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This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1677.
- January 1 – Jean Racine's tragedy Phèdre is first performed, at the Hôtel de Bourgogne (theatre) in Paris.
- February – Nathaniel Lee's blank verse tragedy The Rival Queens, or the Death of Alexander the Great is performed at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London, with Mrs. Charlotte Melmoth as Roxana.
- Roger Morrice begins his Entring Book, a manual diary describing society in the period 1677 to 1691.
- Francis North's A Philosophical Essay of Music is published.
- Froinsias Ó Maolmhuaidh's Grammatica Latino-Hibernica nunc compendiata, the first printed grammar of the Irish language (in Latin), is published by the Congregation of Propaganda Fide in Rome in the year of his death.
- Thomas Killigrew, ineffective after four years as Master of the Revels, is replaced by his son Charles.
- Two plays on the subject of King Edgar are acted: Edward Ravenscroft's tragicomedy King Edgar and Alfreda, and Thomas Rymer's Edgar, or the English Monarch. Rymer's play is a flop; it precedes his famous The Tragedies of the Last Age Considered by a scant year.
- Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery – Treatise of the Art of War
- Edward Cocker – Cocker's Arithmetick
- Christian Knorr von Rosenroth – Kabbala Denudata (publication starts)
- John Mason – Major Mason's Brief History of the Pequot War
- John Milton – The History of Britain
- Eirenaeus Philalethes – An Exposition upon Sir George Ripley's Vision.
- Baruch Spinoza – Opera Posthuma (with first known publication of his Ethics)
- Fabian Stedman – Tintinnalogia, or, the Art of Ringing
- John Banks – The Rival Kings (adapted from la Calprenède's Cassandre)
- Aphra Behn
- Thomas Betterton – The Counterfeit Bridegroom
- William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle – The Humorous Lovers and The Triumphant Widow published
- John Crowne – The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus Vespasian, Parts 1 and 2
- Charles Davenant – Circe (a "semi-opera" with music by John Banister)
- Thomas d'Urfey – The Fond Husband, or the Plotting Sisters
- John Learned – The Country Innocence
- Nathaniel Lee – The Rival Queens
- Thomas Otway
- The French Conjurer by T. P (once attributed to Thomas Porter)
- Jean Racine – Phèdre
- Edward Ravenscroft
- King Edgar and Alfreda
- Scaramouch a Philosopher, Harlequin a Schoolboy, Bravo a Merchant and Magician
- Thomas Rymer – Edgar, or the English Monarch
- Pedro Calderon de la Barca
- Amar después de la muerte o El Tuzaní de la Alpujarra
- Parte I de autos sacramentales, alegóricos e historiales
- Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery – On the Death of Abraham Cowley
- August 23 – Marie Anne Doublet, French scholar, writer and salonnière (died 1771)
- August 25 – Jean-Joseph Languet de Gergy, French theologian (died 1753)
- Unknown date – Elizabeth, Lady Wardlaw, English ballad writer (born 1727)
- Probable date – George Farquhar, Irish-born dramatist (died 1707)
- February 21 – Baruch Spinoza, Dutch philosopher (born 1632)
- May 24 – Anders Bording, Danish poet and journalist (born 1619)
- June 18 – Johann Franck, German poet, hymnist and politician (born 1618)
- June 24 – Dudley North, English poet, writer and politician (born 1602)
- July 9 – Angelus Silesius (Johann Scheffler), German poet and mystic (born 1624)
- September 5 – Henry Oldenburg, German-born theologian and natural philosopher (born c. 1619)
- September 11 – James Harrington, English political theorist (born 1611)
- October 14 – Francis Glisson, English medical writer and physician (born 1597)
- December 24 – Jacques de Coras, French poet (born 1630)
- Birley, Robert (1962). Sunk without Trace: some forgotten masterpieces reconsidered. London: Rupert Hart-Davis.
- Moody, T. W.; et al., eds. (1989). A New History of Ireland. 8: A Chronology of Irish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.
- Copeland, Nancy (2003). "Review of The Theatre of Aphra Behn". The Journal of English and Germanic Philology. 102 (3): 442–444. JSTOR 27712366.