The 1590s decade ran from January 1, 1590, to December 31, 1599.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1590
- 1.2 1591
- 1.3 1592
- 1.4 1593
- 1.5 1594
- 1.6 1595
- 1.7 1596
- 1.8 1597
- 1.9 1598
- 1.10 1599
- 2 References
- January 11 – The Cortes of Castile approves a new subsidy, the millones.
- March – Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, takes Breda, by concealing 68 of his best men in a peat-boat, to get through the impregnable defences.
- March 14 – Battle of Ivry: Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League, under Charles, Duke of Mayenne.
- May–August – Henry IV of France unsuccessfully attempts to besiege Paris. Henry is forced to raise the siege, when Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma comes to its rescue with a Spanish army.
- May 17 – Anne of Denmark is crowned queen consort of Scotland, at Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh.
- May 21 – The Treaty of Constantinople is signed.
- August 18 – John White, governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply-trip to England and finds his settlement deserted. After the unsuccessful search, he returns to England on October 24.
- September 5 – Alexander Farnese's army forces Henry IV of France to lift the siege of Paris.
- September 15 – Urban VII succeeds Sixtus V, as the 228th pope; he dies of malaria twelve days later.
- September 15 – The Neulengbach earthquake causes significant damage and some loss of life, in Lower Austria and Vienna; the effects are felt as far as Bohemia and Silesia.
- December 5 – Gregory XIV succeeds Urban VII, as the 229th pope.
- December 7 – North Berwick witch trials: Agnes Sampson is questioned by King James VI of Scotland, and confesses to practising witchcraft.
- Orthodox Patriarch Meletius I of Alexandria succeeds Silvester.
- Japan is united by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
- The Spanish are pushed out of southern Gelderland, by the Dutch forces.
- A group of English merchants gains the right to trade in Ottoman territory, in return for supplying the sultan with iron, steel, brass and tin for his war with Persia.
- March 13 – Battle of Tondibi: In Mali, forces sent by the Saadi Dynasty ruler of Morocco, Ahmad al-Mansur, and led by Judar Pasha, defeat the Songhai Empire, despite being outnumbered by at least five to one.
- April 10 – English merchant James Lancaster sets off on a voyage to the East Indies.
- April 21 – Japanese tea-master Sen no Rikyū commits seppuku, on the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
- May 15 – In Russia, Tsarevich Dimitri, son of the Ivan the Terrible, is found dead in mysterious circumstances, at the palace in Uglich. The official explanation is that he has cut his own throat during an epileptic seizure. Many believe he has been murdered by his rival, Boris Godunov, who becomes tsar.
- May 24 – Sir John Norreys, with an expeditionary force sent by Queen Elizabeth I of England, takes the town of Guingamp after a brief siege, on behalf of Henry of Navarre.
- May 30 – Timbuktu is captured by an expedition of Arma people, sent by the Saadi ruler of Morocco, and led by Judar Pasha.
- May 30 – Zutphen is captured by the Dutch and English, under Maurice of Nassau.
- June 10 – Deventer is captured by the Dutch, under Maurice of Nassau.
- July – The Battle of Bhuchar Mori, fought between the Nawanagar State and the Mughal Empire, begins.
- July 25 – Maurice of Nassau and Francis Vere defeat the Duke of Parma, outside Nijmegen.
- July 22 – The Durtnell (Dartnell) Family of Brasted, Kent, England, begin to work as building contractors. They will still be functioning under the twelfth generation of the family, in the 21st century.
- August – Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex leads an English army in support of the Protestant Henry IV of France, at the Siege of Rouen.
- September 1 – HMS Revenge is captured by the Spanish, following a battle off Flores island.
- September 14 – Hulst is captured by Maurice.
- October 8 – the Separation Edict, a law preventing social mobility, is promulgated by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
- October 21 – Nijmegen is captured by Maurice.
- October 26 – The Portuguese invasion of Jaffna Kingdom begins.
