a London police officer and his wife.
- October – The United States Magazine and Democratic Review is first published.
- October 4 – Andreas Munch's first play, Kong Sverres Ungdom, opens the Christiania Theatre´s new building in Norway.
- unknown date – The publishers Little, Brown and Company open their doors in Boston, Massachusetts.
- W. Harrison Ainsworth – Crichton
- Honoré de Balzac
- Richard Harris Barham – The Ingoldsby Legends (serialization begins in Bentley's Miscellany)
- Robert Montgomery Bird – Nick of the Woods
- Sara Coleridge – Phantasmion
- Hendrik Conscience – In 't Wonderjaar 1566
- Charles Dickens
- Benjamin Disraeli
- Henrietta Temple
- Lady Mary Fox – An Account of an Expedition to the Interior of New Holland
- Phillipe-Ignace François Aubert du Gaspé – L'Influence d'un livre
- Jeremias Gotthelf – Bauernspiegel
- Nathaniel Hawthorne – Twice-Told Tales
- Julia Kavanagh – Adele
- Letitia Elizabeth Landon (writing as L.E.L.) – Ethel Churchill, or The Two Brides
- Catharine Maria Sedgwick – Live and Let Live
- Victor Séjour – Le Mulâtre (earliest known work of African American fiction, published in Revue des Colonies, March)
- Mary Shelley – Falkner
Children and young people
- Hans Christian Andersen
- Georgiana Chatterton – Aunt Dorothy's Tales
- Frederick Marryat ��� Snarleyyow or the Dog Fiend
- George Ayliffe Poole – The Exile's Return; or a Cat's Journey from Glasgow to Edinburgh
- Robert Southey – "The Story of the Three Bears" (in The Doctor)
- Joanna Baillie – The Separation
- Manuel Bretón de los Herreros – Muérete y verás
- Robert Browning – Strafford: an historical tragedy
- Edward Bulwer-Lytton – The Duchess de la Vallière (posthumously performed)
- Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch – Los Amantes de Teruel
- Henrik Hertz – Svend Dyrings Huus
- Alfred de Musset – Un caprice
- Jules-Édouard Alboize de Pujol – L'Idiote
- José de Espronceda – El estudiante de Salamanca
- Alphonse de Lamartine – Chute d'un ange
- Alexander Pushkin – The Bronze Horseman (Медный всадник)
- See also 1837 in poetry
- Charles Babbage – Ninth Bridgewater Treatise. On the Power, Wisdom and Goodness of God, as manifested in the Creation
- Charles Ball – Slavery in the United States: A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Charles Ball, A Black Man
- Bernard Bolzano – Wissenschaftslehre (Theory of Science)
- Thomas Carlyle – The French Revolution: A History
- Washington Irving – The Adventures of Captain Bonneville
- Harriet Martineau – Society in America
- William H. Prescott – The History of Ferdinand and Isabella
- Ferenc Pulszky – Aus dem Tagebuch eines in Grossbritannien reisenden Ungarns (From the Diary of a Hungarian Travelling in Britain)
- Martin Tupper – Proverbial Philosophy
- Andrew Ure – A Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures and Mines
- Adelbert von Chamisso – ��ber die Hawaiische Sprache (On the Hawaiian Language)
- January 16 – Ellen Russell Emerson, American author and ethnologist (died 1907)
- January 23 – Agnes Maule Machar, Canadian novelist (died 1927)
- February 13 – Emily St. John Bouton, American author, editor, and educator (died 1927)
- February 24 – Rosalía de Castro, Spanish Galician poet and writer (died 1885)
- March 1
- March 6 – Sully Prudhomme, French poet (died 1907)
- April 1 – Jorge Isaacs (Ferrer), Colombian writer, politician and explorer (died 1895)
- April 5 – Algernon Charles Swinburne, English poet (died 1909)
- April 7 – Lou Singletary Bedford, American author and editor (unknown year of death)
- June 9 – Anne Thackeray Ritchie, English novelist and essayist (died 1919)
- June 28 – Petre P. Carp, Romanian politician, polemicist, and translator (died 1919)
- July 13 – Mary Allen West, American writer, editor, and philanthropist (died 1892)
- August 24 – Bertha Jane Grundy, English novelist (died 1912)
- October 15 – Leo Königsberger, German historian of science (died 1921)
- October 21 – Mary Alice Fonda, American music critic and editor (died 1897)
- December 4 – Angelia Thurston Newman, American poet, author, and editor (died 1910)
- December 10 – Edward Eggleston, American novelist and historian (died 1902)
- December 11 – Esther Saville Allen, American author (died 1913)
- December 17 – Celia Logan, American actress and playwright (died 1904)
- unknown dates
- January 29 – Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet (killed in duel, born 1799)
- February 12 – Ludwig Börne, German Jewish political writer and satirist (born 1786)
- February 19 – Georg Büchner German dramatist, poet and author (born 1813; typhus).
- March 9 – Alexandru Hrisoverghi, Moldavian writer and translator (tabes dorsalis, born 1811)
- March 15 – Lukijan Mušicki, Serbian poet (born 1777)
- June 12 – Carl Friedrich Ernst Frommann, German bookseller (born 1765)
- June 14 – Giacomo Leopardi, Italian poet (cholera, born 1798)
- September 21 – Georg Ludolf Dissen, German philologist (born 1784)
- October 19 – Hendrik Doeff, Dutch travel writer (born 1764)
- "The Lamplighter – by Charles Dickens (1838)". Retrieved 2014-12-17.
- Sims, Michael, ed. (2011). The Dead Witness: a Connoisseur's Collection of Victorian Detective Stories. London: Bloomsbury. pp. 1–38. ISBN 9781408818633.
- "Making of America". Cornell University Library. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
- Aarnes, Sigurd Aa. "Andreas Munch". In Helle, Knut (ed.). Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
- "A Brief History of Little, Brown and Company". New York: Little, Brown and Company. 2012. Archived from the original on 2016-05-13. Retrieved 2013-03-14.
- "Icons, a portrait of England 1820–1840". Archived from the original on 22 September 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- Pierce, Peter (2009). The Cambridge History of Australian Literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 052188165X.
- Charles Eyre Pascoe (1879). The Dramatic List: A Record of the Principal Performances of Living Actors and Actresses of the British Stage. Hardwicke and Bogue. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-8274-2202-5.
- Charles Eyre Pascoe (1879). The Dramatic List: A Record of the Principal Performances of Living Actors and Actresses of the British Stage. Hardwicke and Bogue. p. 341. ISBN 978-0-8274-2202-5.
- Frances Elizabeth Willard; Mary Ashton Rice Livermore (2005). Great American Women of the 19th Century: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Humanity Books. p. 724. ISBN 978-1-59102-211-4.
- Julian Hilton (15 April 1982). Georg Büchner. Macmillan International Higher Education. p. 19. ISBN 978-1-349-16737-1.