The year 1680 in music involved some significant events.
- Arcangelo Corelli begins his friendship with Cristiano Farinelli.
- Antonio Stradivari sets up his own business in Cremona.
- John Blow is forced out of his job as organist at Westminster Abbey, to make room for Henry Purcell.
- Georg Muffat goes to Italy to study organ with Bernardo Pasquini.
- Johann Philipp Krieger becomes Kapellmeister of the court at Weissenfels.
- First record of the marimba in Guatemala.
Published popular music
- Ennemond Gaultier
- Livre de musique pour le luth contenant une métode
- Pièces de luth en musique avec des règles pour les toucher parfaitement sur le luth, et sur le clavessin
- Dieterich Buxtehude – Membra Jesu Nostri
- Marc-Antoine Charpentier – Filius prodigus
- Henry Purcell – Fantasia in E minor, Z.741
- Johann Caspar Horn – Geistliche Harmonien
- Heinrich Biber – Mensa sonora
- Charles Mouton – Pièces de luth sur différents modes
- Ennemond Gaultier – Suite in D minor[clarification needed]
- Pietro Simone Agostini – Il ratto delle Sabine
- Jean-Baptiste Lully – Proserpine
- Antonio Sartorio – La Flora
- Alessandro Scarlatti – L'honestà negli amori
- May 6 – Jean-Baptiste Stuck, cellist and composer (died 1755)
- November 18 (baptised) – Jean-Baptiste Loeillet, composer (died 1730)
- December 11 – Emanuele d'Astorga, composer (died 1736)
- date unknown – François Campion, guitarist and composer
- March – Johann Heinrich Schmelzer, violinist (born 1623)
- May 31 – Joachim Neander, hymn-writer (b. 1650)
- September 10 – Baldassare Ferri, castrato singer (born 1610)
- October 13
- December 10 – Marco Uccellini, violinist and composer
- December 30 – Antonio Sartorio, composer (born 1630)
- date unknown