Events from the year 1654 in art.
- October 12 – The Delft Explosion destroys the city of Delft, killing painter Carel Fabritius and destroying his home, studio and most of his paintings: only five are known to exist. Egbert van der Poel produces paintings of the explosion.
- Willem Drost paints Bathsheba Holding King David's Letter, Portrait of an Officer in a Red Beret and (at about this date) Portrait of a Young Woman with her Hands Folded on a Book and Portrait of a Young Woman in a Brocade Gown.
- Carel Fabritius paints his Young Man in a Fur Cap, The Sentry, and The Goldfinch, showing use of lighting effects with a bright background.
- Rembrandt completes Bathsheba at Her Bath and Woman Bathing in a Stream (both featuring his mistress Hendrickje) and paints his Portrait of Jan Six.
- Bartholomeus van der Helst paints The Van Aras Family.
- February 24 – Bartolomeo Altomonte, Italian painter (died 1783)
- March 10 – Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari – Italian painter of frescoes (died 1727)
- November 2 – Giuseppe Passeri, Italian painter active in his native city of Rome (died 1714)
- November 23 - Jan van Kessel, junior, Flemish-Spanish painter (died 1708)
- December 10 – Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole, landscape painter and engraver from Bologna (died 1719)
- date unknown
- Antonio Bellucci (or Antonijus Belutis), Italian painter from Treviso (died 1726)
- Bartolomeo Guidobono, Italian painter active mainly in Northern Italy (died 1709)
- Francisco Leonardoni, Italian painter active mainly in Spain (died 1711)
- Giacomo del Po, Italian painter of emblematical and allegorical subjects (died 1726)
- Giacomo Antonio Ponsonelli, Italian Rococo sculptor (died 1735)
- Michelangelo Ricciolino, Italian church painter of the Baroque period (died 1715)
- probable – Herman Moll, engraver (died 1732)
- January 17 — Paulus Potter, Dutch painter specializing in animals in landscapes (born 1625)
- January 23 – Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert, painter (born 1613)
- February 8 — Luca Ferrari, Italian painter (born 1605)
- April 5 – Lorenzo Garbieri, Italian painter (born 1580)
- June 10 — Alessandro Algardi, Italian sculptor (born 1598)
- October 12 – Carel Fabritius, Dutch painter (born 1622)
- date unknown