- October 29 – Pope Innocent IX succeeds Pope Gregory XIV, as the 230th pope.
- The city of Hyderabad, India is founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah.
- The Rialto Bridge in Venice, designed by Antonio da Ponte, is completed.
- The first of the Conimbricenses commentaries on Aristotle, by the Jesuits of the University of Coimbra, is published. 
- January 30 – Pope Clement VIII (born Ippolito Aldobrandini) succeeds Pope Innocent IX, who died one month earlier, as the 231st pope.
- February 7 – George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly, sets fire to Donibristle Castle in Scotland, and murders James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray.
- March 3 – Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland's oldest university, is founded.
- March 14 – Ultimate Pi Day: the largest correspondence between calendar dates and significant digits of pi, since the introduction of the Julian calendar.
- April 4 – The future Henry IV of France, King designate of Henry III of France, announces in a declaration, so-called "Expedient," his intention to take instruction in, and convert to, the Catholic religion.
- April 13 – The Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) begin, with the Siege of Busanjin.
- April 24 – Battle of Sangju: The Japanese are victorious over the Koreans (Joseon).
- April 28 – Battle of Ch'ungju: Japan inflicts a decisive defeat on Korea.
- May 7 – Battle of Okpo: The Korean navy is victorious over Japan.
- May 29 – Battle of Sacheon: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin destroys all 13 Japanese ships taking part, using his improved turtle ship for the first time in battle.
- June 2 – Battle of Dangpo:The Korean navy is again victorious over Japan.
- June 10–19 – Siege of Bihać in the Kingdom of Croatia, by Hasan Pasha Predojević of the Ottoman Empire. Bihać is captured and lost for Croatia forever.
- July 8 – Battle of Hansan Island: Korean admiral Yi Sun-sin destroys or captures around 60 Japanese ships without loss, in a battle in which around 190 ships take part.
- July 20 – The Japanese capture the Korean capital Pyongyang, causing Seonjo to request the assistance of Ming Dynasty Chinese forces, who recapture the city a year later.
- July 30 – Alonso de Sotomayor petitions the viceroy of Peru for more troops, to help resist attacks by Indians and English pirates.
- August 9 – English explorer John Davis, commander of the Desire, probably discovers the Falkland Islands.
- August 14 – Battle of Hansan Island: The Korean navy defeats the Japanese.
- August 15 (or 19) – The great Portuguese carrack, Madre De Deus, captured in a fierce battle in the Azores, enters Dartmouth harbour on 7 September, and is then subjected to mass theft.
- September 1 – Battle of Busan: The Korean fleet makes a surprise attack on the Japanese, but fails to break their supply lines to Busan.
- October 5 – Siege of Jinju: The Korean navy is victorious over the Japanese.
- November 3 – The city of San Luis Potosí is founded.
- November 17 – John III is succeeded by his son Sigismund, as King of Sweden.
- The Collegium Melitense is founded by Bishop Garagallo.
- William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, chief adviser of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is taken seriously ill.
- Negotiations begin, for the dissolution of the childless marriage of Henry IV of France and Marguerite of Valois.
- The Confucian shrine of Munmyo is destroyed by fire.
- January – Siege of Pyongyang (1593): A Japanese invasion is defeated in Pyongyang, by a combined force of Korean and Ming troops.
- January 18 – Siamese King Naresuan, in combat on elephant back, kills Burmese Crown Prince Mingyi Swa on Monday, Moon 2 Waning day 2, Year of the Dragon, Chulasakarat 954, reckoned as corresponding to January 25, 1593, of the Gregorian calendar, and commemorated as Royal Thai Armed Forces Day.
- January 27 – The Roman Inquisition opens the seven-year trial of scholar Giordano Bruno.
- February 2 – Battle of Piątek: Polish forces led by Janusz Ostrogski are victorious.
- February 12 – Battle of Haengju: Korea defeats Japan.
- March 7 (February 25 Old Style) – The Uppsala Synod discontinues; the Liturgical Struggle between the Swedish Reformation and Counter-Reformation ends in Sweden.
