- November – Paul Peuerl becomes organist at Horn, Austria.
- Claudio Monteverdi is appointed maestro di musica to Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga at Mantua.
- Giovanni Bassano succeeds Girolamo Dalla Casa as head of the instrumental ensemble at St Mark's Cathedral, Venice.
- Giulio Caccini – Le nuove musiche  (The New Music), published in Florence
- Hans Leo Hassler
- Robert Jones – The Second Booke of Songes or Ayres
- Luzzasco Luzzaschi – Madrigali ... per cantare, et sonare a 1, 2, e 3 soprani, published in Rome, featuring works written before 1597 for the Concerto delle donne
- Philippe de Monte – last of thirty-four books of madrigals
- Thomas Morley – Madrigales The Triumphs of Oriana, to 5. and 6. voices: composed by divers severall aucthors
- Ballet du Roy Henry IV[clarification needed]
- Adriano Banchieri
- Il metamorfosi musicale, a madrigal comedy
- Virtuoso ridotto, a madrigal comedy
- none listed
- date unknown – Michelangelo Rossi, opera composer (died 1656)
- probable – Jacques Champion de Chambonnières, French harpsichordist and composer (died 1672)
- January 4 – Laura Peverara, singer (born c 1550)
- May 19 – Costanzo Porta, composer (born c 1528)
- November 26 – Benedetto Pallavicino, organist and composer (b. c. 1551)
- date unknown – Girolamo Dalla Casa, composer