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- Publication of Johannes Kepler's third law of planetary motion in his Harmonices Mundi. He also recognises the duality of convex polyhedra.
- Publication of the Jesuit Giuseppe Biancani's Sphaera mundi, seu cosmographia demonstrativa, ac facili methodo tradita in Bologna.
- Lactose is discovered by Fabriccio Bartoletti; the word lactose comes from the Latin word lac which means "milk".
- In North America, the Churchill River is discovered by Danish explorer Jens Munk, and it will be used for over 100 years as a trading route of the Hudson's Bay Company from their fort at its mouth to the interior.
- Frederick de Houtman and Jans van Edel discover the Houtman Abrolhos islands.
- Dermod O'Meara's text on genetic disorders, De Moribus: Pathologia Haereditaria Generalis is published in Dublin, the first medical text published in Ireland.
- May 21 – Hieronymus Fabricius, Italian anatomist and embryologist (born 1537)
- September – Hans Lippershey, Dutch lensmaker, credited with inventing the telescope in 1608 (born c. 1570)
- Olivier de Serres, French soil scientist (born 1539)
- Caterina Vitale, Maltese chemist (born 1566)
- Taylor, Isaac (1898). Names and Their Histories: a Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. London: Rivingtons. p. 149.
- Moody, T. W.; et al., eds. (1989). A New History of Ireland. 8: A Chronology of Irish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.