This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1585.
- February 2 – Hamnet and Judith, twin children of William Shakespeare and his wife Anne, are baptised at Stratford-upon-Avon.
- March 3 – The Teatro Olimpico, Vicenza, designed by Andrea Palladio, and completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi, is opened (with a production of Sophocles' Oedipus Rex), with trompe-l'œil scenery in one-point perspective.
- December 13 – Blind poet, playwright and actor Luigi Groto dies in Venice, having just come from the theater where he played the role of the blind Oedipus Rex.
- John Calvin – The Commentaries... upon the Actes of the Apostles, Faithfully translated out of Latine into English for the great profite of our countrie-men, by Christopher Fetherstone, student in divinitie
- Miguel de Cervantes – La Galatea
See 1585 in poetry
- Thomas Watson – Amyntas (pastoral epic in Latin)
- January 6 – Claude Favre de Vaugelas, French grammarian (died 1650)
- January 31 – Daniel Schwenter, German Orientalist, polymath, poet and librarian (died 1636)
- March 16 – Gerbrand Bredero, Dutch poet and playwright (died 1618)
- June 24 – Johannes Lippius, German Protestant theologian, philosopher, and theorist of music (died 1612)
- October 11 – Johann Heermann, German poet (died 1647)
- December 4 – John Cotton, English-born American theologian and minister (died 1652)
- December 13 – William Drummond of Hawthornden, Scottish poet (died 1649)
- Unknown date
- January ��� Anthony Gilby, English Puritan and Bible translator (born c. 1510)
- February 6 – Edmund Plowden, English lawyer and theorist (born 1518)
- February 13 – Alfonso Salmeron, Spanish Jesuit Biblical commentator (born 1515)
- March 10 – Rembert Dodoens, Flemish botanist (born 1517)
- June 4 – Muretus, French humanist poet and writer in Latin (born 1526)
- June 20 – Christian Kruik van Adrichem, Dutch Catholic theologian (born 1533)
- July 30 – Christian Schesaus, German humanist poet (born 1535)
- September 1 – Alexander Arbuthnot, Scottish printer (year of birth unknown)
- December 8 – Piero Vettori, Italian humanist philologist and writer (born 1499)
- December 27 – Pierre de Ronsard, French poet (born 1524)
- Unknown date – Molanus, Flemish theologian of the Counter Reformation (born 1533)