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|Ab urbe condita||2380|
|Balinese saka calendar||1548–1549|
|English Regnal year||2 Cha. 1 – 3 Cha. 1|
|Chinese calendar||丙寅年 (Fire Tiger)|
4323 or 4263
— to —
丁卯年 (Fire Rabbit)
4324 or 4264
|- Vikram Samvat||1683–1684|
|- Shaka Samvat||1548–1549|
|- Kali Yuga||4727–4728|
|Japanese calendar||Kan'ei 4|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||285 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2169–2170|
1753 or 1372 or 600
— to —
1754 or 1373 or 601
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1627.|
1627 (MDCXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar, the 1627th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 627th year of the 2nd millennium, the 27th year of the 17th century, and the 8th year of the 1620s decade. As of the start of 1627, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- January – The Dutch ship 't Gulden Zeepaert, skippered by François Thijssen, makes the first recorded sighting of the coast of South Australia.
- February 17 – England lands the first European settlers on Barbados.
- March 3 – After the First Manchu invasion of Korea, the Joseon Dynasty of Korea becomes a tributary state of the Manchus, but still pays respects to the Ming Dynasty of China. After rejecting a Manchu alteration to the original diplomatic terms in 1636, the Manchus invade again in 1637.
- June 20 – Hinchingbrooke House is sold by Sir Oliver Cromwell, to Sidney Montagu.
- July 4–19 – Turkish Abductions: The Barbary pirates raid Iceland.
- July 20–August 19 – Eighty Years' War: Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, lays siege to Grol, the last Spanish stronghold in the eastern Netherlands, and captures it after a siege that lasted a month.
- July 22 – The English, under the Duke of Buckingham, invade Ré Island in support of the Huguenots in La Rochelle; the invasion fails.
- July 27 – An earthquake destroys the cities of San Severo and Torremaggiore in southern Italy.
- September – The Siege of La Rochelle begins.
- November 20 – Thirty Years' War: Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, signs the Capitulation of Franzburg, in which Pomerania is forced to pay for the Imperial army that Wallenstein sent to occupy it. Nonetheless, despite the treaty, Pomerania is devastated by the Imperial troops.
- November 28 – Polish-Swedish War – Battle of Oliwa: A Polish-Lithuanian fleet defeats a Swedish fleet.
- Habsburg Spain suffers an economic collapse.
- The last recorded aurochs die in the Jaktorów Forest of Poland.
- Rock blasting is invented: Black gunpowder is first used in mining, in a mineshaft under Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia.
- January 25 – Robert Boyle, English scientist (d. 1691)
- February 2 – Sir Robert Kemp, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1710)
- February 10 – Cornelis de Bie, Flemish poet, jurist (d. 1715)
- February 15 – Charles Morton, Cornish nonconformist minister (d. 1698)
- February 21 – Philips Augustijn Immenraet, Flemish painter (d. 1679)
- February 28 – Aubrey de Vere, 20th Earl of Oxford (d. 1703)
- March 9
- March 14 – Roelant Roghman, Dutch Golden Age painter (d. 1692)
- March 27 – Sir Stephen Fox, English politician (d. 1716)
- April 9 – Johann Caspar Kerll, German baroque composer and organist (d. 1693)
- April 22 – Tsarevna Irina Mikhailovna of Russia (d. 1679)
- May 4 – Giuseppe Francesco Borri, Italian alchemist (d. 1695)
- May 16
- Willem van Aelst, Dutch artist (d. 1683)
- Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (d. 1704)
- May 17 – Hector d'Andigné de Grandfontaine, Governor of Acadia from 1670–1673 (d. 1696)
- May 29
- June 4 – Eiler Holck, Danish military officer (d. 1696)
- June 14 – Johann Abraham Ihle, German amateur astronomer (d. 1699)
- June 19 – Thomas Richardson, 2nd Lord Cramond, English Member of Parliament (d. 1674)
- July 1 – Anna Maria of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, consort of Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels (d. 1669)
- July 3 – Juan Ortega y Montañés, Spanish Catholic bishop, colonial administrator in Guatemala and New Spain (d. 1708)
- July 18 – Henry Howard, 5th Earl of Suffolk, youngest son of Theophilus Howard (d. 1709)
- July 20 – Thomas Wynne, English personal physician of William Penn (d. 1691)
- July 28 – John Francis Desideratus, Prince of Nassau-Siegen (1652–1699) (d. 1699)
