The year 1591 in art involved some significant events and new works.
- Antiveduto Grammatica leaves the studio of Giovanni Domenico Angelini to set up as an independent artist.
- William Scrots' anamorphic portrait of King Edward VI of England causes a sensation when it is exhibited at Whitehall Palace.
- Giuseppe Arcimboldo - Vertumnus (c.1590–91)
- Abraham Bloemaert - Niobe
- Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger - Sir Francis Drake wearing the Drake jewel
- January 12 - Jusepe de Ribera, Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker (died 1652)
- February 8 - Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (Guercino)), Italian painter (died 1666)
- March 19 - Dirck Hals, Dutch painter of festivals and ballroom scenes (died 1656)
- date unknown
- Lucas de Wael, Flemish painter active mainly in Genoa (died 1631)
- Jacques Fouquier, Flemish landscape painter (died 1659)
- Giovanni Antonio Lelli, Italian painter of the Baroque period (died 1640)
- Bartlomiej Strobel, painter (died 1650)
- Cornelis Vroom, Dutch painter (died 1661), known for landscapes and seascapes, son of reverse-named Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom (1566–1640)
- March 17 - Jost Amman, Swiss illustrator (born 1539)
- May 3 - Antonio Abondio, Italian sculptor, best known as a medallist and as the pioneer of the coloured wax relief portrait miniature (born 1538)
- October 3 - Vincenzo Campi, Italian painter (born 1536)
- November 30 (possible date) - Johan Gregor van der Schardt, Dutch-born sculptor working in Denmark (born c.1530/31)
- date unknown
- probable - Crispin van den Broeck, Flemish painter (born 1523)