Events from the year 1766 in art.
- July 19 – A baronetcy is created for British sculptor Henry Cheere.
- England's oldest surviving Georgian theatre is constructed in Stockton-on-Tees.
- The Drottningholm Palace Theatre is reopened as an opera house in Stockholm, Sweden, in its surviving form, designed by Carl Fredrik Adelcrantz.
- Denis Diderot's Essais sur la peinture is published.
- Jean-Antoine Houdon – Bruno of Cologne (sculpture for Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri in Rome)
- Maruyama Ōkyo – Crows
- Allan Ramsay – Portrait of David Hume
- Joseph Wright of Derby – A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery
- March 1 – Johann Conrad Felsing, German topographer and engraver using stippling (died 1819)
- March 2 – Thomas Henry, French painter and art patron (died 1836)
- March 16 – Jean-Frédéric Waldeck, artist and explorer (died 1875)
- April 1 – François-Xavier Fabre, French painter of historical subjects (died 1837)
- April 6 – Wilhelm von Kobell, German painter, printmaker and teacher (died 1853)
- October 14 – Friedrich Carl Gröger, north-German portrait painter and lithographer (died 1838)
- December 22 – Johann Samuel Arnhold, German painter in oil and water-colours, and on porcelain and enamel (died 1827)
- December 25 – Samuel Drummond, British painter especially portraits and marine genre works (died 1844)
- date unknown
- January 7 – Giacomo Boni, Italian painter (born 1688)
- January 19 – Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni, French architect and painter (born 1695)
- March 4 – Joseph Aved, also called le Camelot (The Hawker) and Avet le Batave (The Dutch Avet), French Rococo portraitist (born 1702)
- May 5 – Olof Arenius, Swedish portrait painter (born 1701)
- June 22 – Carlo Zimech, Maltese priest and painter (born 1696)
- July 17 – Giuseppe Castiglione, Italian Jesuit Brother, missionary in China, painter at the court of the Emperor (b. 1688)
- July 18 – Mauro Antonio Tesi, Italian painter of the late-Baroque period, active mainly in Bologna (b. 1730)
- November 7
- date unknown