- March 14 – The Pi Day, giving the most digits of Pi when written in mm/dd/yyyy format (Flemish mathematician Adriaan van Roomen arrived at 15 decimal places of Pi in 1593, using the polygon approximation method).
- May 18 – Playwright Thomas Kyd's accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe.
- June 22 – Battle of Sisak in Croatia: The Habsburgs defeat the Ottoman Empire.
- July 29 – The Long War breaks out in Hungary, between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans.
- Mihai Viteazul becomes prince of Walachia.
- Henry Constable's Spiritual Sonnetts are written.
- The book Controversiae is written by Robert Bellarmine.
- c. 1593-1604 – According to John Warwick Montgomery, the Rosicrucian manifestos are initially composed by Tobias Hess, in anticipation of the opening of the vault in 1604, according to Simon Studion's apocalyptic timetable.
- Khwaja Usman takes shelter in Goyghor Mosque after the Afghan rebellion against the Subahdar of Mughal Bengal, Man Singh I.
- March 21 – Henry IV enters his capital of Paris for the first time.
- April 16 – Ferdinando Stanley, 5th Earl of Derby is found poisoned. At the time of his death, he was, after his mother, second in line to the throne of England.
- April 17 – Hyacinth of Poland is canonized.
- June 5 – First voyage of Willem Barents in the Arctic Ocean in search of the Northeast Passage.
- June 11 – Philip II of Spain recognizes the rights and privileges of the local nobles and chieftains in the Philippines, which paves the way for the stabilization of the rule of the Principalía.
- June 22–23 – Anglo-Spanish War: Action of Faial – In the Azores, an English attempt to capture the large Portuguese carrack Cinco Chagas, reputedly one of the richest ever to set sail from the East Indies, causes it to explode with the loss of all the treasure.
- June 24–July 1 – Anglo-Spanish War: Action of San Mateo Bay – English privateer Richard Hawkins in the Dainty is attacked and captured by a Spanish squadron off Esmeraldas, Ecuador.
- July 3 – The Ayutthayan–Cambodian War (1591–1594) concludes when Naresuan, ruler of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sacks Longvek, capital of Cambodia.
- July 22 – After a two-month siege, the city of Groningen submits to Dutch troops, bringing the whole northern Netherlands under the Dutch Republic.
- October 9 – The Campaign of Danture, which began on July 5 as part of the Sinhalese–Portuguese War, concludes with a decisive victory by forces of the Kingdom of Kandy over the Portuguese Empire, reversing near-total control of Sri Lanka by Portugal.
- St. Paul's College is founded in Macau by Jesuits, being the first western style university in the far east.
- In Amsterdam, the Compagnie van Verre is created, with the goal of breaking the Portuguese monopoly on spice trade.
- Tulip bulbs planted by Carolus Clusius in the Hortus Botanicus Leiden, Holland, first flower.
- January – Mehmed III succeeds Murad III, as sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- January 17 – During the French Wars of Religion, Henry IV of France declares war on Spain.
- April 8 (March 29 O.S.) – Combined Taungoo–Lan Na armies break the rebel Thado Dhamma Yaza's siege of Taungoo, in modern-day Myanmar.
- May 18 – The Treaty of Teusina brings to an end the Russo-Swedish War (1590–95).
- May 24 – The Nomenclator of Leiden University Library appears, the first printed catalog of an institutional library.
- June 9 – Battle of Fontaine-Française: Henry IV of France defeats the Spanish, but is nearly killed due to his rashness.
- July 21 – A Spanish expedition led by navigator and explorer Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira makes the first European landing in Polynesia, on the Marquesas Islands.
- July 23 – The Spanish raid Cornwall, England.
- August 23 – Battle of Calugareni: The Wallachians, led by Michael the Brave, accomplish a great tactical victory against the vast army of the Turks, numbering over 150,000 men, led by Sinan Pasha.