- August 1 – Princess Louise of Savoy, Hereditary Princess of Baden-Baden (d. 1689)
- August 2 – Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten, Dutch painter of the Golden Age (d. 1678)
- August 8
- August 21
- August 26 – Philipp Jakob Sachs, German physician (d. 1672)
- August 30
- September 11 – John Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1662–1683) (d. 1683)
- September 12 – Humbertus Guilielmus de Precipiano, Belgian Catholic archbishop (d. 1711)
- September 27 – Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, French bishop, theologian (d. 1704)
- October 1 – Galeazzo Marescotti, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1726)
- October 3 – William Crispin, one of five English Commissioners appointed by William Penn for settling Pennsylvania (d. 1681)
- October 4
- November 5 – Herman Egon, Prince of Fürstenberg, High Chamberlain of the Elector of Bavaria (d. 1674)
- November 12 – Diego Luis de San Vitores, Spanish Jesuit missionary to Guam (d. 1672)
- November 14 – Marie Jonas de la Motte, Dutch prostitute (d. 1683)
- November 16 – Erasmus Finx, German polymath (d. 1694)
- November 17 – John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau (1660–1693) (d. 1693)
- November 20 – Charlotte, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel, German noble (d. 1686)
- November 24 – Theophil Großgebauer, German theologian (d. 1661)
- November 27 – Isaac Eastey, Massachusetts colonist, husband of accused witch Mary Eastey (d. 1712)
- November 29 – John Ray, English biologist (d. 1705)
- December 3 – St John Brodrick, Irish Member of Parliament (d. 1711)
- December 7 – Countess Louise Henriette of Nassau, Electress Consort of Brandenburg (1646–1667) (d. 1667)
- December 10 – Jean Baptiste de Champaigne, Flemich painter (d. 1681)
- December 24 – Daniel Pawłowski, Polish writer (d. 1673)
- December 28 – Alessandro Rosi, Italian artist (d. 1697)
- Maria Sofia De la Gardie, Swedish countess and industrialist (d. 1694)
- Sir John Flavel, English dissenter (d. 1691)
- Philip Fruytiers, Flemish painter (d. 1666)
- Turhan Hatice, regent of the Ottoman Empire (d. 1682)
- January 14 – John Casimir, Count of Erbach-Breuberg (1606–1627) (b. 1584)
- January 27 – Princess Cecilia of Sweden (b. 1540)
- February 18 – Edmund Bowyer, English politician (b. 1552)
- February 12 – Karl I, Prince of Liechtenstein (b. 1569)
- February 22 – Olivier van Noort, Dutch navigator (b. 1558)
- March 26 – Simon VII, Count of Lippe-Detmold (1613–1627) (b. 1587)
- March 6 – Krzysztof Zbaraski, Polish statesman (b. 1580)
- March 10 – Elizabeth de Vere, Countess of Derby, British businessman (b. 1575)
- March 20 – Johann Jacob Grasser, Swiss poet, historian and theologian (b. 1579)
- March 23 – Lodovico Zacconi, Italian composer and music theorist (b. 1555)
- March 27 – Sir John Suckling, English politician (b. 1569)
- April 19 – Sir John Beaumont, English poet (b. 1583)
- April 22 – Ahmad Baba al Massufi, Malian academic (b. 1556)
- May 2 – Lodovico Grossi da Viadana, Italian composer (b. 1560)
- May 3 – Edward Russell, 3rd Earl of Bedford, son of Sir Francis Russell (b. 1572)
- May 13 – Alexander, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (b. 1573)
- May 18 – Valerius Herberger, German theologian (b. 1562)
- May 19 – Katharina Henot, German General Postmaster, alleged witch (b. 1570)
- May 24 – Luis de Góngora, Spanish poet (b. 1561)
- June 4 – Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier, French princess (b. 1605)
- June 27 – Sir John Hayward, English historian (b. c. 1560)
- July 4 (bur.) – Thomas Middleton, English playwright (b. 1580)
- July 17 – Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, 5th Marquis of Villafranca, Spanish noble and politician (b. 1546)
- August 21 – Jacques Mauduit, French composer (b. 1557)
- August 27 – Francesco Maria del Monte, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1549)
- September 20 – Jan Gruter, Dutch scholar (b. 1560)
- October 28 – Jahangir, Mughal Emperor of India (b. 1569)
- November 5 – John Ratcliffe, English politician and soldier (b. 1582)
- November 8 – Louis II, Count of Nassau-Weilburg (b. 1565)
- December – Madame Ke, influential nanny of the Tianqi Emperor of China (b. c. 1588)
- December 25 – Vincenzo II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua, Italian duke and Catholic cardinal (b. 1594)
- date unknown