The year 1637 in music involved some significant events.
- The first public opera house, Teatro San Cassiano, opens in Venice
- Johann Jakob Froberger travels to Rome to study under Girolamo Frescobaldi
- Delphin Strungk becomes organist at the Marienkirche in Brunswick.
- Robert Ramsey, organist of Trinity College, Cambridge, becomes Master of the Children at the college.
- Antonio Cesti joins the Franciscan order.
- The Westminster Musicians Guild attempts to assert control over the musicians of London, in competition with the Worshipful Company of Musicians.
- Benedetto Ferrari – Musiche varier a voce sola, volume 2, published in Venice
- Girolamo Frescobaldi – Partite sopra l'aria della Romanesca
- Tarquinio Merula – Canzoni overo Sonate concertate per chiesa e camera
- Benedetto Ferrari & Francesco Manelli – Andromeda, the first publicly shown opera, premiéred at Teatro San Cassiano, in Venice, during carnival
- Virgilio Mazzocchi & Marco Marazzoli – Chi soffre, speri (premièred February 12)
- February 11 – Friedrich Nicolaus Brauns, composer and music director (died 1718)
- December 7 – Bernardo Pasquini, composer of opera and church music (died 1710)
- date unknown – Giovanni Grancino, luthier (died 1709)
- probable – Dieterich Buxtehude (died 1707)