- August 28 – Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins depart from England, on their final voyage to the Spanish Main, which ends in both of their deaths.
- September 2 – Battle of the Lippe (Eighty Years' War): Spanish cavalry, led by Cristóbal de Mondragón (aged over 80), defeat combined forces of the Dutch Republic and England led by Philip of Nassau (who dies of wounds received), on the banks of the river Lippe in Germany.
- October 26 – Battle of Giurgiu: Michael the Brave, led by Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory, again defeats the Turkish army led by Sinan Pasha, pushing them on the east side of the Danube.
- December 9 – Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's Richard II in London.
- December 14 – Sultan Murad, 4th son of Emperor Akbar of the Mughal Empire invades Ahmednagar Sultanate which is defended by Chand Bibi.
- The Austrians incite a rebellion against the Ottomans in Bulgaria.
- The Riksdag of the Estates at Söderköping in Sweden elects the Lutheran Duke Charles as the country's regent, in place of Sigismund III Vasa, King of Poland and Sweden.
- Sir Walter Raleigh travels up the Orinoco River, in search of the fabled city of El Dorado.
- Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's plays Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream in London.
- Many sugar plantations in São Tomé are destroyed by a large slave uprising
- February 14 – Archbishop John Whitgift begins building his hospital at Croydon.
- April 9 – Siege of Calais: Spanish troops capture Calais.
- May 18 – Willem Barents leaves Vlie, on his third and final Arctic voyage.
- June – Sir John Norreys and Sir Geoffrey Fenton travel to Connaught, to parley with the local Irish lords.
- June 10 – Willem Barents and Jacob van Heemskerk discover Bear Island.
- June 17 – Willem Barents discovers Spitsbergen.
- June 24 – Cornelis de Houtman arrives in Banten, the first Dutch sailor to reach Indonesia..
- July 5 – An English fleet, commanded by Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Lord Howard of Effingham, sacks Cádiz.
- July 14 – King Dominicus Corea (Edirille Bandara) is beheaded by the Portuguese in Colombo, Ceylon.
- August – David Fabricius discovers the star Mira.
- September 17 – The Spanish capture Amiens.
- September 20 – Diego de Montemayor founds the city of Monterrey, Mexico.
- October 8–10 – The Union of Brest: The Ukrainian Church west of the Dnieper becomes known as the Ukrainian Rite of Catholicism, whereas the East officially renounces the authority of the Pope.
- October 18 – The Second Armada, a Spanish fleet sent to attack England in revenge for the raid on Cadiz, is wrecked in storms between Corcubion and Cape Finisterre; 2,000 men are lost.
- October 19 – The Spanish galleon San Felipe founders in Japan, leading to 26 Christians being martyred the next year.
- October 24–26 – Battle of Keresztes: The Turks defeat a combined Habsburg–Transylvanian army.
- Elizabeth I of England decrees that all Africans should be removed from the British realm, in reaction to the food crisis.
- The first water closet, by Sir John Harington, is installed in a manor near Kelston in England.
- King Sigismund III Vasa moves the capital of Poland from Kraków to Warsaw.
- Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, is founded.
- The Black Death hits parts of Europe.
- Dutch ships, commanded by Frederick de Houtman, reach Sumatra and Java for the first time.
- The fourth of a five year run of poor harvests, largely caused by the weather, a pattern typical of the last third of the century. This causes famine throughout Europe, which leads to food riots in Britain.
- January 24 – Battle of Turnhout: Maurice of Nassau defeats a Spanish force under Jean de Rie of Varas, in the Netherlands.
- February – Bali is discovered by the Dutch explorer Cornelis Houtman.
- February 5 – In Nagasaki, Japan, 26 people are martyred by crucifixion. They practiced Catholicism, and were taken captive after all forms of Christianity were outlawed the previous year.
- February 8 – Sir Anthony Shirley, England's "best-educated pirate", raids Jamaica.
- March 11 – Amiens is taken by Spanish forces.
