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|Ab urbe condita||2345|
|Balinese saka calendar||1513–1514|
|English Regnal year||34 Eliz. 1 – 35 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)|
4288 or 4228
— to —
壬辰年 (Water Dragon)
4289 or 4229
|- Vikram Samvat||1648–1649|
|- Shaka Samvat||1513–1514|
|- Kali Yuga||4692–4693|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 20 / Bunroku 1|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||320 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2134–2135|
1718 or 1337 or 565
— to —
1719 or 1338 or 566
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1592.|
1592 (MDXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. As of the start of 1592, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar.
- January 30 – Pope Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
- February 7 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to Donibristle Castle in Scotland and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray.
- March 3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is founded.
- March 14 – Ultimate Pi Day: the largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of pi since the introduction of the Julian calendar.
- April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his intention to take instruction in, and convert to, the Catholic religion.
- April 13 – The Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) begin with the Siege of Busanjin.
- April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the Koreans (Joseon).
- April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju: Japan inflicts a decisive defeat on Korea.
- May 7
- May 20–August 19 – Battle of Flores (Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)), a series of naval engagements in the Azores in which the English are victorious, taking the great Portuguese carrack Madre de Deus on or about August 3.
- May 29 – Battle of Sacheon: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin destroys all 13 Japanese ships taking part, using his improved turtle ship for the first time in battle.
- June 2 – Battle of Dangpo:The Korean navy is again victorious over Japan.
- June 10–19 – Siege of Bihać in the Kingdom of Croatia, by Telli Hasan Pasha (Hasan Predojević) of the Ottoman Empire. Bihać is captured and lost for Croatia forever.
- July 20 – The Japanese capture the Korean capital Pyongyang, causing Seonjo to request the assistance of Ming dynasty Chinese forces, who recapture the city a year later.
- July 30 – Alonso de Sotomayor petitions the viceroy of Peru for more troops to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates.
- August – 1592–1593 London plague breaks out in England.
- August 9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the Desire, probably discovers the Falkland Islands.
- August 14 – Battle of Hansan Island: The Korean navy defeats the Japanese.
- September 1 – Battle of Busan: The Korean fleet makes a surprise attack on the Japanese but fails to break their supply lines to Busan.
- September 7 – The captured Madre de Deus enters Dartmouth harbour in England and is then subjected to mass theft.
- October 5 – Siege of Jinju: The Korean navy is victorious over the Japanese.
- November 3 – The city of San Luis Potosí is founded.
- November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund as King of Sweden.
- November 12 – The Collegium Melitense is founded in Malta by Bishop Garagallo.
- William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief adviser of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is taken seriously ill.
- Negotiations begin for the annullment of the childless marriage of Henry IV of France and Marguerite of Valois.
- The Confucian shrine of Munmyo in Korea is destroyed by fire.
- The Population Census Edict is promulgated in Japan by Toyotomi Hidetsugu.
- Henry Constable's Diana, one of the first sonnet sequences in English, is published in London.
- January 5 – Shah Jahan, 5th Mughal Emperor of India from 1628 to 1658 (d. 1666)
- January 22
- February 5 – Vincenzo della Greca, Italian architect (d. 1661)
- February 22 – Nicholas Ferrar, English trader (d. 1637)
- February 23 – Balthazar Gerbier, Dutch painter (d. 1663)
- March 20 – Giovanni da San Giovanni, Italian painter (d. 1636)
- March 28 – Comenius, Czech teacher and writer (d. 1670)
- April 4 – Abraham Elzevir, Dutch printer (d. 1652)
- April 9 – Jiří Třanovský, Czech priest and musician (d. 1637)
- April 11 – John Eliot, Member of Parliament, Statesman, Vice-Admiral of Devon (d. 1632)
- April 15 – Francesco Maria Brancaccio, Catholic cardinal (d. 1675)
- April 22 – Wilhelm Schickard, German inventor (d. 1635)
- April 24
- May 8 – Francis Quarles, English poet most famous for his Emblem book aptly entitled Emblems (d. 1644)
- May 14 – Alice Barnham, wife of English scientific philosopher and statesman Francis Bacon (d. 1650)
- June 7 – Balthasar Cordier, Belgian Jesuit exegete, editor (d. 1650)
- June 9 – Jean de Brisacier, French Jesuit (d. 1668)
