This is a list of notable events in music that took place in the year 1731.
- The Academy of Vocal Music changes its name to the Academy of Ancient Music.
- Jean-Philippe Rameau meets his patron, La Pouplinière.
- Antonio Stradivari makes a viola that will be owned a hundred years later by Niccolò Paganini.
- Antonio Vivaldi returns to Venice.
- March 23 Johann Sebastian Bach premieres his St Mark Passion BWV 247 (BC D 4) at St. Thomas Church, Leipzig.
- William Babell – Prelude in F major, IWB 10
- Carl Phillip Emanuel Bach
- Keyboard Sonata in B-flat major, H. 2, Wq. 62/1
- Trio Sonata in D minor, H. 569, Wq. 145 (formerly attributed to J.S. Bach as BWV 1036)
- Trio Sonata in C major, H. 571, Wq. 147
- Johann Sebastian Bach
- Komm, Jesu, komm, BWV 229
- Wachet auf
- Jean Barrière – Sonatas for Pardessus de viole, Livre 5
- Joseph Bodin de Boismortier
- 6 Gentillesses en 3 parties, Op. 33
- 6 Sonates à quatre parties, Op. 34
- 6 Suites de pièces, Op.35
- Louis de Caix d'Hervelois
- Collection of flute pieces
- 4 Suites de pièces pour la viole, Op. 3
- Antonio Caldara – David umiliato
- Louis-Antoine Dornel – Pièces de clavecin
- Christoph Graupner
- Trio Sonata in E minor, GWV 209
- Flute Concerto in D major, GWV 312
- Concerto for Flute d'amore, Oboe d'amore and Viola d'amore in G major, GWV 333
- George Frideric Handel – Minuet in G major, HWV 530
- Michele Mascitti – 12 Violin Sonatas, Op. 8
- Johann Joachim Quantz – 6 Flute Sonatas, RISM Q. 33
- Giuseppe Tartini
- Pastorale in A major, B.A16
- Violin Sonata in G major, B.G17
- Violin Sonata in G minor, B.g10 "Didone abbandonata"
- Georg Philipp Telemann – Fortsetzung des Harmonischen Gottes-Dienstes
- Jan Dismas Zelenka – Missa Sancti Josephi, ZWV 14
- Tommaso Albinoni – Fano
- Francesco Corradini – Con amor non hay libertad
- Francesco Corselli – Venere placata
- Carl Heinrich Graun – Iphigenia in Aulis
- George Frideric Handel
- Johann Adolf Hasse
- Cajo Fabricio
- Giovanni Battista Pergolesi – La conversione e morte di San Guglielmo
- Nicola Porpora – Poro
- Antonio Vivaldi – Semiramide, RV 733
- Johann Mattheson – Grosse General-Baß-Schule
- September 7 – Elisabetta de Gambarini, composer (died 1765)
- December 8 – František Xaver Dušek, harpsichordist, pianist and composer (died 1799)
- December 28 – Christian Cannabich, composer (died 1798)
- date unknown – Pierre Vachon, composer (died 1803)
- January 27 – Bartolomeo Cristofori, inventor of an early form of piano (born 1655)
- May 1 (buried) – Johann Ludwig Bach, violinist and composer (born 1677)
- July 5 (buried) – Jakob Greber, composer and musician (date of birth unknown)
- November – Johann Caspar Wilcke, musician and father of Anna Magdalena Bach