- After April 10 – Serb uprising of 1596–97 ends with defeat of the rebels at the field of Gacko (Gatačko Polje).
- April 23 – Probable first performance of William Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor.
- April 27 – Johannes Kepler marries Barbara Muhleck.
- c. July – Thomas Nashe and Ben Jonson's satirical play The Isle of Dogs is performed at the Swan Theatre in London; it is immediately suppressed by the authorities and no copy survives.
- July 14 – Scottish poet Alexander Montgomerie is declared an outlaw, after the collapse of a Catholic plot.
- August 13 – The Siege of Namwon begins.
- August 14 – First Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch expedition commanded by Frederick de Houtman returns to Amsterdam, after having successfully reached the Spice Islands. This achievement opens the Spice trade, which had until then been monopolised by the Portuguese, to the Dutch, who in the next years launch several more expeditions to the Indies.
- August 17 – Islands Voyage: Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and Sir Walter Raleigh set sail on an expedition to the Azores.
- August 19 – Rheinberg capitulates to forces led by Maurice of Naussau.
- August 24 – Christian IV of Denmark refuses to let Tycho Brahe return to Denmark.
- August 28 – Imjin War: Battle of Chilcheollyang – The Japanese fleet defeats the Koreans, in their only naval victory of the war.
- September 25 – Amiens is retaken from the Spanish by Anglo-French forces, led by Henry IV of France, after a four-month siege.
- October – John Gerard, a Jesuit priest, escapes from the Tower of London.
- October/November – The 3rd Spanish Armada is dispersed by a storm; a number of Spanish ships are captured off the coasts of Wales, Cornwall and Devon.
- October 26 – Battle of Myeongnyang: The Koreans, commanded by Yi Sunsin, are victorious over a Japanese invasion fleet.
- November 12 – Lingen capitulates to forces led by Maurice of Nassau.
- Abbas I ends the Uzbek raids on his lands.
- Yaqob succeeds his father Sarsa Dengel, as Emperor of Ethiopia at the age of 7.
- Jacopo Peri writes Dafne, now recognised as the first opera.
- The first edition of Francis Bacon's Essays is published.
- Andreas Libavius publishes Alchemia, a pioneering chemistry textbook.
- 12 million pesos of silver cross the Pacific. Although it is unknown just how much silver flowed from the Spanish base of Manila in the Philippines to the Ming Dynasty of China, it is known that the main port for the Mexican silver trade—Acapulco—shipped out 150,000 to 345,000 kg (4 to 9 million taels) of silver annually from this year to 1602.
- Tobias Hess corresponds with Simon Studion and agrees with him that the Papacy must fall in 1604.
- February 21 – Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia, following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I; the Time of Troubles starts.
- April 13 – Edict of Nantes (promulgated April 30): Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics; this is considered the end of the French Wars of Religion.
- April 30 – Spanish conquistador Don Juan de Oñate holds America's first Thanksgiving celebration.
- May – Tycho Brahe's star catalogue Astronomiæ instauratæ mechanica, listing the positions of 1,004 stars, is published.
- May 2 – The Peace of Vervins ends the war between France and Spain.
- August 14 – Battle of the Yellow Ford in Ireland: Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, gains victory over an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal, in the Nine Years' War against English rule.
- September 13 – Philip III of Spain starts to rule, on the death of his father.
- September 25 – Battle of Stångebro at Linköping in Sweden: The Catholic King Sigismund of Sweden and Poland is defeated in his attempt to resume control of Sweden by the Protestant forces of his uncle, Charles. Sigismund is deposed shortly thereafter.
- Autumn – Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: After being separated from the main Dutch fleet of Admiral Wybrand Van Warwyck, three ships under Jacob Corneliszoon van Neck land on the island which they name Mauritius, after Maurice, Prince of Orange, and sight the dodo.
- December 16 (November 19 (lunar calendar)) – Battle of Noryang: An allied Korean and Chinese fleet under Korean Admiral Yi Sun-sin and Chinese Admiral Chen Lin defeats the Japanese navy, ending the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98).