- June 13
- July 10 – Pierre d'Hozier, French historian (d. 1660)
- July 20 – Johan Björnsson Printz, governor of New Sweden (d. 1663)
- August 1 – François le Métel de Boisrobert, French poet (d. 1662)
- August 7 – Arnauld de Oihenart, Basque historian and poet (d. 1668)
- August 11 – Carlo de Tocco, Italian nobleman (d. 1674)
- August 13 – William of Nassau-Hilchenbach, German count (d. 1642)
- August 16 – Wybrand de Geest, Dutch painter (d. 1661)
- August 28 – George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, English statesman (d. 1628)
- August 29 – Sir Benjamin Ayloffe, 2nd Baronet, English politician (d. 1662)
- September 1 – Maria Angela Astorch, Spanish mystic and saint (d. 1665)
- September 5 – Jacopo Vignali, Italian painter (d. 1664)
- September 15 – Giovanni Battista Rinuccini, archbishop of Fermo (d. 1653)
- September 18 – Jean Guyon, French colonist (d. 1663)
- September 20 – Nicholas Stoughton, English politician (d. 1648)
- September 21 – Nathaniel Foote, American colonist (d. 1644)
- September 24 – Christopher Wandesford, English administrator and politician (d. 1640)
- September 25 – Herman Krefting, Norwegian businessman (d. 1651)
- October 7 – Henry Wenceslaus, Duke of Oels-Bernstadt, Duke of Bernstadt (1617 – 1639) (d. 1639)
- October 13 – Christian Gueintz, German teacher and writer-grammarian (d. 1650)
- October 22 – Gustav Horn, Count of Pori, Swedish/Finnish soldier and politician (d. 1657)
- October 30 – Giulio Benso, Italian painter (d. 1668)
- November 4
- November 5 – Charles Chauncy, English-born president of Harvard College (d. 1671)
- November 13 – Antonio Grassi, Italian priest and blessed (d. 1671)
- November 28 – Hong Taiji, Emperor of China (d. 1643)
- December 5 – Thomas Bennet, successful civil lawyer (d. 1670)
- December 6 – William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle (d. 1676)
- December 9 – Krzysztof Arciszewski, Polish-Lithuanian noble (d. 1656)
- December 29 – Johannes Matthiae Gothus, Swedish academic (d. 1670)
- Catalina de Erauso, Spanish-Mexican nun and soldier (d. 1650)
- Richard Bellingham, American colonial magistrate (d. 1672)
- John Hacket, English churchman (d. 1670)
- Angélique Paulet, French salonnière, singer, musician and actress (d. 1651)
- Ingen, Chinese Zen Buddhist poet, calligrapher (d. 1673)
- John Jenkins, English composer (d. 1678)
- John Oldham, early English settler in Massachusetts (d. 1636)
- Walatta Petros, saint in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (d. 1642)
- Sara Copia Sullam, Italian poet and writer (d. 1641)
- Étienne Brûlé, French explorer in Canada (d. 1632)
- January 5 – William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, German nobleman (b. 1516)
- January 22 – Elisabeth of Austria, Queen of France (b. 1554)
- January 27 – Gian Paolo Lomazzo, Italian painter (b. 1538)
- February 2 – Ana de Mendoza, Princess of Eboli, Spanish noble (b. 1540)
- February 29 – Alessandro Striggio, Italian composer (b. 1540)
- March 4 – Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg and administrator of Ratzeburg (b. 1537)
- March 5 – Michiel Coxie, Flemish painter (b. 1499)
- March 22 – Johann VII, Duke of Mecklenburg, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1576–1592) (b. 1558)
- April 8 – Dorothea Susanne of Simmern, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar (b. 1544)
- April 13 – Bartolomeo Ammannati, Italian architect and sculptor (b. 1511)
- April 18 – George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz (b. 1543)
- April 21 – Christoph, Count of Hohenzollern-Haigerloch (b. 1552)
- May 17 – Paschal Baylon, Spanish mystic and saint (b. 1540)
- May 24 – Nikolaus Selnecker, German musician (b. 1530)
- June 17 – Ernst Ludwig, Duke of Pomerania (b. 1545)
- July 1 – Marc'Antonio Ingegneri, Italian composer (b. c. 1547)
- July 4 – Francesco Bassano the Younger, Italian painter (b. 1559)
- July 6 – John George of Ohlau, Duke of Oława and Wołów (1586-1592) (b. 1552)
- July 18 – Sibylle of Saxony, Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg (b. 1515)
- July 22 – Ludwig Rabus, German martyrologist (b. 1523)
- July 26 – Armand de Gontaut, baron de Biron, French soldier (b. 1524)
- August 20 – William the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1535)
- August 25
- September 3 – Robert Greene, English writer (b. 1558)
- September 13 – Michel de Montaigne, French essayist (b. 1533)
- September 20 – Francisco Vallés, Spanish physician (b. 1524)
- October 15 – Jean Vendeville, law professor, Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1527)
- October 19 – Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu, English politician (b. 1528)
- October 28 – Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, Flemish diplomat (b. 1522)
- November 17 – King John III of Sweden (b. 1537)
- November 27 – Nakagawa Hidemasa, Japanese military commander (b. 1568)
- December 3 – Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (b. 1545)
- Date unknown