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This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1680.
- Thomas Otway's blank verse tragedies The Orphan, or The Unhappy Marriage (February) and The History and Fall of Caius Marius are premiered in London; the latter adaptation of Romeo and Juliet drives Shakespeare's original off the stage for more than sixty years.
- The spring/summer production of Nathaniel Lee's Theodosius at Dorset Garden features Henry Purcell's earliest theatre music.
- August 8 – The Comédie-Française is founded by decree of King Louis XIV of France to merge the two Parisian acting troupes of the time, those of the Guénégaud Theatre and the Hôtel de Bourgogne.
- The poem-book Leabhar Cloinne Aodha Buidhe is transcribed by Ruairí Ó hUiginn of Sligo at the command of Cormac Ó Neill.
- Innerpeffray Library, the oldest known (and surviving) public (lending) library in Scotland, is established.
- John Bunyan – The Life and Death of Mr. Badman
- Gilbert Burnet – Some Passages of the Life and Death of...John Earl of Rochester
- Sor Juana Inéz de la Cruz – Neptuno alegórico
- Pedro Cubero – Peregrinación del mundo
- Pu Songling – Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (in manuscript only)
- Sir Robert Filmer – Patriarcha published (written 1642)
- Pedro Calderón de la Barca – Hado y Divisa de Leonido y Marfisa
- John Crowne – The Misery of Civil War, adapted from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 2 and Part 3
- Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle – Aspar
- Nathaniel Lee – Theodosius
- Thomas Otway
- The History and Fall of Caius Marius
- The Orphan
- The Soldiers' Fortune
- Jacques Pradon – Statira
- Elkanah Settle – The Female Prelate: Being the History of the Life and Death of Pope Joan
- Nahum Tate – The Loyal General
- January 23 – Joseph Ames, English author (died 1759)
- September 22 – Barthold Heinrich Brockes, German poet (died 1747)
- Unknown dates
- Probable year of birth
- January 20 – Ann, Lady Fanshawe, English memoirist (born 1625)
- March 14 – René Le Bossu, French critic (born 1631)
- March 17 – François de La Rochefoucauld, French dramatist and writer of maxims (born 1613)
- March 27 – William Maurice, Welsh antiquary (born c.1620)
- June 18 – Samuel Butler, English satirical poet (born 1612)
- July 3 – John Martyn, English publisher and bookseller
- July 26 – John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, English poet (born 1647)
- November – Carr Scrope, English poet (born 1649)
- December 4 – Thomas Bartholin, Danish scientist and theologian (born 1616)
- Unknown date – François de Grenaille, French dramatist and translator (born 1616)
- "Innerpeffray Library gifted £650k of rare books". www.scotsman.com. Retrieved 8 April 2019.