- December 21 – Battle of Curalaba: The revolting Mapuche, led by cacique Pelantaro, inflict a major defeat on Spanish troops in southern Chile; all Spanish cities south of the Bío Bío River eventually fall victim to the Destruction of the Seven Cities by the Mapuches, and all conquest of Mapuche territories by Europeans practically ceases, until the later 19th century Occupation of Araucanía.
- Carnival – Jacopo Peri's Dafne, the earliest known modern opera, is premièred at the Palazzo Corsini, Florence.
- Pentecost – Calvinist congregations in Zürich introduce music into their services.
- Philosopher Tommaso Campanella organizes an uprising in Calabria against the rule of the Spanish viceroy; he is captured, tortured and sentenced to 27 years in jail.
- The Parliament of England passes the Vagabonds Act, that allows transportation of convicts to colonies.
- Illustrations of Ottoman Turkish and European riflemen, with detailed illustrations of their firearms, appear in Zhao Shizhen's book Shenqipu in this year, during the Ming Dynasty of China.
- January 8 – The Jesuit educational plan, known as the Ratio Studiorum, is issued.
- March 12 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, by Queen Elizabeth I of England.
- April 23 – The Earl of Essex arrives in Dublin at the head of 16,000 troops, the largest army ever seen in Ireland.
- May 16 – The Kalmar Bloodbath takes place in Kalmar, Sweden.
- May 29 – Essex takes Cahir Castle, supposedly the strongest in Ireland, after a short siege.
- June 20 – The Synod of Diamper is convened.
- July – Second Dutch Expedition to Indonesia: A Dutch fleet returns to Amsterdam, carrying 600,000 pounds of pepper and 250,000 pounds of cloves and nutmeg.
- July 24 – Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa is dethroned by his uncle Duke Charles, who takes over as regent of the realm until 1604, when he becomes King Charles IX.
- August 15 – First Battle of Curlew Pass: Irish forces defeat the English.
- September 21 – The first reported performance at the Globe Theatre in London (erected over Spring/Summer), a presentation of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (probably new this year), is recorded by Swiss traveller Thomas Platter the Younger.
- September 28 – The Earl of Essex arrives back in England, disobeying the Queen's strict orders.
- October 18 – Battle of Sellenberk: Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the army of Andrew Báthory near Șelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanians.
- November 10 – The Åbo Bloodbath takes place in Åbo, Swedish Finland.
- November – Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602): A Persian embassy arrives in Moscow.
- December 19 – The forces of Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo and his ally Min Razagyi of the Kingdom of Mrauk U end the First Toungoo Empire by capturing Pegu (modern-day Bago, Myanmar).
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- Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233–238. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
- "R. Durtnell & Sons Ltd - History". Durtnell. Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
- Commentarii Collegii Conimbricensis Societatis Jesu in octo libros physicorum Aristotelis Stagyritæ.
- "Historical Events for Year 1593 | OnThisDay.com". Historyorb.com. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
- "Khwaja Usman". Banglapedia. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 163–165. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Green, Toby. A fistful of shells : West Africa from the rise of the slave trade to the age of revolution. Chicago. ISBN 9780226644578. OCLC 1051687994.
- Emily C. Bartels (April 2006). "Too Many Blackamoors: Deportation, Discrimination, and Elizabeth I". SEL: Studies in English Literature 1500–1900. 46 (2). Rice University: 305–322. JSTOR 3844644.
In 1596, Queen Elizabeth issued an 'open letter' to the Lord Mayor of London, announcing that 'there are of late divers black-moores brought into this realme, of which kinde of people there aire allready here to manie,' and ordering that they be deported from the country.
- Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
- "From liquid to vapor and back: origins". Special Collections Department. University of Delaware Library. Retrieved March 12, 2007.
- Turnbull, Stephen (2002). Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-35948-6.
- Ottavio Rinuccini's libretto survives complete but only fragments of the music are known.
- MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2013). Silence: A Christian History. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 9781846144264.
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